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Bikini Atoll

Bikini Atoll, sometimes known as Eschscholtz Atoll between the 1800s and 1946, is a coral reef in the Marshall Islands consisting of 23 islands surrounding a 229.4-square-mile central lagoon. The atoll's inhabitants were relocated in 1946, after which the islands and lagoon were the site of 23 nuclear tests by the United States until 1958; the atoll is at the northern end of the Ralik Chain 850 kilometres northwest of the capital Majuro. Three families were resettled on Bikini island in 1970, but scientists found dangerously high levels of strontium-90 in well water in May 1977, the residents were carrying abnormally high concentrations of caesium-137 in their bodies. They were evacuated in 1980; the atoll is visited today by divers and a few scientists, is occupied by a handful of caretakers. The island's English name is derived from the German colonial name Bikini given to the atoll when it was part of German New Guinea; the German name is transliterated from the Marshallese name for the island, Pikinni, "Pik" meaning "surface" and "Ni" meaning "coconut", or surface of coconuts.

Bikini islanders' traditional lifestyle was based on cultivating plants and eating shellfish and fish. They were skilled boat-builders and navigators, sailing the two-hulled proa to and from islets around Bikini and other atolls in the Marshall Islands, they were isolated and had developed a society bound by extended family association and tradition. Every lagoon was led by a king and queen, with a following of chieftains and chief women who constituted a ruling caste. Japan occupied the islands starting in 1914; the islanders worked the copra plantations under the watchful eye of the Japanese, who took a portion of the sales. Chiefs could retain as much as $20,000 per year, the remainder was distributed to the workers; the Marshall islanders took pride in extending hospitality to one another distant relatives. Men traditionally wore a fringed skirt about 25 to 30 inches long. Women wore two mats about a yard square each, made by weaving pandanus and hibiscus leaves together and belted around the waist.

Children were naked. Christian missionaries from Oʻahu arrived in the late 19th century and influenced the islanders' notions of modesty, they introduced a dress for women, a long, loose-fitting gown with long sleeves and a high neck, intended to cover as much skin as possible. The dress is called wau, from the name of the Hawaiian island of Oahu. In 1919, a visitor reported. Not one would think of exposing her ankles." Women in the Marshall Islands today are still modest. They believe that a woman's shoulders should be covered. Women wear cotton muʻumuʻus or similar clothing that covers most of the body. Personal health is never discussed except within the family, women are private about female-related health issues, although they are willing to talk about their breasts. Marshall island women swim in muʻumuʻus which are made of a fine polyester that dries. In the capital of Majuro, revealing cocktail dresses are inappropriate for both islanders and guests. With the increasing influence of Western media, the younger generation wears shorts, though the older generation equates shorts with loose morals.

T-shirts, jeans and makeup are making their way to the islands via the media. The Bikini islanders continue to maintain land rights as the primary measure of wealth. To all Marshallese, land is gold. If you were an owner of land, you would be held up as a important figure in our society. Without land you would be viewed as a person of no consequence... But land here on Bikini is now poison land; each family is part of a clan. The clan owes allegiance to a chief; the chiefs oversee the clan heads. The Iroij control land tenure, resource use and distribution, settle disputes; the Alap supervise daily activities. The Dri-jerbal work the land including farming and construction; the Marshallese society is matrilineal and land is passed down from generation to generation through the mother. Land ownership ties families together into clans. Grandparents, grandchildren, aunts and cousins form extended, close-knit family groups. Gatherings tend to become big events. One of the most significant family events is the first birthday of a child, which relatives and friends celebrate with feasts and song.

Payments made in the 20th century as reparations for damage to the Bikini Atoll and the islanders' way of life have elevated their income relative to other Marshall Island residents. It has caused some Bikini islanders to become economically dependent on the payments from the trust fund; this dependency has eroded individuals' interest in traditional economic pursuits like taro and copra production. The move altered traditional patterns of social alliance and political organization. On Bikini, rights to land and land ownership were the major factor in social and political organization and leadership. After relocation and settlement on Kili, a dual system of land tenure evolved. Disbursements from the trust fund were based in part to land ownership on Bikini and based on current land tenure on Kili. Before the residents were relocated, they were led by a local chief and under the nominal control of the Paramount Chief of the Marshall Islands. Afterward, they had greater interaction with representatives of the trust fund and the U.

