Sir William Muir, KCSI was a Scottish Orientalist, colonial administrator, serving as Principal of the University of Edinburgh and Lieutenant Governor of the North-West Provinces of India. He was born at Glasgow the son of William Muir, younger brother of John Muir, he was educated at Kilmarnock Academy, the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, at Haileybury College. In 1837 he entered the Bengal civil service. Muir served as secretary to the governor of the North-West Provinces, as a member of the Agra revenue board, during the Mutiny he was in charge of the intelligence department there. In 1865 he was made foreign secretary to the Indian Government. In 1867 Muir was knighted, in 1868 he became lieutenant-governor of the North Western Provinces. Having been criticised for the poor relief effort during the Orissa famine of 1866, the British began to discuss famine policy, in 1868 Muir issued an order stating that:... every District officer would be held responsible that no deaths occurred from starvation which could have been avoided by any exertion or arrangement on his part or that of his subordinates.
In 1874 Muir was appointed financial member of the Viceroy's Council, retired in 1876, when he became a member of the Council of India in London. James Thomason served as Muir's mentor with respect to Imperial administration. Muir had always taken an interest in educational matters, it was chiefly through his exertions that the central college at Allahabad, known as Muir Central College, was built and endowed. Muir College became a part of the Allahabad University. In 1884 Muir was elected president of the Royal Asiatic Society. In 1885 he was elected principal of Edinburgh University in succession to Sir Alexander Grant, held the post till 1903, when he retired. Muir was married to Elizabeth Huntly Wemyss, he died in Edinburgh, is buried in Dean Cemetery. The grave lies in the concealed lower southern terrace. Sir William Muir was an scholar of Islam, his chief area of expertise was the history of the time of the early caliphate. His chief books are History of Islam to the Era of the Hegira. In 1888 he delivered the Rede lecture at Cambridge on The Early Rise of Islam.
His original book " The life of Mohammed" was published 1861 in four volume tomes. Muir's contemporary reviewers of his Life of Mahomet uniformly praised him for his knowledge of Arabic. Historian Avril Powell notes that none of the contemporary reviews commented on Muir's view that the Muslim society was stationary and incapable of reforms because it was assumed as indisputable by most of Muir's Victorian co-nationals. Written objections to this aspect of Life could be found in the writings of Muslims living inside the Empire only after the 1857 rebellion. However, a contemporary review in The Times criticized Life for "propagandist writing" with Christian bias and for "odium theologicum". D. S. Margoliouth concurs that despite the classic status of Muir's Life, it is in fact "written with a confessedly Christian bias". Contemporary historian E. A. Freeman praised the book as a "great work", yet questioned its conjectural methodology the "half timid suggestion" made by Muir that Muhammad had fallen under the influence of Satanic inspiration.
Among 20th century scholars, W. M. Watt described Muir's Life as following "in detail the standard Muslim accounts, though not uncritically", Albert Hourani declared that it "is still not quite superseded". Bennett praises it as "a detailed life of Muhammad more complete than any other previous book, at least in English," noting however that besides "placing the facts of Muhammad's life before both Muslim and Christian readers, Muir wanted to convince Muslims that Muhammad was not worth their allegiance, he thus combined scholarly and evangelical or missionary purposes." Commenting on Muir's conjecture that Muhammad may have been affected by a Satanic influence, Clinton Bennett says that Muir "chose to resurrect another old Christian theory", quotes the following passage from Muir's 1858 Life, vol. 2: It is incumbent upon us to consider this question from a Christian point of view, to ask whether the supernatural influence, which... acted upon the soul of the Arabian prophet may not have proceeded from the Evil One...
Our belief in the power of the Evil One must lead us to consider this as at least one of the possible causes of the fall of Mahomet... into the meshes of deception... May we conceive that a diabolical influence and inspiration was permitted to enslave the heart of him who had deliberately yielded to the compromise with evil. In the final chapters of Life, Muir concluded that the main legacy of Islam was a negative one, he subdivided it in "three radical evils": First: Polygamy and Slavery strike at the root of public morals, poison domestic life, disorganise society. Second: freedom of thought and private judgment are crushed and annihilated. Toleration is unknown, the possibility of free and liberal institutions foreclosed. Third: a barrier has been interposed aga
The terms anno Domini and before Christ are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin and means "in the year of the Lord", but is presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord", taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ"; this calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 follows the year 1 BC; this dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor, but was not used until after 800. The Gregorian calendar is the most used calendar in the world today. For decades, it has been the unofficial global standard, adopted in the pragmatic interests of international communication and commercial integration, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations.
