The Central Artery/Tunnel Project known as the Big Dig, was a megaproject in Boston that rerouted the Central Artery of Interstate 93, the chief highway through the heart of the city, into the 1.5-mile Thomas P. O'Neill Jr. Tunnel; the project included the construction of the Ted Williams Tunnel, the Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge over the Charles River, the Rose Kennedy Greenway in the space vacated by the previous I-93 elevated roadway; the plan was to include a rail connection between Boston's two major train terminals. Planning began in 1982; the Big Dig was the most expensive highway project in the US, was plagued by cost overruns, leaks, design flaws, charges of poor execution and use of substandard materials, criminal arrests, the death of one motorist. The project was scheduled to be completed in 1998 at an estimated cost of $2.8 billion. However, the project was completed in December 2007 at a cost of over $8.08 billion as of 2006. The Boston Globe estimated that the project will cost $22 billion, including interest, that it would not be paid off until 2038.
As a result of a death and other design flaws and Parsons Brinckerhoff—the consortium that oversaw the project—agreed to pay $407 million in restitution and several smaller companies agreed to pay a combined sum of $51 million. The Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy Greenway is a 1.5-mile-long series of parks and public spaces, which were the final part of the Big Dig after Interstate 93 was put underground. The Greenway was named in honor of Kennedy family matriarch Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy, was dedicated on July 26, 2004; this project was developed in response to traffic congestion on Boston's tangled streets which were laid out long before the advent of the automobile. As early as 1930 the city's Planning Board recommended a raised express highway running north-south through the downtown district in order to draw traffic off the city streets. Commissioner of Public Works William Callahan promoted plans for an elevated expressway, constructed between the downtown area and the waterfront. Governor John Volpe interceded in the 1950s to change the design of the last section of the Central Artery putting it underground through the Dewey Square Tunnel.
While traffic moved somewhat better, the other problems remained. There was chronic congestion on the Central Artery, an elevated six-lane highway through the center of downtown Boston, which was, in the words of Pete Sigmund, "like a funnel full of slowly-moving, or stopped, cars." In 1959, the 1.5-mile-long road section carried 75,000 vehicles a day, but by the 1990s, this had grown to 190,000 vehicles a day. Traffic jams of 16 hours were predicted for 2010; the expressway had tight turns, an excessive number of entrances and exits, entrance ramps without merge lanes, as the decades passed, had continually escalating vehicular traffic, well beyond its design capacity. Local businesses again wanted relief, city leaders sought a reuniting of the waterfront with the city, nearby residents desired removal of the matte green-painted elevated road which mayor Thomas Menino called Boston's "other Green Monster". MIT engineers Bill Reynolds and Frederick P. Salvucci envisioned moving the whole expressway underground.
Another important motivation for the final form of the Big Dig was the abandonment of the Massachusetts Department of Public Works' intended expressway system through and around Boston. The Central Artery, as part of Mass. DPW's Master Plan of 1948, was planned to be the downtown Boston stretch of Interstate 95, was signed as such; the Inner Belt District was to pass to the west of the downtown core, through the neighborhood of Roxbury and the cities of Brookline and Somerville. Earlier controversies over impact of the Boston extension of the Massachusetts Turnpike on the populated neighborhood of Brighton, the additional large amount of housing that would have had to be destroyed led to massive community opposition to both the Inner Belt and the Boston section of I-95. Building demolition and land clearances for I-95 through the neighborhoods of Roxbury, Jamaica Plain, Roslindale led to secession threats by Hyde Park, Boston's youngest and southernmost neighborhood. By 1972, with only a minimum of work done on the I-95 right of way and none on the massively disruptive Inner Belt, Governor Francis Sargent put a moratorium on highway construction within the Route 128 corridor, except for the final short stretch of Interstate 93.
In 1974, the remainder of the Master Plan was canceled, leaving Boston with a overstressed expressway system for the existing traffic. With ever-increasing traffic volumes funneled onto I-93 alone, the Central Artery became chronically gridlocked; the Sargent moratorium led to the rerouting of I-95 away from Boston around the Route 128 beltway and the conversion of the cleared land in the southern part of the city into the Southwest Corridor linear park, as well as a new right-of-way for the Orange Line subway
John C. Schiffer was statesman, he represented the 22nd District in the Wyoming Senate for 21 years, served in several Senate leadership positions, including President of the Senate in 2007-2008. Schiffer was born to Ken and Bay Schiffer, in Chadron, Nebraska where his father was based at Fort Robinson during World War II, his family soon relocated to a ranch near Wyoming where Schiffer would be raised. He graduated from the Hotchkiss School in Lakeville, Connecticut before attending Colorado College and graduating with a degree in economics in 1967, he joined the U. S. Navy and served in Vietnam, he returned to Kaycee to ranch in 1970 after completing his military service. In 1971, he married his wife Nancy. Schiffer operated the Hat Ranch west of Kaycee in the 1970s. In the 1980s, he formed the 48 Ranch partnership on the Powder River east of Kaycee, which he operated until his death. During the 1980s, Schiffer served on the Johnson County School Board and the board of the Northern Wyoming Mental Health Center.