S. government and began to l

Borisovsky Khotilovo (air base)

Borisovsky Khotilovo is an air base in Tver Oblast, Russia located 24 km south of the town of Bologoye. It is an interceptor base with three groups of fan revetments, it is home to 790 IAP flying 38 MiG-25 aircraft during MiG-31s through the 1990s. Borisovsky's interceptor regiment operated the Sukhoi Su-9 in the 1960s; the regiment replaced it in 1980 with the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25. This was unique to Borisovsky, as all other Su-9 bases received the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23. On 1 June 2005 a MiG-31 based here crash-landed here; as of February 2014, the base is closed for runway 02/20 reconstruction. The first airplanes in the area of the village Khotilovo appeared before World War II. In the period from March 1945 to July 1946, the control and regiments of the 257th Svirsky Fighter Aviation Division disbanded in July 1946. In the 1950s and 1960s, propellers and first jet aircraft were based here. During their operation, many pilots and test pilots died – some pilots were buried in the cemetery in the village of Hotilovo.

Until it was still possible to see the graves with propellers. The town of the airfield was located along the highway; the take-off field and taxiways were created from standard metal ladders, which can still be seen in the village – they are used both as tracks and as hedges. When visiting Fidel Castro rocket division in the city Bologoe-4, he flew with the government delegation to the Hotilovo airfield. Maintenance of the airfield went through the nearest railway station Kuzhenkino, it was equipped with a loading area and a place for unloading fuel. The planes arrived and departed by rail unassembled, in wooden containers of gray color – the fuselage and the plane separately. In the 70s, the town and the airfield itself were moved a few kilometers to the side, across the Shlin river, where it occupies its present position. From April 2006 a cardinal reconstruction was made: the length was increased Runway from 2500 to 3000 meters and its width, the runway, apron covers and taxiways were replaced by concrete monolith.

After reconstruction, the airfield is capable of receiving any type of Russian military aircraft, including strategic bombers Tu-160. By order of the Commander of the Special Forces Command, from 24 September 2007 aerodrome was put into operation and ready to receive and organize flights of the state ]; the air base personnel took an active part in the Russian-Belarusian exercises "Zapad-2009", where they worked on the interception of air targets. In addition, combat shooting is conducted every year at the Ladoga firing ranges. Located at the airbase: The 790th Fighter Order of Kutuzov, 3rd class, an aviation regiment that has aircraft MiG-31 3rd Squadron Su-27Since 2007 is joint-based airfield – in addition to military aviation, there is a civilian base – Federal State Budgetary Institution "Russia" special flight squadron; the airfield is used by the President of the Russian Federation and his guests when traveling to the residence "Dinner" in Valdai. 69th "A" Fighter Aviation Regiment – the 790th Fighter Regiment of the Kutuzov Aviation Regiment.

Formed in October–November 1941 in Kirovabad on the basis of the 69th iap and received the name of the 69th "A" fighter regiment. On 8 March 1942, he received a new number: the 790th ip. In service was a fighter LaGG-3. On 15 May 1942 he began combat work as part of the Air Force of the 46th Army on the Transcaucasian Front. In August 1942 joined the 219th Bomber Aviation Division, which operated in the Transcaucasian, since January 1943 in the North Caucasus Front. From April 1943 acted as part of the 229th Fighter Division. In May 1944 he was withdrawn to the rear for re-formation. Re-armed with fighter jets La-5. From 13 October 1944 until the end of the war, he acted as part of the 129th Jade on the 3rd Belorussian Front. During the war years, the regiment pilots won 182 aerial victories. In 1980–1993, the regiment flew airplanes MiG-25. Since 1994, the air regiment re-armed with interceptor fighters MiG-31. During the reconstruction of the Khotilovo airbase in 2006–2008, the air regiment was temporarily relocated to the air base in Dorokhovo.