Traditionally, English followed Latin usage by placing the "AD" abbreviation before the year number. However, BC is placed after the year number, which preserves syntactic order; the abbreviation is widely used after the number of a century or millennium, as in "fourth century AD" or "second millennium AD". Because BC is the English abbreviation for Before Christ, it is sometimes incorrectly concluded that AD means After Death, i.e. after the death of Jesus. However, this would mean that the approximate 33 years associated with the life of Jesus would neither be included in the BC nor the AD time scales. Terminology, viewed by some as being more neutral and inclusive of non-Christian people is to call this the Current or Common Era, with the preceding years referred to as Before the Common or Current Era. Astronomical year numbering and ISO 8601 avoid words or abbreviations related to Christianity, but use the same numbers for AD years; the Anno Domini dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus to enumerate the years in his Easter table.
His system was to replace the Diocletian era, used in an old Easter table because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. The last year of the old table, Diocletian 247, was followed by the first year of his table, AD 532; when he devised his table, Julian calendar years were identified by naming the consuls who held office that year—he himself stated that the "present year" was "the consulship of Probus Junior", 525 years "since the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ". Thus Dionysius implied that Jesus' incarnation occurred 525 years earlier, without stating the specific year during which his birth or conception occurred. "However, nowhere in his exposition of his table does Dionysius relate his epoch to any other dating system, whether consulate, year of the world, or regnal year of Augustus. Among the sources of confusion are: In modern times, incarnation is synonymous with the conception, but some ancient writers, such as Bede, considered incarnation to be synonymous with the Nativity.
The civil or consular year began on 1 January but the Diocletian year began on 29 August. There were inaccuracies in the lists of consuls. There were confused summations of emperors' regnal years, it is not known. Two major theories are that Dionysius based his calculation on the Gospel of Luke, which states that Jesus was "about thirty years old" shortly after "the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar", hence subtracted thirty years from that date, or that Dionysius counted back 532 years from the first year of his new table, it has been speculated by Georges Declercq that Dionysius' desire to replace Diocletian years with a calendar based on the incarnation of Christ was intended to prevent people from believing the imminent end of the world. At the time, it was believed by some that the resurrection of the dead and end of the world would occur 500 years after the birth of Jesus; the old Anno Mundi calendar theoretically commenced with the creation of the world based on information in the Old Testament.
It was believed that, based on the Anno Mundi calendar, Jesus was born in the year 5500 with the year 6000 of the Anno Mundi calendar marking the end of the world. Anno Mundi 6000 was thus equated with the resurrection and the end of the world but this date had passed in the time of Dionysius; the Anglo-Saxon historian the Venerable Bede, familiar with the work of Dionysius Exiguus, used Anno Domini dating in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, completed in 731. In this same history, he used another Latin term, ante vero incarnationis dominicae tempus anno sexagesimo, equivalent to the English "before Christ", to identify years before the first year of this era. Both Dionysius and Bede regarded Anno Domini as beginning at the incarnation of Jesus, but "the distinction between Incarnation and Nativity was not drawn until the late 9th century, when in some places the Incarnation epoch was identified with Christ's conception, i.e. the Annunciation on March 25". On the continent of Europe, Anno
Kingdom of Aksum
The Kingdom of Aksum was an ancient kingdom located in what is now Tigray Region and Eritrea. Axumite Emperors were powerful sovereigns, styling themselves King of kings, king of Aksum, Raydan, Salhen, Beja and of Kush. Ruled by the Aksumites, it existed from 100 AD to 940 AD; the polity was centered in the city of Axum and grew from the proto-Aksumite Iron Age period around the 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD. Aksum became a major player on the commercial route between the Roman Ancient India; the Aksumite rulers facilitated trade by minting their own Aksumite currency, with the state establishing its hegemony over the declining Kingdom of Kush. It regularly entered the politics of the kingdoms on the Arabian Peninsula and extended its rule over the region with the conquest of the Himyarite Kingdom; the Manichaei prophet Mani regarded Axum as one of the four great powers of his time, the others being Persia and China. The Aksumites erected a number of monumental stelae, which served a religious purpose in pre-Christian times.
