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Big Bend National Park

For the Texas State Park see Big Bend Ranch State Park. Big Bend National Park is an American national park located in bordering Mexico; the park has national significance as the largest protected area of Chihuahuan Desert topography and ecology in the United States. The park protects more than 1,200 species of plants, more than 450 species of birds, 56 species of reptiles, 75 species of mammals. Geological features in the park include sea fossils and dinosaur bones, as well as volcanic dikes; the area has a rich cultural history, from archeological sites dating back nearly 10,000 years to more recent pioneers and miners. The park encompasses an area of 801,163 acres. For more than 1,000 miles, the Rio Grande/Río Bravo forms the boundary between Mexico and the United States, Big Bend National Park administers 118 miles along that boundary; the park was named after a large bend in the river, the Texas—Mexico border. Because the Rio Grande serves as an international boundary, the park faces unusual constraints while administering and enforcing park rules and policies.

In accordance with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the park's territory extends only to the center of the deepest river channel as the river flowed in 1848. The rest of the land south of that channel, the river, lies within Mexican territory; the park is bordered by the protected areas of Parque Nacional Cañon de Santa Elena and Maderas del Carmen in Mexico. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Big Bend National Park has a hot semi-arid climate; the park exhibits dramatic contrasts and its climate may be characterized as one of extremes. Dry and hot late spring and summer days exceed 100 °F in the lower elevations. Winters are mild but subfreezing temperatures occur; because of the range in altitude from about 1,800 feet along the river to Emory Peak in the Chisos Mountains at 7,832 feet, a wide variation in available moisture and temperature exists throughout the park. These variations contribute to an exceptional diversity in animal habitats; some species in the park, such as the Chisos oak, are found nowhere else in the United States.

The 118 mi of river that form the southern park boundary include the spectacular canyons of Santa Elena and Boquillas. The Rio Grande, which meanders through this portion of the Chihuahuan Desert, has cut deep canyons with nearly vertical walls through three uplifts made of limestone. Throughout the open desert areas, the productive Rio Grande riparian zone includes numerous plant and animal species and significant cultural resources; the vegetative belt extends into the desert along arroyos. South of the border lie the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Coahuila and newly protected areas for flora and fauna, which are regions known as the Maderas del Carmen and the Cañón de Santa Elena; the oldest recorded tectonic activity in the park is related to the Paleozoic Marathon orogeny, although Proterozoic events have some deep control. The Marathon orogeny is part of thrusting of rocks from the South American Plate over the North American Plate; this can be best seen in the Persimmon Gap area of the park.

This orogenic event is linked to the lack of Triassic- and Jurassic-age rocks in the park. Between the Triassic and the Cretaceous, the South American Plate rifted from the North American Plate, resulting in the deposition of the Glen Rose Limestone, Del Carmen Limestone, Sue Peaks Formation, Santa Elena Limestone, Del Rio Clay, Buda Limestone, Boquillas formations. During this time, the Chihuahua trough formed as the Gulf of Mexico opened, which resulted in east-west striking normal faulting; as a result of this depositional time, dinosaur and other fossils are preserved in the park. Following the ending of rifting in the Late Cretaceous to the early Cenozoic, the Big Bend area was subjected to the Laramide orogeny; this period of compression caused the northeast-facing Mesa de Anguila, the southwest-facing Sierra del Carmen–Santiago Mountains and the Tornillo Basin. During the middle Cenozoic, most of the volcanic rocks, including the Chisos group, the Pine Canyon caldera complex, the Burro Mesa Formation, formed.

The most recent tectonic activity in the park is basin and range faulting from the Neogene to Quaternary. This period of east-west extension has resulted in Estufa and Dehalo bolsons in the Chisos Mountains, as well as the Terlingua and Sierra del Carmen, Chalk Draw, Burro Mesa faults; the Rio Grande has entered the Big Bend area 2 million years ago, since extensive erosion and downcutting have occurred. Cultural resources in the park range from the Paleo-Indian period 10,500 years ago through the historic period represented by Native American groups, such as the Chisos and Comanche. More Spanish, Mexican and Irish settlers farmed and mined in the area. Throughout the prehistoric period, humans found shelter and maintained open campsites throughout the park; the archeological record reveals an Archaic-period desert culture, whose inhabitants developed a nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle that remained unchanged for several thousand years. The historic cultural landscape centers upon various subsistence or commercial land uses.

The riparian and tributary environments were use

WMGR

WMGR is a Christian radio station broadcasting a Contemporary Christian music format. Licensed to Bainbridge, United States, the station serves the Tallahassee area; the station was owned by Kevin Dowdy, through licensee Flint Media Inc. prior to purchase by Clear Channel Communications. WMGR was established in the late 1940s by Marvin Griffin, who became the 72nd Governor of Georgia; the call sign was for Marvin Griffin Radio. On January 1, 2017 WMGR changed their format from classic hits to contemporary Christian. Query the FCC's AM station database for WMGR Radio-Locator Information on WMGR Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WMGRQuery the FCC's FM station database for W257BS Radio-Locator information on W257BS

List of Country Music Hall of Fame inductees

This is a list of the 139 inductees to the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, as of 2019, counting groups as a single inductee. Of these, 20 inductions include women. Roy Rogers is unique in that he was inducted twice: in 1980 as a member of the Sons of the Pioneers and again in 1988 as a solo artist. Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Because of Jim Ed Brown's declining health, he was Inducted early June 2015, shortly before his death; the Oak Ridge Boys have had multiple members during their existence. Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page Return to top of page No inductees were added this year.

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