Erich Maria Remarque
Erich Maria Remarque was a German novelist who created many works about the horrors of war. His best known novel All Quiet on the Western Front, about German soldiers in the First World War, was made into an Oscar-winning film, his book made him an enemy of the Nazis. Erich Maria Remarque was born on 22 June 1898 into a working class Roman Catholic family in the German city of Osnabrück to Peter Franz Remark and Anna Maria. Research by Remarque's childhood and lifelong friend Hanns-Gerd Rabe proved that in fact Remarque had French ancestors—his great-grandfather Johann Adam Remarque, born in 1789, came from a French family in Aachen. During World War I, Remarque was conscripted into the German Army at the age of 18. On 12 June 1917, he was transferred to the Western Front, 2nd Company, Field Depot of the 2nd Guards Reserve Division at Hem-Lenglet. On 26 June, he was posted to the 15th Reserve Infantry Regiment, 2nd Company, Engineer Platoon Bethe, was stationed between Torhout and Houthulst. On 31 July, he was wounded by shrapnel in the left leg, right arm and neck, was repatriated to an army hospital in Germany where he spent the rest of the war.
After the war he continued his teacher training and worked from 1 August 1919 as a primary school teacher in Lohne, at that time in the county of Lingen, now in the county of Bentheim. From May 1920 he worked in Klein Berssen in the former County of Hümmling, now Emsland, from August 1920 in Nahne, a part of Osnabrück since 1972. On 20 November 1920 he applied for leave of absence from teaching. Remarque worked at a number of different jobs, including librarian, businessman and editor, his first paid writing job was as a technical writer for the Continental Rubber Company, a German tire manufacturer. At the age of 16, Remarque had made his first attempts at writing; when he published All Quiet on the Western Front, Remarque changed his middle name in memory of his mother and reverted to the earlier spelling of the family name to dissociate himself from his novel Die Traumbude. The original family name, had been changed to Remark by his grandfather in the 19th century. In 1927, Remarque made a second literary start with the novel Station at the Horizon, serialised in the sports journal Sport im Bild for which Remarque was working.
It was published in book form only in 1998. All Quiet on the Western Front was written in 1927, but Remarque was not able to find a publisher; the novel, published in 1929, described the experiences of German soldiers during World War I. A number of similar works followed. In 1931, after finishing The Road Back, Remarque bought a villa in Porto Ronco, planning to live both there and in France, his next novel, Three Comrades, spans the years of the Weimar Republic, from the hyperinflation of 1923 to the end of the decade. Remarque's fourth novel, first appeared in a serial version in English translation in Collier's magazine in 1939, Remarque spent another year revising the text for its book publication in 1941, both in English and German, his next novel, Arch of Triumph, first published in 1945 in English, the next year in German as Arc de Triomphe, was another instant best-seller and reached worldwide sales of nearly five million. His last novel was Shadows in Paradise; the apartment building "played a prominent role in his novel".
On 10 May 1933, the German government, on the initiative of the Nazi propaganda minister, Joseph Goebbels and publicly burned Remarque's works. He left Germany to live at his villa in Switzerland. Remarque's German background as well as his Catholic faith were questioned by the Nazis, who continued to decry his writings, arguing anyone who would change the spelling of his name from the German "Remark" to the French "Remarque" could not be a true German; the Nazis further made the false claim that Remarque had not seen active service during World War I. In 1938, Remarque's German citizenship was revoked, they became naturalised citizens of the United States in 1947. In 1943, the government arrested his youngest sister, Elfriede Scholz, who had stayed behind in Germany with her husband and two children. After a trial in the "Volksgerichtshof", she was found guilty of "undermining morale" for stating that she considered the war lost. Court President Roland Freisler declared, "Ihr Bruder ist uns leider entwischt—Sie aber werden uns nicht entwischen".