One of these granite columns is the largest such structure in the world, at 90 feet. Under Ezana Aksum adopted Christianity. In the 7th century, early Muslims from Mecca sought refuge from Quraysh persecution by travelling to the kingdom, a journey known in Islamic history as the First Hijra; the kingdom's ancient capital called Axum, is now a town in Tigray Region. The Kingdom used the name "Ethiopia" as early as the 4th century. Tradition claims Axum as the alleged resting place of the Ark of the Covenant and the purported home of the Queen of Sheba. Aksum is mentioned in the first-century AD Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as an important market place for the trade in ivory, exported throughout the ancient world, it states that the ruler of Aksum in the first century was Zoskales, besides ruling the kingdom controlled land near the Red Sea: Adulis and lands through the highlands of present-day Eritrea. He is said to have been familiar with Greek literature. 4. Below Ptolemais of the Hunts, at a distance of about three thousand stadia, there is Adulis, a port established by law, lying at the inner end of a bay that runs in toward the south.
Before the harbor lies the so-called Mountain Island, about two hundred stadia seaward from the head of the bay, with the shores of the mainland close to it on both sides. Ships bound for this port now anchor here because of attacks from the land, they used to anchor at the head of the bay, by an island called Diodorus, close to the shore, which could be reached on foot from the land. Opposite Mountain Island, on the mainland twenty stadia from shore, lies Adulis, a fair-sized village, from which there is a three-days' journey to Coloe, an inland town and the first market for ivory. From that place to the city of the people called Auxumites there is a five days' journey more; the whole number of elephants and rhinoceros that are killed live in the places inland, although at rare intervals they are hunted on the seacoast near Adulis. Before the harbor of that market-town, out at sea on the right hand, there lie a great many little sandy islands called Alalaei, yielding tortoise-shell, brought to market there by the Fish-Eaters....
6. There are imported into these places, undressed cloth made in Egypt for the Berbers. Besides these, small axes are imported, adzes and swords. From the district of Ariaca across this sea, there are imported Indian iron, steel, Indian cotton cloth. There are exported from these places ivory, tortoiseshell and rhinoceros-horn; the most from Egypt is brought to this market from the month of January to September, that is, from Tybi to Thoth. On the basis of Carlo Conti Rossini's theories and prolific work on Ethiopian history, Aksum was thought to have been founded by the Sabaeans, who spoke a language from the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Evidence suggests that Semitic-speaking Aksumites semiticized the Agaw people, who spoke other Afroasiatic languages from the family's Cushitic branch, had established an independent civilisation in the territory before the arrival of the Sabaeans. Scholars like Stuart Munro-Hay thus point to the existence of an older kingdom known as D'mt, which flourished in the area between the tenth and fifth centuries BC, prior to the proposed Sabaean migration in the fourth or fifth century BC.
They cite evidence indicating that Sabaea
The Kaaba referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah, is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām, in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is the most sacred site in Islam, it is considered by Muslims to be the Bayt Allāh, has a similar role to the Tabernacle and Holy of Holies in Judaism. Its location determines the qiblah. Wherever they are in the world, Muslims are expected to face the Kaaba when performing Salah the Islamic prayer. One of the Five Pillars of Islam requires every Muslim, able to do so to perform the Hajj at least once in their lifetime. Multiple parts of the hajj require pilgrims to make Tawaf seven times around the Kaaba in a counter-clockwise direction. Tawaf is performed by pilgrims during the ‘Umrah. However, the most significant time is during the hajj, when millions of pilgrims gather to circle the building within a 5-day period. In 2017, the number of pilgrims coming from outside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to perform hajj was reported as 1,752,014 and 600,108 Saudi Arabian residents bringing the total number of pilgrims to 2,352,122.
