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Bighorn Mountains

The Bighorn Mountains are a mountain range in northern Wyoming and southern Montana in the United States, forming a northwest-trending spur from the Rocky Mountains extending 200 miles northward on the Great Plains. They are separated from the Absaroka Range, which lie on the main branch of the Rockies in western Wyoming, by the Bighorn Basin. Much of the land is contained within the Bighorn National Forest; the Bighorns were uplifted during the Laramide orogeny beginning 70 million years ago. They consist of over 9,000 feet of sedimentary rock strata laid down before mountain-building began: the predominantly marine and near-shore sedimentary layers range from the Cambrian through the Lower Cretaceous, are rich in fossils. There is an unconformity where Silurian strata are missing; the granite bedrock below these sedentary layers is now exposed along the crest of the Bighorns. The precambrian formations contain some of the oldest rocks at 3.25 billion years old. Following the uplift, large volumes of sediments, rich in early Tertiary fossils, were deposited in the adjoining basins.

The ice ages of the Holocene led to extensive glaciation. Though many cirques, U-shaped valleys and glacial lakes can be found in the mountain range, the only remaining active glacier is the Cloud Peak Glacier, on the east slope of Cloud Peak. Geologist N. H. Darton with the U. S. Geological Survey produced one of the earliest studies of geology in the area, drawn from field research from 1901-1905. Despite extensive prospecting in the Bighorns, no major deposits of precious metals have been found to date. Brief gold rushes of placer deposits occurred at Bald Mountain City and Porcupine Creek, in Big Goose Canyon; the lack of precious metals helped stave off development and settlement in the mountains, in contrast to the Colorado Rockies. The Madison limestone aquifer provides a significant source of groundwater for the town of Dayton. Limestone karst formations throughout the range contain many fissures and cracks that have developed into extensive cave systems, including Tongue River Cave, the caves adjacent to Medicine Mountain.

The Natural Trap Cave on the west slope of the Bighorns contains numerous remains of prehistoric mammals. The highest peaks within the Bighorns are located in Wyoming in the 1.12-million-acre Bighorn National Forest. Two peaks rise to over 13,000 feet: Black Tooth Mountain. There are a dozen more. From the east the mountains present a vertical relief of over 8,000 feet, rising abruptly from the plains. Overall, the Bighorns are more rounded than their sister mountain ranges to the west; the Cloud Peak Wilderness is the centerpiece of a roadless block of land around 189,000 acres in size. The Wilderness is surrounded by unprotected acreage of U. S National Forest as well as Bureau of Land Management and some private land. Most of the Cloud Peak Wilderness is above the tree line. Mule deer, moose, black bear, mountain lion are found throughout the area. Two more large roadless areas remained in the Bighorns as of 1992, it is unknown whether these areas have since been reduced in size by road-building and other development.

Both areas straddle the Montana-Wyoming state line, in the northern part of the range. One area, north of U. S. Route 14A and containing the headwaters of the Little Bighorn River, is 155,000 acres of National Forest land; this little-known region features subalpine terrain cut by steep canyons. Pronghorn inhabit the area. What little human use it receives is from hunters and fishermen; the second roadless area is located on the Crow Indian Reservation in Montana. F. in Wyoming. In this part of the range, semidesert prairie is cut by steep canyons leading to Yellowtail Reservoir, high, Douglas-fir cloaked ridges top out at over 9,000'. Colorful rock formations are common. Rocky Mountain juniper and limber pine are scattered on lower elevations, wildlife includes pronghorn, golden eagle, ferruginous hawk, mule deer; the Crow Indians manage a wild bison herd on this portion of the Bighorns. The Crow lands are a sacred area, thus are off-limits to non-tribal members; the three highways traversing the Bighorns are designated Scenic Byways by the US Forest Service and the State of Wyoming.