He was appointed to the Wyoming Environmental Quality Council by Governor Mike Sullivan and served as chairman for several years. He served on the Board of the First Northern Bank in Wyoming, he was a board member of the Wyoming chapter of the Nature Conservancy from 1996 through 2010. Schiffer was appointed to the Wyoming Senate by the Johnson and Sheridan County Commissioners in 1993 to replace State Senator Bob Trent, who relocated out of state, he served in several leadership positions, including Senate Vice President, Senate Majority Floor Leader, President of the Senate. He chaired numerous committees during his service in the Senate, including the Senate Judiciary Committee, Senate Appropriations Committee, the Select Committee on Mental Health and Substance Abuse, the Wyoming State Legislature Management Council, the Senate Rules and Procedure Committee, the Senate Revenue Committee, the Management Audit Committee, the Senate Transportation, Highways, & Military Affairs Committee, he chaired the Council of Public Lands Committee for several years.
As chairman of the Select Committee on Mental Health and Substance Abuse, Schiffer played a significant role in improving Wyoming's mental health and substance abuse services, an issue he began working on as a board member of the Northern Wyoming Mental Health Center. The Wyoming County Commissioners Association honored Schiffer with their annual Senate Legislator of the Year Award in 2014 prior to his death; the award was given for his work to provide stable appropriations for local governments. He and his wife Nancy were honored in October 2014 at the Child Advocacy Service of the Big Horns Light of Hope Breakfast for his work on student scholarships, child protection, compulsory school attendance, teacher recruitment, juvenile justice and public library endowments, her career as a teacher, service as a volunteer, work on the boards of the Wyoming Boys & Girls Club of the Big Horns and the Community Resource Council. In 2012, he was awarded the Council of State Governments West Bettye Fahrenkamp Award for Distinguished Legislative Leadership on Behalf of Western States.
Schiffer was diagnosed with liver cancer in May 2014 and died at his home on June 19, 2014. His death garnered statewide attention, he was eulogized by his son Ben, his long-time friend and business partner State Treasurer Mark Gordon, colleagues in the legislature, former Governor Dave Freudenthal, Governor Matt Mead, who ordered flags flown at half-staff in Schiffer's honor. Wyoming Senate - John Schiffer official government website Project Vote Smart - Senator John C. Schiffer profile Follow the Money - John Schiffer 2006 2004 2000 1996 1994 Senate campaign contributions
James Patrick "Jim" Hackett is an American businessman. He is the chief executive officer of Ford Motor Company; the Hackett family was from Central Ohio via County Carlow and County Galway in Ireland. Hackett is a 1977 graduate of the University of Michigan, where he played center on the football team, he holds a bachelor's degree in general studies. He and his wife, have two sons, they reside in Michigan. From 1977 to 1981, Hackett held sales and management positions at Procter & Gamble in Detroit, Michigan. Hackett spent thirty years with the Grand Rapids-based office furniture company Steelcase, he joined Steelcase in 1981. In 1994, Hackett was named CEO at age 39, making him the youngest leader in the history of the company, he held the position for nearly twenty years before retiring in 2014. During his tenure, Steelcase eliminated nearly 12,000 employees as part of a downsizing and restructuring of the business. During this time Hackett became a proponent of design thinking, which focuses on how humans experience a product.
Hackett stayed on as vice chairman of the company from 2014 to 2015. He was interim director of athletics at the University of Michigan, his alma mater, from October 31, 2014 to March 11, 2016. Hackett led the hiring of former San Francisco 49ers's coach and fellow U-M alumnus Jim Harbaugh as the university's football coach, he donated $300,000 of his annual $600,000 salary as interim athletic director to "Athletes Connected," a program that's designed to support the mental health of student-athletes. In 2013, Hackett joined the Ford Motor Company's board of directors, he served on its Sustainability and Innovation Committee and the Audit and the Nominating and Governance committees. Hackett oversaw the formation of Ford Smart Mobility, a unit responsible for experimenting with car-sharing programs at Ford Motor Company, self-driving ventures and other programs aimed at helping Ford better compete with Uber, Alphabet Inc. and other tech giants looking to edge in on the auto industry. On May 22, 2017, Hackett succeeded Mark Fields as CEO of Ford Motor Company.