Scholz was beheaded on 16 December 1943. In exile Remarque was unaware of his relatives' fate until after the war, would dedicate his 1952 novel Spark of Life to Scholz, but the dedication was omitted in the German version of the book because he was still seen as a traitor by some Germans. In 1948, Remarque returned to Switzerland. There was a gap of seven years—a long silence for Remarque—between Arch of Triumph and his next work, Spark of Life, whi
Silver Bear for Best Actress
The Silver Bear for Best Actress is the Berlin International Film Festival's award for achievement in performance by an actress. It is selected by the jury of the festival for films in the official competition slate; the award was first presented in 1956, can be for lead or supporting roles. The award was not presented in 1969, 1970, 1973, 1974. Sachiko Hidari won the award for two films in the 1964 competition. In 2011, the award was given to the entire female cast of A Separation. Shirley MacLaine is the only actress. ‡ - indicates the performance was nominated for an Academy Award. Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Actress Volpi Cup for Best Actress 2011 winner at screendaily.com, accessed 6-27-2015 2012 winner at indiewire.com, accessed 6-27-2015 2013 winner at deadline.com, accessed 6-27-2015 2014 winner at english.cntv.cn, accessed 6-27-2015 2015 winner at deadline.com, accessed 6-27-2015 Berlinale website Berlin Film Festival at IMDb 2010 winner at hollywoodreporter.com, accessed 6-27-2015
13th Berlin International Film Festival
The 13th annual Berlin International Film Festival was held from 21 June to 2 July 1963. The Golden Bear was awarded to the Italian film Il diavolo directed by Gian Luigi Polidoro and Japanese film Bushidô zankoku monogatari directed by Tadashi Imai; the following people were announced as being on the jury for the festival: Wendy Toye Harry R. Sokal Fernando Ayala Jean-Pierre Melville B. R. Chopra Guglielmo Biraghi Masatora Sakurai Karl Malden Günther Engels The following films were in competition for the Golden Bear award: The following prizes were awarded by the Jury: Golden Bear: Il diavolo by Gian Luigi Polidoro Bushidô zankoku monogatari by Tadashi Imai Silver Bear for Best Director: Nikos Koundouros for Mikres Aphrodites Silver Bear for Best Actress: Bibi Andersson for Älskarinnan Silver Bear for Best Actor: Sidney Poitier for Lilies of the Field Silver Bear Extraordinary Prize: The Caretaker by Clive Donner Youth Film Award Best Short Film Suitable for Young People: Merci, Monsieur Schmitz by Alain Champeaux, Pierre Vetrine Best Feature Film Suitable for Young People: Ha-Martef by Natan Gross and Stop Train 349 by Rolf Hädrich Youth Film Award - Honorable Mention Best Short Film Suitable for Young People: The Home-Made Car by James Hill Best Feature Film Suitable for Young People: Lilies of the Field by Ralph Nelson FIPRESCI Award Nikos Koundouros by Nikos Koundouros FIPRESCI Award - Honorable Mention The Reunion by Damiano Damiani Interfilm Award Lilies of the Field by Ralph Nelson OCIC Award Lilies of the Field by Ralph Nelson UNICRIT Award The Innocents by Juan Antonio Bardem 13th Berlin International Film Festival 1963 1963 Berlin International Film Festival Berlin International Film Festival:1963 at Internet Movie Database
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Ingrid Lilian Thulin was a Swedish film actress. Thulin was born in Sollefteå, Ångermanland, northern Sweden, the daughter of Nanna and Adam Thulin, a fisherman, she took ballet lessons as a girl and was accepted by The Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm 1948. She was married to Harry Schein, the founder of the Swedish Film Institute, for more than 30 years until 1989, although they had lived separately for many years before the divorce, she bought an apartment in Paris, France in the early 1960s and some years a beach house in San Felice Circeo. In 1970 she became a resident of Sacrofano, where she lived for 34 years, she returned to Sweden for medical treatment and died from cancer in Stockholm, Sweden, 20 days shy of her 78th birthday. Her memories were published in 1992. For many years she worked with Ingmar Bergman. Thulin appeared in Bergman's Wild Strawberries, The Magician, Winter Light, The Silence, The Rite and Cries and Whispers, she shared the Best Actress award at the 1958 Cannes Film Festival and received a Guldbagge Award for Best Actress in 1964, the first year the award was given out, for her performance in The Silence.