The literal meaning of the Arabic word kaʿbah is "cube." In the Quran, the Kaaba is mentioned as al-bayt and baytī, al-bayt al-ḥarām, al-bayt al-‘atīq, baytika al-muḥarram. The mosque surrounding the Kaaba is called al-Masjid al-Haram. According to some reports, in ancient times, the Kaaba was called Qâdis and Nâdhir; the Kaaba is a cuboid stone structure made of granite. It is 13.1 m high, with sides measuring 11.03 m by 12.86 m. Inside the Kaaba, the floor is made of limestone; the interior walls, measuring 13 m by 9 m, are clad with tiled, white marble halfway to the roof, with darker trimmings along the floor. The floor of the interior stands about 2.2 m above the ground area. The wall directly adjacent to the entrance of the Kaaba has six tablets inlaid with inscriptions, there are several more tablets along the other walls. Along the top corners of the walls runs a green cloth embroidered with gold Qur'anic verses. Caretakers anoint the marble cladding with the same scented oil used to anoint the Black Stone outside.
Three pillars stand with a small altar or table set between one and the other two. Lamp-like objects hang from the ceiling; the ceiling itself is of a darker colour, similar in hue to the lower trimming. A golden door—the bāb al-tawbah —on the right wall opens to an enclosed staircase that leads to a hatch, which itself opens to the roof. Both the roof and ceiling are made of stainless steel-capped teak wood; each numbered item in the following list corresponds to features noted in the diagram image. Al-Ḥajaru al-Aswad, "the Black Stone", is located on the Kaaba's eastern corner, its northern corner is known as the Ruknu l-ˤĪrāqī, "the Iraqi corner", its western as the Ruknu sh-Shāmī, "the Levantine corner", its southern as Ruknu l-Yamanī, "the Yemeni corner" taught by Imam Ali. The four corners of the Kaaba point toward the four cardinal directions of the compass, its major axis is aligned with the rising of the star Canopus toward which its southern wall is directed, while its minor axis align with the sunrise of summer solstice and the sunset of winter solstice.
The entrance is a door set 2.13 m above the ground on the north-eastern wall of the Kaaba, which acts as the façade. In 1979 the 300 kg gold doors made by chief artist Ahmad bin Ibrahim Badr, replaced the old silver doors made by his father, Ibrahim Badr in 1942. There is a wooden staircase on wheels stored in the mosque between the arch-shaped gate of Banū Shaybah and the Zamzam Well. Mīzāb al-Raḥmah, rainwater spout made of gold. Added in the rebuilding of 1627 after the previous year's rain caused three of the four walls to collapse. Gutter, added in 1627 to protect the foundation from groundwater. Hatīm, a low wall part of the Kaaba, it is a semi-circular wall opposite, but not connected to, the north-west wall of the Kaaba. This is 131 cm in height and 1.5 m in width, is composed of white marble. At one time the space lying between the hatīm and the Kaaba belonged to the Kaaba itself, for this reason it is not entered during the tawaf. Al-Multazam, the 2 meter space along the wall between the Black Stone and the entry door.
It is sometimes considered pious or desirable for a hajji to touch this area of the Kaaba, or perform dua here. The Station of Ibrahim, a glass and metal enclosure with what is said to be an imprint of Abraham's feet. Ibrahim is said to have stood on this stone during the construction of the upper parts of the Kaaba, raising Ismail on his shoulders for the uppermost parts. Corner of the Black Stone. Corn
Battle of Badr
The Battle of Badr, fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE in the Hejaz region of western Arabia, was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca. The battle has been passed down in Islamic history as a decisive victory attributable to divine intervention, or by secular sources to the strategic genius of Muhammad, it is one of the few battles mentioned in the Quran. All knowledge of the battle at Badr comes from traditional Islamic accounts, both hadiths and biographies of Muhammad, recorded in written form some time after the battle. There is little evidence outside of these of the battle. There are no descriptions of the battle prior to the 9th century. Prior to the battle, the Muslims and the Meccans had fought several smaller skirmishes in late 623 and early 624. Badr, was the first large-scale engagement between the two forces. Advancing to a strong defensive position, Muhammad's well-disciplined force broke the Meccan lines, killing several important Quraishi leaders including the Muslims' chief antagonist Abu Jahl.