These include U. S. Routes 14, 14A, 16; the high elevation of the Bighorns results in condensation of air and significant yearly snowfall, creating a highland oasis of moisture towering over the otherwise arid plains that surround the range in all directions. The melting snow feeds many rivers through the summer months; the range is the location of the headwaters of the Little Bighorn and Powder rivers. Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area consists of 120,000 acres within the Bighorn Mountains, it includes a reservoir damming the Bighorn River. In 2015, a sudden, huge'gash' was found in Wyoming's Big Horn Mountains; the Wyoming Geological Survey studied the area and determined that "The Crack" may be the result of an "apparent active landslide" in the southern end of the Big Horn Mountains. The Bighorns provided important resources for ancestral indigenous people, including plants, migratory big game, rock shelters, tepee poles, stone for tools. American Indian trails crisscrossed the range, while the canyons provided import


Trawool is in central Victoria, Australia. The area lies on the middle reaches of the Goulburn River and on the Goulburn Valley Highway, 115 kilometres north of the state capital, Melbourne. Named Traawool, the indigenous word for ‘turkey’, the district is dominated by agriculture and scenery. First explored by Hume and Hovell in 1824, it was settled as a large sheep station. Michael "Patrick" Burns selected land once a part of the Tallarook Run in 1867, he had come from Sydney in 1857 to work for Michael Hickey at Tallarook. He and his family of three, settled there on 20 March 1871, thereafter adding a further seven children-ten in all, Mary Ann, Bridget, Sarah, Patrick, Katherine and Elsie Violet. Patrick Snr. was keen to procure a school for his children and those of his neighbours. To this end he wrote letters to the authorities and donated over an acre of land between the railway and the road. A portable school building was erected in 1885 and following the appointment of Helen McKay as Head Teacher, classes began on Monday 28 September 1885.

Patrick was a strong force in having the railway pass through Trawool. His dedication and commitment to the community in which he lived cannot be questioned, his eldest daughter took over the Post Office in December 1886 and together the family worked tirelessly for the betterment of themselves and the community of Trawool. When it came time to relax, they still thought of their neighbours; the Burns family were noted for their musical evenings and gave much pleasure and entertainment to the servicemen from Seymour Army Camp during the 1914-1918 war. Patrick Snr. died on 21 March 1904. His wife and family carried on the farm and various members of the family operated the Post Office until it closed in 1972. Patrick Jnr. was a surveyor for the district until joining up, along with brother, Dick, to serve at the Boer War. After discharge from the Army, Patrick was engaged in survey work on the Eildon Weir, returning to Trawool Valley Resort after his retirement. Trawool Valley Resort is listed in the National Trust Heritage Register recognised for its importance as a scenic and cultural site, for its great diversity of flora and fauna The Trawool Hotel was established at a river crossing site.

A punt was used to ferry passengers across the river. When a railway branch line from Tallarook to Yea was created in 1883 the Trawool railway station was built. After a period of growth in the 1880s, the settlement went into decline although a granite quarry was established in the area in the early 1890s. Australian and American troops were stationed at Trawool during World War II. Electricity arrived in the district in 1945; however Trawool school closed in 1959, the post office relocated in 1972 and the last train travelled on the local railway line in 1978. Media related to Trawool, Victoria at Wikimedia Commons

2010 FIBA Europe Under-20 Championship

The 2010 FIBA Europe Under-20 Championship was the 13th edition of the FIBA Europe Under-20 Championship. The cities of Zadar and Makarska, in Croatia, hosted the tournament. France won their first title. Netherlands and the Czech Republic were relegated to Division B. Croatia Czech Republic France Germany Greece Italy Latvia Lithuania Montenegro Netherlands Russia Serbia Slovenia Spain Turkey Ukraine The sixteen teams were allocated in four groups of four teams each; the twelve teams were allocated in two groups of six teams each. The results of the games between the teams from the same group in the Preliminary Round were taken into account for the ranking in this round. Andrew Albicy Nikos Pappas Kostas Papanikolaou Mario Delaš Nikola Mirotić FIBA Archive FIBA Europe Archive