Winner of the David di Donatello Awards 1974, Thulin was nominated for the BAFTA Award the same year. In 1980, she was the head of the jury at the 30th Berlin International Film Festival. Leva på'Hoppet'. Director: Göran Gentele Foreign Intrigue, with Robert Mitchum. Director: Sheldon Reynolds Smultronstället / Wild Strawberries, with Victor Sjöström. Director: Ingmar Bergman Ansiktet / The Magician. Director: Ingmar Bergman Domaren / The Judge. Director: Alf Sjöberg Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, with Glenn Ford. Director: Vincente Minnelli Nattvardsgästerna / Winter Light, with Gunnar Björnstrand, Max von Sydow and Gunnel Lindblom. Director: Ingmar Bergman Agostino. Director: Mauro Bolognini Tystnaden / The Silence, with Gunnel Lindblom. Director: Ingmar Bergman Return from the Ashes, with Maximilian Schell, Samantha Eggar. Director: J. Lee Thompson La guerre est finie / The War Is Over, with Yves Montand. Director: Alain Resnais Vargtimmen / Hour of the Wolf, with Max von Sydow. Director: Ingmar Bergman La caduta degli dei / The Damned, with Dirk Bogarde, Helmut Berger.
Director: Luchino Visconti Riten / The Rite, with Ingmar Bergman and Gunnar Björnstrand. Director: Ingmar Bergman Viskningar och Rop / Cries and Whispers, with Liv Ullmann, Harriet Andersson. Director: Ingmar Bergman La corta notte delle bambole di vetro / Short Night of Glass Dolls, with Jean Sorel, Mario Adorf, Barbara Bach. Director: Aldo Lado En handfull kärlek / A Handful of Love. Director: Vilgot Sjöman La Cage, with Lino Ventura. Director: Pierre Granier-Deferre Salon Kitty, with Helmut Berger. Director: Tinto Brass The Cassandra Crossing, with Sophia Loren, Richard Harris, Burt Lancaster. Director: George Pan Cosmatos Efter repetitionen / After the Rehearsal, with Erland Josephson. Director: Ingmar Bergman Il Giorno Prima / Contrôle, with Ben Gazzara, Burt Lancaster, Kate Nelligan. Director: Giuliano Montaldo Cowie, Peter: Sweden 1. An Illustrated Guide... to the Work of the Leading Directors, Players and other Key Figures in Swedish Cinema, with Credits and Plot outlines to more than seventy important Films, Index to 1,000 Titles, A. Zwemmer Ltd.
London Cowie: Sweden 2. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Themes and Directors in Swedish Cinema, A. Zwemmer Ltd. London Cowie: Film in Sweden. Stars and Players, Tantivy Press, London Ingrid Thulin on IMDb Ingrid Thulin at the Internet Broadway Database Ingrid Thulin Official Website Ingmar Bergman Face to Face on Ingrid Thulin Bergman's leading lady dies at 76 Bergmanorama on Ingrid Thulin Ingrid Thulin: Northern Light Ingrid Thulin at Find a Grave
The Touch (1971 film)
The Touch is a 1971 romantic drama film directed by Ingmar Bergman and starring Max von Sydow, Bibi Andersson, Elliott Gould, Sheila Reid. The film tells the story of an affair between an impetuous foreigner, it contains references to the Holocaust. Produced and distributed by ABC Motion Pictures, The Touch was Bergman's first English language film, but shot on the island of Gotland in Sweden in 1970. Cinematographer Sven Nykvist shot it in Eastmancolor. Gould, cast over Paul Newman and Robert Redford, believed Bergman's screenplay was semi-autobiographical; the film was a box office bomb. It has since had a limited re-release by the Film Society of Lincoln Center in 2011 and a home media release planned by The Criterion Collection for 2018. In a village, Karin Vergerus, married to a man named Andreas with children, visits a hospital where her mother has died, she reacts with sorrow, is seen by David Kovac, an archaeologist from a foreign country. David visits the couple, tells them about his work, including the discovery of a wooden statue of the Virgin Mary.