With the transition to the new look of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, the regiment became an airbase as part of the Air Force Operational-Strategic Command of the Air Force, that is, the re-formed Special Purpose Command. The air regiment received a squadron of Su-27 from the Bezhetsk Fighter Regiment, and in Bezhetsk, the commandant's office remained, structurally incorporated into the Hotilovo airbase. The 844th separate communications and radio engineering battalion since 1953 provides flights for the 790th IAP; the battalion began its formation in February 1953 at the station Kuzhenkino Bologovsky District Tver Region. At the moment, the battalion is commanded by guards lieutenant colonel Sayganov Vadim Aleksandrovich. Organizationally includes РТО, company РЗА, ТЭЧ and management; the battalion includes the entire range of radio-technical means of flight support: radio engineering system of near navigation – command post ]], radar landing system, lighting equipment, etc. In recent years, the latest models of modern technology have been in service – EKSA, etc

73rd Tony Awards

The 73rd Annual Tony Awards were held on June 9, 2019, to recognize achievement in Broadway productions during the 2018–19 season. The ceremony was held at Radio City Music Hall in New York City and was broadcast live by CBS. James Corden served as host. Hadestown was the most winning production of the season, with eight awards, including Best Musical; the Ferryman won four awards, including Best Play. Musicals The Cher Show and Tootsie, the revival of Rodgers and Hammerstein's Oklahoma!, the new play Ink each won two awards. The ceremony received mixed reviews, with some criticizing the performance of Corden as host; the official eligibility cut-off date for Broadway productions opening in the 2018–2019 season was April 25, 2019. The Tony Award nominations were announced on April 30, 2019 by Bebe Neuwirth and Brandon Victor Dixon and broadcast on CBS. Hadestown received the most of any production of the season. Ain’t Too Proud followed, with 12 nominations; the plays The Ferryman and To Kill a Mockingbird each received nine nominations.

The annual Meet the Nominees Press Reception took place on May 1, 2019 at the Sofitel New York Hotel. The annual Nominees Luncheon took place on May 2019 at the Rainbow Room. A cocktail party was held on June 3, 2019 at the Sofitel New York Hotel to celebrate the season's Tony Honors for Excellence in the Theatre and Special Award recipients; the Creative Arts Tony Awards ceremony was presented prior to the televised award ceremony. The hosts included: Danny Burstein, Karen Olivo and Aaron Tveit; the awards presented include technical categories. The ceremony's presenters included: The following shows and performers performed on the ceremony's telecast: The playwrights of the nominated plays spoke of their work; as noted by The Hollywood Reporter "Presenting the play nominees has always been the telecast's biggest challenge, having the writers themselves take the stage to discuss the genesis and themes of their work felt appropriate in such an uncommonly strong season for new plays. It helped that they were so entertaining."

The playwrights included James Graham, Jez Butterworth, Tarell Alvin McCraney, Taylor Mac and Heidi Schreck. During the broadcast's commercial breaks, Corden started Broadway Karaoke, whereby Broadway performers in the audience would karaoke a show tune without preplanning or rehearsal. Equipped with a songbook and with a pianist to accompany, Corden would pick various stars to sing during three of the telecast commercials. Although the performances weren't broadcast, audience members and Corden's own film crew recorded the proceedings with some videos being posted online. Corden, whose own late-night show has a successful and similar ongoing segment, Carpool Karaoke, which led to television's Carpool Karaoke: The Series, revealed the scheme on his show the following night of the Tonys; the first of three karaokes was Dear Evan Hansen `. During the next karaoke break was a performance of “96,000” from In the Heights by the upcoming film's Anthony Ramos who plays Usnavi, soon duetting with Christopher Jackson, who originated the role of Benny.

The third performance was a “showstopper” shared by Corden on his show the next night, weaving online videos as well as from his own crew. Toward the end of the show he approached Pose’s Billy Porter, who garnered media attention for his red and pink haute couture gown upcycled from Kinky Boots’ curtains, to deliver what Corden said was an incredible performance of “Everything's Coming up Roses“ from Gypsy, which received a standing ovation from the 6,000 attendees; the non-competitive Special Tony Award is presented to Rosemary Harris, Terrence McNally and Harold Wheeler for Lifetime Achievement in the Theatre. The Isabelle Stevenson Award recipient is Judith Light, for her work to end HIV/AIDS and support for LGBTQ+ and human rights; the Excellence In Theatre Education Award recipient was Madeleine Michel, Of Monticello High School in Charlottesville, Virginia. The Regional Theatre Tony Award winner is Palo Alto, California; the Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre is awarded to Broadway Inspirational Voices.