For the early Muslims the battle was the first sign that they might defeat their enemies among the Meccans. Mecca at that time was one of the richest and most powerful cities in Arabia, fielding an army three times larger than that of the Muslims; the Muslim victory signaled to the other tribes that a new power had arisen in Arabia and strengthened Muhammad's position as leader of the fractious community in Medina. The battle established the position of Ali ibn Abi Talib as the best fighter among the Muslims, as he alone killed 22 Meccans, while the rest of the Muslims combined killed 27 Meccans. Muhammad was born in Mecca around 570 CE into the Quraish tribe. After Muhammad's revelation from Gabriel in 610 until his proclamation of monotheism to the Quraysh, Islam was practiced in secret; the Quraiysh, who traditionally accepted religious practices other than their own, became more intolerant of the Muslims during the thirteen years of personal attacks against their religions and gods. In fear for their religion and economic viability, which relied on annual pilgrimages, the Meccans began to mock and disrupt Muhammad's followers.
In 622, Muhammad bade many of his followers to migrate from Mecca to the neighboring city of Medina, 320 km north of Mecca. Shortly thereafter, Muhammad himself left for Medina; this migration is referred to as the Hijra. The Quranic Verse 22:39 uttered by Muhammad sometime shortly after the migration permitted Muslims, for the first time, to take up arms in defence. During this period Muhammad employed three broad military strategies against the Meccans. Firstly, to establish peace treaties with the tribes surrounding Medina with those from whom the Meccans could derive most advantage against the Muslims. Secondly, to dispatch small groups to obtain intelligence on the Quraish and their allies and provide, thereby, an opportunity for those Muslims still living in Mecca to leave with them. Thirdly, to intercept the trade caravans of the Meccans that passed close to Medina and to obstruct their trade route. In September 623, Muhammad himself led a force of 200 in an unsuccessful raid against a large caravan.
Shortly thereafter, the Meccans launched their own raid against Medina led by Kurz bin Jabir and fled with livestock belonging to the Muslims. In January 624, Muhammad dispatched a group of eight men to Nakhlah, on the outskirts of Mecca, led by Abdullah bin Jahsh to obtain intelligence on the Quraysh. However, Abdullah bin Jash and his party disguised as Pilgrims with shaved heads, upon being discovered by a Meccan caravan, decided to attack and kill as many of the caravan as possible, resulting in killing one of its men, Amr bin Al-Hadrami, the seizing of its goods and taking two as prisoners; the situation was all the more serious since the killing occurred in the month of Rajab, a truce month sacred to the Meccans in which fighting was prohibited and a clear affront to Arab traditions. Upon their return to Medina, Muhammad disapproved of this decision on their part, rebuked them and refused to take any spoil until he claimed to have received revelation stating that the Meccan persecution was worse than this violation of the sacred month.
After his revelation Muhammed took the prisoners. The Muslims' raids on caravans prompted the Battle of Badr, the first major battle involving a Muslim army; this was the spot where the Meccans had sent their own army to protect their caravans from Muslim raiders. In April 624, it was reported in Medina that Abu Sufyan was leading a caravan from Syria to Mecca containing weapons to be used against the Muslims. Muhammad went to Badr to intercept the caravan. However, Meccan spies informed Abu Sufyan about the Muslims coming to intercept his caravan. Abu Jahl gathered an army to fight against the Muslims. Muhammad's forces included Abu Bakr, Ali, Mus`ab ibn `Umair, Az-Zubair bin Al-'Awwam, Ammar ibn Yasir, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari; the Muslims brought seventy camels and two horses, meaning that they either had to walk or fit three to four men per camel. The future Caliph Uthman stayed behind to care for the daughter of Muhammad. Salman the Persian could not join the battle, as he was still not a free man.