The fact that the statue was brought to the remote village and hidden in a church from the Middle Ages in considered puzzling. He tells Karin that he fell in love with her the day he saw her at the hospital. Karin visits David in his home, after drinking sherry, she agrees to have sex with him, she tells him this is her first affair and that she is uncertain if she is in love with him, but it is significant for her. As the affair continues, David becomes angry; when she shows up to his home under the influence of alcohol, having failed to quit smoking as they agreed, he slaps her. He shares his family history with her, telling her many of his relatives were murdered in Nazi concentration camps during World War II. Andreas visits David, revealing he has been receiving anonymous poison pen letters telling him David is having an affair with Karin. David dismisses the visit as absurd, argues when Andreas reminds him that David had attempted suicide. In a church, David shows Karin the statue of Mary, telling her it has been discovered that a unknown species of insect had infested the inside of the statue for 500 years and that the insects are eating it.
David leaves for London, Karin tells Andreas she feels she must go to find out why he left her. Andreas sternly tells her that if she leaves, she cannot return to their marriage, but she goes anyway. In London, Karin meets a woman named Sara and is surprised to hear Sara say she is David's sister, though he had told Karin he had no family. Sara guesses Karin is pregnant, though Karin refuses to say if the fetus is David's. Sara declares she and David will never separate. Karin leaves. David and Karin meet in a greenhouse. David tells her he has found life without her intolerable, that their relationship has changed him, that he now cares about what happens to him, he says he has accepted a position at a university and asks Karin to come with him, with her children. Karin rejects the offer, he accuses her of lying and cowardice. Paul Scherer at Indiana University South Bend argued the film contains "fairly explicit reference to the Garden of Eden and such related themes as Satan and the fall". Scherer noted critic James Gay argued anti-Semitism was vaguely a theme in the film, while Virginia Wexman said the film relied on "poetic imagery".
The statue of Mary features in the film's themes. The statue has a small smile, resembles Karin's mother. Bergman had earlier expressed his psychological difficulty distinguishing between wife and mother, writer Frank Gado argues Karin's mother dying removes the mother from Karin, allows David to love her; the larvae eating the statue may represent Karin's fetus. During a 1964 production in London, Swedish director Ingmar Bergman met Morton Baum, a representative of the American Broadcasting Company, launching a film production arm. Bergman concluded a contract with ABC for $1 million; the Touch was Bergman's first English language film, he viewed it as the first love story film he made. In drawing up his story, Bergman was inspired by the death of his friend, an actor, 15 years previously; the death of his father, Erik Bergman informed the visuals of the opening hospital scene. Ingmar Bergman submitted a 56-page film treatment to Baum, which resembled a novella rather than a screenplay. Bergman selected actor Elliott Gould on the basis of his work in Getting Straight.
Paul Newman, Robert Redford and Dustin Hoffman had been proposed by ABC. Gould stated that he "got a migraine" when he read the first sex scene in the screenplay, that he believed the film could harm his career, but felt it was an honour to be the first American actor in a Bergman film. Bergman had written the character Karin with Liv Ullmann in mind, but when Ullmann was unavailable, he offered it to Bibi Andersson. Andersson said she had reservations, both because she was the second choice for the role and because she had just played a similar role, but said she did not feel like could turn down Bergman's offers; the film was shot on the island of Gotland, as well as at Film-Tcknik Studios in Stockholm and in London, between 14 September and 13 November 1970. Cinematographer Sven Nykvist employed Eastmancolor for his work. Using various shades of make-up, Nykvist took several days with Andersson's test shots. Gould believed Andersson's character was influenced by Ingrid Karlebo, a woman Bergman was living with at the time, that the film was semi-autobiographical.
The sex scene was filmed on a real bed
Paul Leonard Newman was an American actor, film director, race car driver, IndyCar owner and philanthropist. He won and was nominated for numerous awards, winning an Oscar for his performance in the 1986 film The Color of Money, a BAFTA Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award, a Cannes Film Festival Award, an Emmy Award, many others. Newman's other roles include the title characters in The Hustler, Hud and Cool Hand Luke, as well as Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean, The Sting, Slap Shot, The Verdict, he voiced Doc Hudson in the first installment of Disney-Pixar's Cars as his final acting performance, with voice recordings being used in Cars 3. Newman won several national championships as a driver in Sports Car Club of America road racing, his race teams won several championships in open-wheel IndyCar racing, he was a co-founder of Newman's Own, a food company from which he donated all post-tax profits and royalties to charity. As of November 2018, these donations have totaled over US$535 million.