The Special Tony Award is presented to the late Marin Mazzie. ‡ The award is presented to the producer of the play. The show received a mixed reception from many media publications. On Metacritic, the ceremony has a weighted average score of 46 out of 100, based 6 6 reviews, indicating "mixed or average reviews"; the Hollywood Reporter columnist David Rooney remarked, "The host started strong and had one sharp musical interlude mid-show, but elsewhere delivered strained comedy bits that felt familiar and thematically generic." The New York Times theatre critic Mike Hale commented, "But after his verbal dexterity enlivened an overcrowded and bland opening number that did little to showcase the season’s musicals, the material continually failed him, whether it was a tortured audience-participation gag about putting on a loser’s face for the cameras, or a tortured audience-participation gag about generating some rap-style beefs between Broadway stars." Daniel D'Addario from Variety wrote, "The quality of showmanship — the simple sense of taking joy in a production having been brought across well — seemed painfully absent from a broadcast that has little othe

Suma people

The Suma were an indigenous people who lived in northern part of the Mexican state of Chihuahua and western part of the U. S. state of Texas. They were nomadic hunter gatherers who practiced no agriculture; the Suma merged with Apache groups and the Mestizo population of northern Mexico, are extinct as a distinct people. Confusion is rife concerning the complex mix of indigenous peoples who lived near the Rio Grande in west Texas, they are collectively called Jumanos, a name which should only be applied to the Plains Indians who lived in the Pecos River and Concho River valleys of Texas but traveled to and traded with the people in the Rio Grande Valley. Near La Junta de los Rios, the junction of the Rio Grande and the Rio Conchos, were a large number of farming villages whose inhabitants were given more than a dozen names by the Spanish, it is unclear whether the La Junta Indians belonged to a single ethnic group and spoke the same language or were instead a mixture of languages and peoples.

Unclear is whether they were related to the more nomadic Jumano. Upstream on the Rio Grande from La Junta were the people who came to be called the Suma, further upstream from El Paso northward were the Manso Indians; the Manso and the Suma appear to have had similar cultures, although it is uncertain whether they spoke the same or similar languages. One theory is that the Indians of the El Paso and La Junta regions were intermixed when the Spanish arrived and that the Spaniards separated them into groups for "ease of government and increased control." The opposite is proposed: that the Manso, Jumano, La Junta Indians may have become mixed together in reaction to the threat from the Spanish and their diminishing population due to slave raids and European introduced diseases. The Suma lived, at least during winter, along 130 miles of the Rio Grande southeast from El Paso, their range extended westward from the Rio Grande valley 200 miles to the future municipalities of Janos and Nuevo Casas Grandes, Chihuahua.

The Janos and Jocomes people of northwestern Chihuahua were sub-tribes or related to the Suma. As hunter-gatherers the Suma had no fixed habitations. During summer they dispersed in small groups to exploit the plant and animal resources of this territory; the Suma, said early visitors, "are hunters. They have no knowledge whatsoever of agriculture, have no fixed homes, or ranches, live a carefree life."The Suma raided their agricultural neighbors, the Opata, to the west in Sonora. The language of the Suma is unknown. Scholars have speculated. Athabaskan affiliations have been proposed; the Suma and their neighbors the Manso are believed to be the descendants of the Jornada Mogollon culture. About 1450, the Mogollon pueblos near El Paso were abandoned and the Mogollon people seem to have abandoned agriculture to become hunter/gatherers; the Suma were not politically united, but rather seem to have been a group of related autonomous bands and sub-tribes each of which acted independently. The Suma were encountered by Cabeza de Vaca in 1535, but the first definite mention of them was by Antonio de Espejo in 1583 who called them the Caguates.