He is a member of the company's board of directors. The move came as Ford announced cuts to its global workforce amid efforts to address the company's declining share price and to improve profits; the company is targeting $3 billion in cost reduction and a nearly 10 percent reduction in the salaried workforce in Asia and North America this year to enhance earnings in 2018. Hackett serves on the board of directors for Northwestern Mutual Life in Milwaukee and the Steelcase Foundation in Grand Rapids, Michigan, he is a member of the executive committee of the board of directors for the National Center for Arts and Technology, as well as the boards of advisors to the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy and the Life Sciences Institute at the University of Michigan. Additionally, he is a past president of the Institute of Design Board of Overseers at the Illinois Institute of Technology. In January 2019, Hackett sent an email to Ford employees that read, "2018 was mediocre by any standard. Yes, we made $7 billion last year.
But think of it this way: this represents a 4.4 percent operating margin, about half what we believe is an appropriate margin. So we are aiming for much closer to $14 billion.”
Seven Star Movement is a Finnish political party founded in 2018. The party was founded by Paavo Väyrynen, its president and only MP, after he was ousted from his previous party, Citizens' Party. Paavo Väyrynen had run for the Finnish Parliament in the 2015 Finnish parliamentary election, representing the Centre Party. Väyrynen, chose to forfeit his seat in order to serve in the European Parliament that he had entered earlier. Väyrynen returned to the Finnish Parliament in June 2018, but defected from the Centre Party to the Citizens' Party, which he had founded; the Citizens' Party was engulfed in a power struggle at that time, which resulted in Väyrynen's ousting In late June, Väyrynen announced that he had founded the Seven Star Movement as a substitute for Citizens' Party, with which he remained in the parliament for a time. The name is inspired by the populist Italian Five Star Movement; the Seven Star Movement's goals are political independence, non-alignment, greater immigration control.
A trial court ruled in November 2018. Despite the ruling, the legal struggle convinced Väyrynen to go forward with his Seven Star Movement rather than the Citizens' Party; that month, Väyrynen announced that he had aligned himself with the Seven Star Movement's parliamentary group, therefore became their first MP. Väyrynen is the president of the party; the secretary is Väyrynen's former campaign aide. The party is based in Helsinki; the movement gathered 5,000 supporter cards by December 2018 and was admitted to the party register on 21 December 2018. The party took part in the 2019 parliamentary election, but failed to get a single seat in the parliament. After the election, Väyrynen wrote in his blog. Although skeptical about the party taking part in the 2019 European Parliament election, they decided to run. Among the candidates are Väyrynen and businessman Peter Fryckman. Politics of Finland List of political parties in Finland Elections in Finland Official website Seven Star Movement on Facebook
The Triumph of the Church or The Triumph of the Church over Fury and Hatred is a c.1625 painting by Peter Paul Rubens, now in the Museo del Prado in Madrid. It forms part of a series of allegorical paintings praising the sacrament of the Eucharist, the Catholic faith and the Counter Reformation and attacking heresy and the Protestant Reformation, they were first conceived as modellos for monumental tapestries to be displayed during major festivals such as Corpus Christi at the Convent of Las Descalzas Reales in Madrid. The paintings took from 1622 to 1625 and were commissioned by Isabel Clara Eugenia, daughter of Philip II of Spain and governor of the Spanish Netherlands, not only Rubens' homeland but included the Brussels tapestry factories; the tapestries after the paintings were produced between 1627 and 1632 in these factories and in the studio of Jan II Raes, before being sent to the Spanish court. Some of the tapisteries show Rubens introduced changes in his final drawingsThe other subjects in the cycle were The Triumph of Divine Love, The Meeting between Abraham and Melchizedek, The Victory of Virtue over Heresy, The Victory of the Eucharist over Idolatry and The Defenders of the Eucharist.
They were on allegorical themes with strong propagandistic and doctrinal subtext, along with some on Old Testament episodes. The Triumph of the Church was one of the central works in the cycle and the resulting tapestry was the biggest in the set with the most complex themes and composition
A Través de Tus Ojos is the thirteenth studio album released by Los Bukis on October 18, 1991. It received a Grammy Award nomination for Best Latin Pop Album. All songs written and composed by Marco Antonio Solís Marco Antonio Solís – vocals Joel Solis – guitar Roberto Guadarrama – keyboards Eusebio "El Chivo" Cortez – bass Jose "Pepe" Guadarrama – percussion Pedro Sanchez – drums A Través de Tus Ojos on amazon.com A Través de Tus Ojos on cduniverse.com