He was a co-founder of Safe Water Network, a nonprofit that develops sustainable drinking water solutions for those in need. In 1988, Newman founded the SeriousFun Children's Network, a global family of summer camps and programs for children with serious illness which has served 290,076 children since its inception. Newman was born in Shaker Heights, the second son of Theresa Garth and Arthur Sigmund Newman, Sr. who ran a sporting goods store. Paul's father was Jewish, the son of Simon Newman and Hannah Cohn, Hungarian-Jewish and Polish Jewish emigrants from Hungary and Vistula Land. Paul's mother was a practitioner of Christian Science, she was born to a Slovak Roman Catholic family in Peticse in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Newman had no religion as an adult, but described himself as a Jew, saying "it's more of a challenge". Newman's mother worked in his father's store, while raising Paul and his elder brother, who became a producer and production manager. Newman showed an early interest in the theater.
At age 10, Newman performed at the Cleveland Play House in a production of Saint George and the Dragon, was a notable actor and alumnus of their Curtain Pullers children's theatre program. Graduating from Shaker Heights High School in 1943, he attended Ohio University in Athens, where he was initiated into the Phi Kappa Tau fraternity. Newman served in the United States Navy in World War II in the Pacific theater, he enrolled in the Navy V-12 pilot training program at Yale University, but was dropped when his colorblindness was discovered. Boot camp followed, with training as rear gunner. Qualifying in torpedo bombers in 1944, Aviation Radioman Third Class Newman was sent to Barbers Point, Hawaii, he was subsequently assigned to Pacific-based replacement torpedo squadrons VT-98, VT-99, VT-100, responsible for training replacement combat pilots and air crewmen, with special emphasis on carrier landings. He flew as a turret gunner in an Avenger torpedo bomber; as a radioman-gunner, his unit was assigned to the aircraft carrier Bunker Hill along with other replacements shortly before the Battle of Okinawa in the spring of 1945.
The pilot of his aircraft had an ear infection. The rest of their squadron flew to Bunker Hill. Days a kamikaze attack on the vessel killed a number of service members, including the other members of his unit. After the war, Newman completed his Bachelor of Arts in drama and economics at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio in 1949. Shortly after earning his degree, he joined several summer stock companies, most notably the Belfry Players in Wisconsin and the Woodstock Players in Illinois, he developed his talents as a part of Woodstock Players. He attended the Yale School of Drama for one year, before moving to New York City to study under Lee Strasberg at the Actors Studio. Oscar Levant wrote that Newman was hesitant to leave New York for Hollywood, that Newman had said, "Too close to the cake. No place to study." Newman arrived in New York City in 1951 with his first wife, Jackie Witte, taking up residence in the St. George section of Staten Island, he made his Broadway theatre debut in the original production of William Inge's Picnic with Kim Stanley in 1953 and appeared in the original Broadway production of The Desperate Hours in 1955.
In 1959, he was in the original Broadway production of Sweet Bird of Youth with Geraldine Page and three years starred with Page in the film version. During this time Newman started acting in television, his first credited role was in a 1952 episode of Tales of Tomorrow entitled "Ice from Space". In the mid-1950s, he appeared twice on CBS's Appointment with Adventure anthology series. In February 1954, Newman appeared in a screen test with James Dean, directed by Gjon Mili, for East of Eden. Newman was tested for the role of Aron Trask, Dean for the role of Aron's fraternal twin brother Cal. Dean won his part; that same year, he co-starred with Eva Marie Saint and Frank Sinatra in a live—and color—television broadcast of Our Town, a musical adaptation of Thornton Wilder's stage play. Newman was a last-minute replacement for James Dean; the Dean connection had resonance two other times, as Newman was cast in two leading roles earmarked for Dean, as Billy the Kid in The Left Hand