He was received cordially by more than one thousand of them near the Rio Grande. The first mention of them by the name "Suma" came in 1630; the Suma at the time were at war with the Opata in endangering Franciscan missions. In 1659, a mission was established for the Manso and the "Zumanas", in present-day downtown Ciudad Juárez, in 1663 another mission was established for them near the city of Chihuahua; some of the Suma and Jumano sought Spanish protection from the growing danger of Apache raids. Others joined the Apache. By 1680, the Missions at El Paso were ministering including Sumas, but the Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico caused an additional 2,000 Spaniards and allied Indians to take refuge in El Paso and stretched resources to their limits. A famine resulted in 1683-1684, in 1684 the Indians revolted and fled the missions; some of the Sumas returned to the mission that same year, unable to find enough food to survive. However, some of the Suma and Jocomes continued to be hostile to the Spanish, finding a stronghold in the Chiricahua Mountains in Arizona and becoming associated with the Apache and absorbed by them over time.

A Chiricahua Apache band, the Chokone or Xocone, may be named after the Jocomes. During the 18th century, the Suma living at the Mission of San Lorenzo near El Paso were servants of the priests, grew crops, worked as laborers, adopted many Spanish customs, they revolted in 1710, 1726, 1745, 1749, fleeing the mission and taking refuge in the mountains with the Apache. San Lorenzo Mission had a population of 300 in the 1750s. A smallpox epidemic in the 1780s killed most of the Sumas living at the mission and they soon lost their ethnic identity; the last known man identifying himself as Suma died in 1869. The bloodline descendants of the Suma are the Mestizo inhabitants of Ciudad Juarez, El Paso as well as San Buenaventura and Nuevo Casas Grandes along with other cities where missions were established for them. Bolton, H. E.. The Jumano Indians in Texas, 1650-1771; the Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, 20, 66-84. Bolton, H. E.. Spanish exploration in the southwest, 1542-1706. New York.

Griffin, William B.. Southern periphery: East. In A. Ortiz

Bajaj Pulsar

The Bajaj Pulsar is a motorcycle manufactured by Bajaj Auto in India. It was developed by the product engineering division of Bajaj Auto in association with Tokyo R&D, with motorcycle designer Glynn Kerr. A variant of the bike, the Pulsar 200NS was launched in 2012. With average monthly sales of around 86,000 units in 2011, Pulsar claimed a 2011 market share of 47% in its segment. By April 2012, more than five million units of Pulsar were sold. In 2018, they celebrated selling over ten million Pulsars backed an exclusive TV commercial and a marquee ride to in 6 cities to write "PULSAR" on a pre-defined route. Before the introduction of the Pulsar, the Indian motorcycle market trend was towards fuel efficient, small capacity motorcycles. Bigger motorcycles with higher capacity did not exist; the launch and success of Hero Honda CBZ in 1999 showed. Bajaj took the cue from there on and launched the Pulsar twins in India on 24 November 2001. Since the introduction and success of Bajaj Pulsar, Indian youth began expecting high power and other features from affordable motorcycles.

The project faced internal resistance, reservations by McKinsey & Company and doubts on its effects on Bajaj's relation with Kawasaki. The project took 36 months for completion and cost Bajaj ₹ 1 billion. DTS-i Series 150 125 180 200 220 LS Series 135 AS Series 150 200 NS Series 160 200 RS Series 200 The Bajaj Pulsar "Twins" were launched on 24 November 2001; the first generation Pulsar had a 150/180cc two valve, air-cooled, single-cylinder, four-stroke engine which made 12/15 bhp of maximum power respectively. It featured a single spark plug to ignite the air-fuel mixture fed from a carburetor, simple spring shock absorbers, round headlamp dome, voluminous 18 L fuel tank and a 1,265 mm wheelbase. Disc brakes as standard equipment was a novelty in Indian motorcycles of the early 2000s; the 180 cc version made 15 bhp and came with a twin-tone horn, optional equipment on the 150 cc version. Electric Start was offered as optional on the 150 cc model; the second generation Pulsars featured Bajaj Auto's newly developed DTSi technology, which increased the power rating of both versions by 1 hp each and increased fuel economy.