Many of the Quraishi nobles, including Amr ibn Hishām, Walid ibn Utba and Umayah ibn Khalaf, joined the Meccan army. Their reasons varied: some were out to protect their financial inte
Ammar ibn Yasir
ʻAmmār ibn Yāsir ibn ʿĀmir ibn Mālik Abū al-Yaqzān was one of the Muhajirun in the history of Islam and, for his dedicated devotion to Islam's cause, is considered to be one of the most loyal and beloved companions of Muhammad and ‘Ali. Ammar ibn Yasir is the first Muslim to build a mosque, he is referred to by Shia Muslims as one of the Four Companions. Some Shia consider Ammar's ultimate fate to be unique among the fates of Muhammad's companions, for they perceive his death at the battle of Siffin as the decisive distinguisher between the righteous group and the sinful one in the First Fitna. ʻAmmar belonged to Banu Makhzum tribe in Hijaz. He was born in the Year of the Elephant, the same year as Muhammad's birth, in Mecca and was one of the intermediaries in the Muhammad's marriage to Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, his father, Yasir ibn Amir, was from the tribe of Qahtan in Yemen and migrated to Mecca and settled down there by marrying Sumayyah bint Khayyat, a slave woman. Ammar's trust in and knowledge of Muhammad's credibility before his prophethood, encouraged him to follow Muhammad's prophetic visions as one of the earliest converts.
ʻAmmar converted to Islam in 614 or 615 CE under the direct influence of Abu Bakr. This coincided with the period; as Ammar told his grandson: "I met Suhayb ibn Sinan at the door of the house of Al-Arqam while the Messenger of Allah was in it. I asked him,'What do you want?' He said to me,'What do you want?' I answered,'I want to go to Muhammad and listen to what he says.' He said,'That is what I want.' We entered and he presented Islam to us and we became Muslim. We spent the day until evening and went out concealing ourselves." Ammar's father and brother became Muslims, though not at Abu Bakr's invitation. When Quraysh knew of the conversion of Yasir's family to Islam, they were among the "victims who were tortured at Makka to make them recant." The Makhzum clan used to take out Ammar ibn Yasir with his father and mother in the heat of the day and expose them to the excessively-hot environment of Mecca and torture them in the scorches of the open fire, Muhammad used to pass by them and say, "Patience, O family of Yasir!
Your meeting-place will be Paradise" and "O fire! Be cool and harmless for ‘Ammar in the same manner in which you became cool and harmless for Ibrahim. Ammar was tortured ``," as was his friend Suhayb. Afterwards he confessed his recantation. Muhammad asked, "How do you find your heart?" When Ammar replied that he was still a Muslim in his heart, Muhammad said. A verse of the Qur'an, "someone forced to do it whose heart remains at rest in its faith", refers to Ammar. Ammar's mother was murdered by Abu Jahl for her refusal to abandon Islam: she is considered the first Muslim martyr; the opening verses of Surat Al-Ankabut were revealed in response to this tragic event. To escape the torture of the Meccans at the time, it is alleged that Ammar went to Abyssinia in 616, but Ibn Ishaq doubts this, he was one of the few warriors who participated in the first major battle in Islam, the Battle of Badr. Muhammad's elite forces included the closest companions of his, namely Ali, Hamza ibn Abdul Muttalib, Mus`ab ibn `Umair, Az-Zubair bin Al-'Awwam,'Ammar ibn Yasir, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, Abu Bakr and Umar.
Of noteworthy mention, because of the austere nature of the Muslims' living conditions at the time, they brought only some camels and few horses, meaning that they either had to walk or fit three to four men per camel. Besides his major involvement in Islam's military campaigns, this incident in Muhammad's life proved to be of most importance -historically- to Muslims: while ʻAmmār was participating in building The Prophet's Mosque in Medina, " came in when they had overloaded him with bricks saying,'They are killing me, they load me with burdens they can't carry themselves.' Umm Salama the prophet's wife said: I saw the apostle run his hand through is hair--for he was a curly-haired man--and say'Alas Ibn Sumayya! It is not they who will kill you but a wicked band of men.'... Now he had a stick in his hand and the apostle was angry and said,'What is wrong between them and ʻAmmār? He invites them to Paradise while they invite him to hell.'" These reports, viewed as valid by both Sunnis and Shi'is, would be important during the issue of succession and in interpreting ʻAmmār's death in the Battle of Siffin.