Tai Lin Radio Service

Tai Lin Radio Service Limited was one of Hong Kong's largest electrical appliance retail chains. Founded in 1946, it liquidated on 17 October 2008, having thirteen branches altogether throughout the territory at the time. Tai Lin opened its first store at 309 Nathan Road, Yau Ma Tei selling radio sets. Since it developed its servicing and retail services, besides including tape recorders and amplifiers into its line-up. In 1957, Tai Lin became the first electrical appliance store to introduce stereo Hi-Fi to the Hong Kong market. In the population boom of the 1960s, Tai Lin expanded its product line to television sets, washing machines, air conditioners and cameras, among others, at the same time, opening new branches to form a retail chain. In 1976, Tai Lin registered itself as a company under the name "Tai Lin Radio Services Limited." The 1980s and 1990s were defined as Tai Lin's "golden age." The chain has spent HK$50 million in 1989 to refurbish its existing branches. In addition to three stores in Mong Kok and To Kwa Wan, Tai Lin made its proactive expansion throughout the Hong Kong market with new stores in Kwun Tong, Sha Tin, Causeway Bay et cetera.

At its peak in 1997, Tai Lin had 13 stores altogether. After 62 years in existence, Tai Lin collapsed and succumbed to the effects of the global financial crisis, affecting 260 personnel from thirteen branches; the following are all of Tai Lin's stores at the time of its closure: Hong Kong IslandTimes Square 905B-906, 9th Floor 815-816, 8th Floor Shop 2015-2016, Podium Level 2, IFC MallKowloon309 -310, Level 3, Ocean Centre, Harbour City, Tsim Sha Tsui G52, Ground Floor, Telford Plaza I, Kowloon Bay Basement, Sim City, Mong Kok 310 - 312, Nathan Road, Jordan 32B, Mut Wah Street, Kwun TongNew Territories623-626, Level 6, New Town Plaza, Phase 1, Sha Tin G33-34, Ground Floor, The Edge, 9 Tong Chun Street, Tseung Kwan O G04 Ground Floor, The Edge, 9 Tong Chun Street, Tseung Kwan O G - 1/F, Chow's Building, 4 Shiu Wo Street, Tsuen Wan G30-G33 & G35, Ground Floor, Tuen Mun Town Plaza, Phase 1, 1 Tuen Shing St, Tuen Mun Tai Lin Radio Service Limited homepage

Ficus Ruminalis

The Ficus Ruminalis was a wild fig tree that had religious and mythological significance in ancient Rome. It stood near the small cave known as the Lupercal at the foot of the Palatine Hill and was the spot where according to tradition the floating makeshift cradle of Romulus and Remus landed on the banks of the Tiber. There they were discovered by Faustulus; the tree was sacred to Rumina, one of the birth and childhood deities, who protected breastfeeding in humans and animals. St. Augustine mentions a Jupiter Ruminus; the wild fig tree was thought to be the male, wild counterpart of the cultivated fig, female. In some Roman sources, the wild fig is caprificus "goat fig"; the fruit of the fig tree is pendulous, the tree exudes a milky sap if cut. Rumina and Ruminalis were connected by some Romans to rumis or ruma, "teat, breast," but some modern linguists think it is more related to the names Roma and Romulus, which may be based on rumon a word for "river" or an archaic name for the Tiber; the tree is associated with the legend of Romulus and Remus, stood where their cradle came to rest on the banks of the Tiber, after their abandonment.

The tree offered the twins shade and shelter in their suckling by a she-wolf, just outside the nearby Lupercal cave, until their discovery and fostering by the shepherd Faustulus and his wife Acca Larentia. Remus was killed by Romulus, who went on to found Rome on the Palatine Hill, above the cave. A statue of the she-wolf was supposed to have stood next to the Ficus Ruminalis. In 296 BC, the curule aediles Gnaeus and Quintus Ogulnius placed images of Romulus and Remus as babies suckling under her teats, it may be this sculpture group, represented on coins. The Augustan historian Livy says that the tree still stood in his day, but his younger contemporary Ovid observes only vestigia, "traces," the stump. A textually problematic passage in Pliny seems to suggest that the tree was miraculously transplanted by the augur Attus Navius to the Comitium; this fig tree, was the Ficus Navia, so called for the augur. Tacitus refers to the Ficus Navia as the Arbor Ruminalis, an identification that suggests it had replaced the original Ficus Ruminalis, either symbolically after the older tree's demise, or having been cultivated as an offshoot.