This model introduced a new headlamp assembly, 1,320 mm wheelbase, standard twin-tone horn and trip meter. In 2005, Bajaj launched Pulsar 150; the bike was offered with 17-inch alloy wheels as standard option, the stance was lowered by about 12 mm. The fuel tank had a capacity of only 15 litres when compared to the original 18 litres, this was done in order to make the tank look proportionate with the new low-slung stance; the power output was further increased to 13.5 hp @ 8500 rpm for the 150 while it increased to 16.5 hp @ 8500 rpm for the 180. The rear shock absorbers were gas-filled Nitrox absorbers. In 2006, Bajaj introduced another version of Pulsar. New features included pilot lamps separated from the main headlamp, turn indicators with clear lenses and amber bulb, self-cancelling turn indicator switch, flush LCD screen with digital read-out of key vehicle data, non-contact speed sensor, non-contact backlit switches, twin-stripe LED tail-light assembly, side panels altered for a sharp, tapering-towards-the-rear look.

The engine had increased torque availability, reduced vibration, improved gear shift feel. In July 2007, Bajaj began selling the Bajaj Pulsar 220 DTS-Fi and Pulsar 180 DTS-i, the former featuring fuel injection and oil cooled engines, a digital dash, modern styling; this bike has some features which are new to the Indian market, like the fuel injection itself, rear disc brake and clip-on handlebars. The new Pulsar has many firsts to its credit, it comes equipped with an oil cooler, which helps control engine oil temperatures at sustained high speeds and rpms, thus ensuring more stable engine oil viscosity. The new digital console is an advanced version of the latest Pulsar family. Apart from the Digital Odometer, Digital Speedo Meter, Digital Fuel Gauge, Self Cancelling Indicators and two Digital Trip Meters, the console on the 180 cc Pulsar DTS-I has indicators for the air filter condition, engine temperature, battery voltage and oil level. 200cc version was discontinued and fuel injection system of 220 was replaced with carburator which resulted in cost reduction to Rs 73000 ex showroom Delhi Bajaj released the UG IV versions of the Pulsar 150 and Pulsar 180 in April 2009.

The upgrades for the Pulsar 150 included an all-black theme, tank scoops similar to those on the Pulsar 200, a 3D Pulsar logo, a changed electrical system. Power increased from 13.5 HP to 14.09 HP. Electrical enhancements like auto head light switch-off after few seconds of turning the engine off to protect the battery, self-cancelling turn signals, icon illumination, side stand warning light, dual digital trip meter, low fuel warning light (which flashes when the engine and Auto Choke System in 220 Variant; the Pulsar 180 received upgrades like wider tyres, split seat, tank scoops, clip-on handlebars, 3D Pulsar logo, swing arm suspension borrowed from Pulsar 200, thicker forks. The power was increased to 17 PS. Bajaj launched a carbureted version of Pulsar 220 in June 2009, tagging it as "the fastest bike

Niels Nielsen (mathematician)

Niels Nielsen was a Danish mathematician who specialized in mathematical analysis. Om en klasse bestemte integraler og nogle derved definerede semi-periodiske funktioner, J. Møller, 1895 Handbuch der Theorie der Cylinderfunktionen, B. G. Teubner, Leipzig 1904 Handbuch der Theorie der Gammafunktion, B. G. Teubner, Leipzig 1906 Theorie des Integrallogarithmus und verwandter Transzendenten, B. G. Teubner, Leipzig 1906 Der Eulersche Dilogarithmus und seine Verallgemeinerungen, E. Karras, 1909. Vorlesungen gehalten an der Universität Kopenhagen, B. G. Teubner, Leipzig 1909 Matematiken i Danmark. Bidrag til en bibliografisk-historisk oversigt, 2 Bände 1801–1908 und 1528–1800, Gyldendalske Boghandel Nordisk Forlag, København & Kristiania 1910 1912 Elemente der Funktionentheorie. Vorlesungen gehalten an der Universität Kopenhagen, B. G. Teubner, Leipzig 1911 Traité élémentaire des nombres de Bernoulli, Gauthier-Villars, Paris 1923 Franske matematikere under revolutionen, Bianco Lunos Bogtrykkeri, 1927.

December 1865 – 16. September 1931, Matematisk Tidsskrift B, 1931, S. 41–45. Thøger Bang: Niels Nielsen 1865–1931, Nordisk Matematisk Tidsskrift 13, 1965, S. 121–122. Niels Nielsen at the Mathematics Genealogy Project O'Connor, John J.. Niels Nielsen on Theseus