After the death of Muhammad in 632 CE, ʻAmmar refused to give Bay'ah to Abu Bakr, he instead followed Ali ibn Abi Talib whom he believed to be the legitimate successor of Muhammad and the only one whom Muhammad had appointed as his successor. Under ʻUmar, he became governor of Kufa, however he was soon removed from power by Umar. On another account, Umar dismissed Ammar to avoid unrest in Kufa (because of unfair com
Mecca spelled Makkah, is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, is the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located 70 km inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m above sea level, 340 kilometres south of Medina, its resident population in 2012 was 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah. As the birthplace of Muḥammad, the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran, Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities, it was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925.
In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj; as a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world, although non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city. "Mecca" is the familiar form of the English transliteration for the Arabic name of the city, although the official transliteration used by the Saudi government is Makkah, closer to the Arabic pronunciation. The word "Mecca" in English has come to be used to refer to any place that draws large numbers of people, because of this some English speaking Muslims have come to regard the use of this spelling for the city as offensive.
The Saudi government adopted Makkah as the official spelling in the 1980s, but is not universally known or used worldwide. The full official name is Makkah al-Mukarramah or Makkatu l-Mukarramah, which means "Mecca the Honored", but is loosely translated as "The Holy City of Mecca"; the ancient or early name for the site of Mecca is Bakkah. An Arabic language word, its etymology, like that of Mecca, is obscure. Believed to be a synonym for Mecca, it is said to be more the early name for the valley located therein, while Muslim scholars use it to refer to the sacred area of the city that surrounds and includes the Ka‘bah; this form is used for the name Mecca in the Quran in 3:96, while the form Mecca is used in 48:24. In South Arabic, the language in use in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of Muhammad, the b and m were interchangeable. Other references to Mecca in the Quran call it Umm al-Qurā, meaning "Mother of All Settlements"/"mother of villages". Another name of Mecca is Ṫihāmah.
Another name for Mecca, or the wilderness and mountains surrounding it, according to Arab and Islamic tradition, is Faran or Pharan, referring to the Desert of Paran mentioned in the Old Testament at Genesis 21:21. Arab and Islamic tradition holds that the wilderness of Paran, broadly speaking, is the Tihamah and the site where Ishmael settled was Mecca. Yaqut al-Hamawi, the 12th century Syrian geographer, wrote that Fārān was "an arabized Hebrew word, one of the names of Mecca mentioned in the Torah." Mecca is governed by the Municipality of Mecca, a municipal council of fourteen locally elected members headed by a mayor appointed by the Saudi government. As of May 2015, the mayor of the city was Dr. Osama bin Fadhel Al-Bar. Mecca is the capital of the Makkah Region; the provincial governor was prince Abdul Majeed bin Abdulaziz Al Saud from 2000 until his death in 2007. On 16 May 2007, prince Khalid bin Faisal Al Saud was appointed as the new governor; the early history of Mecca is still disputed, as there are no unambiguous references to it in ancient literature prior to the rise of Islam.
The Roman Empire took control of part of the Hejaz in 106 CE, ruling cities such as Hegra, located to the north of Mecca. Though detailed descriptions were established of Western Arabia by Rome, such as by Procopius, there are no references of a pilgrimage and trading outpost such as Mecca; the first direct mention of Mecca in external literature occurs in 741 CE, in the Byzantine-Arab Chronicle, though here the author places it in Mesopotamia rather than the Hejaz. Given the inhospitable environment and lack of historical references in Roman and Indian sources, historians including Patricia Crone and Tom Holland have cast doubt on the claim that Mecca was a major historical trading outpost; the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus writes about Arabia in his work Bibliotheca historica, describing a holy shrine: "And a temple has been set up there, holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians". Claims have been made. However, the geographic location Diodorus describes is located in northwest Arabia, around the area of Leuke Kome, closer to Petra and within the form