The Ficus Navia grew from a spot, struck by lightning and was thus regarded as sacred. Pliny's obscure reference may be to the statue of Attus Navius in front of the Curia Hostilia: he stood with his lituus raised in an attitude that connected the Ficus Navia and the accompanying representation of the she-wolf to the Ficus Ruminalis, "as if" the tree had crossed from one space to the other; when the Ficus Navia drooped, it was taken as a bad omen for Rome. When it died, it was replaced. In 58 AD, it withered, but revived and put forth new shoots. In the archaeology of the Comitium, several irregular stone-lined shafts in rows, dating from Republican phases of pavement, may have been apertures to preserve venerable trees during rebuilding programs. Pliny mentions other sacred trees in the Roman Forum, with two additional figs. One fig was removed with a great deal of ritual fuss because its roots had undermined a statue of Silvanus. A relief on the Plutei of Trajan depicts Marsyas the satyr, whose statue stood in the Comitium, next to a fig tree, placed on a plinth, as if it too were a sculpture.

It is unclear whether this representation means that sacred trees might be replaced with artificial or pictorial ones. The apertures were paved over in the time of an event that may explain Ovid's vestigia. Sacred fig Caprotinia "Romulus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23. 1911. Ficus Ruminalis. In: Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby: A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Oxford University Press, London 1929

List of accolades received by Kal Ho Naa Ho

Kal Ho Naa Ho is a 2003 Indian Hindi-language romantic drama film directed by Nikkhil Advani. The film features Shah Rukh Khan, Saif Ali Khan and Preity Zinta in the lead roles. Sushma Seth, Reema Lagoo, Lillete Dubey and Delnaaz Irani play supporting roles; the film's story focuses on a MBA student who falls in love with Aman Mathur. He does not reciprocate her feelings as he is a terminally ill heart patient, a fact he hides from Naina. Aman does not wish to bring Naina any pain through his illness, tries to make her fall in love with her friend and fellow MBA classmate Rohit Patel; the film's dialogues were written by Niranjan Iyengar while Karan Johar drafted the story and screenplay. The latter co-produced the film with his father, Yash Johar, under the Dharma Productions banner; the soundtrack for Kal Ho Naa Ho was composed by Shankar–Ehsaan–Loy while Javed Akhtar wrote the lyrics for its songs. Anil Mehta and Sanjay Sankla handled the editing respectively. Sharmishta Roy was in charge of the production design.

Produced on a budget of ₹280 million, Kal Ho Naa Ho was released on 27 November 2003 and received positive reviews. It was commercially successful, grossing ₹860.9 million worldwide. The film won 35 awards from 78 nominations. At the 51st National Film Awards, Shankar–Ehsaan–Loy and Sonu Nigam won for Best Music Direction and Best Male Playback Singer respectively. Kal Ho Naa Ho led the 49th Filmfare Awards with eleven nominations including Best Film, Best Director and Best Actor, it went on to win in eight categories, including Best Actress, Best Supporting Actor and Best Supporting Actress. The film won thirteen awards out of seventeen nominations at the 5th IIFA Awards, including Best Film, Best Actress, Best Supporting Actor and Best Supporting Actress, it garnered eighteen nominations at the inaugural ceremony of the Producers Guild Film Awards and won six, Best Actress in a Supporting Role, Best Music Director, Best Lyricist, Best Male Playback Singer, Best Debut Director and Best Cinematography.

Among other wins, Kal Ho Naa Ho received three Screen Awards, two Zee Cine Awards and a Stardust Award. List of Bollywood films of 2003 Accolades for Kal Ho Naa Ho at the Internet Movie Database