Mark Stephen Singel is an American politician who served as the 27th lieutenant governor of Pennsylvania from 1987 to 1995, alongside Governor Bob Casey. Singel served as the state's acting governor from June 14, 1993 to December 13, 1993, during Casey's lengthy battle with amyloidosis and subsequent multiple organ transplant. Singel was born in Pennsylvania. A graduate of Penn State University. Singel was elected to the Pennsylvania State Senate in 1980. After winning reelection in 1984, he sought and won the Democratic nomination for Lieutenant Governor in 1986; as Casey's running mate, the Democratic ticket won a narrow victory over the Republican ticket of incumbent Lieutenant Governor William Scranton III and State Senator Mike Fisher. Casey and Singel won re-election in 1990. During his second term, Governor Casey was diagnosed with Appalachian familial amyloidosis, a rare and fatal liver disorder. Casey required a risky experimental multiple organ transplant. During his lengthy recovery, Singel served as Pennsylvania's acting governor.
Singel sought and lost the Democratic senatorial nomination in 1992 to Lynn Yeakel, who went on to narrowly lose the general election to incumbent Arlen Specter. Singel won the Democratic gubernatorial nomination in 1994 and faced Republican U. S. Congressman Tom Ridge in the general election. Singel lost the general election to Ridge; some people in the party blamed Casey for Singel's loss, noting that Casey, pro-life, gave only lackluster support to the pro-choice Singel. Casey declined to either campaign or raise money for Singel's candidacy – an incident that caused a deep rift between the two men. Singel's loss was attributed to the influence of the Reginald McFadden case. McFadden had been sentenced to life in prison in 1970 for a robbery/homicide. In 1992, the Pennsylvania Board of Pardons voted to release him. At the time, Singel, as Lt. Governor, served on the board and had voted in favor of McFadden's release; the vote of the entire board was 4 - 1 in favor of release. In 1994, McFadden was released from prison and subsequently murdered two people and kidnapped and raped a third within 90 days of being released.
When news of the murders broke, Singel's opponent, Tom Ridge, turned Singel's vote to release McFadden into a campaign issue. This issue, compared to the case of Willie Horton, was cited as another reason why Singel lost the campaign; the story of Reginald McFadden's crime spree was the focus of an episode of This American Life. After Singel's unsuccessful gubernatorial bid, he remained active in Democratic politics, he served as chairman of the Pennsylvania Democratic Party from June 3, 1995 to December 31, 1997 and was a Presidential Elector in 1996. He considered running against Senator Rick Santorum in 2000, but withdrew his name from consideration and backed eventual nominee, Pittsburgh-area Congressman Ron Klink. In 2000, Singel joined the Philadelphia-based law firm Duane Morris as lobbyist and director of its Johnstown, branch office. Singel started his own firm, The Winter Group, in 2005 and continues to practice government affairs today in downtown Harrisburg; the Pennsylvania Report named him to the 2003 "The Pennsylvania Report Power 75" list of influential figures in Pennsylvania politics, describing him as a Harrisburg lobbyist and "Rendell Confidante" and noting that he had been a prominent surrogate for Rendell during the 2002 gubernatorial election and "had a big hand in filling positions with the new administration."
He occasionally teaches classes at the local Penn State Harrisburg campus. He was named to the PoliticsPA list of "Sy Snyder's Power 50" list of influential individuals in Pennsylvania politics in 2003. On February 19, 2010, Singel announced his intention to run in the special election to fill the seat of the late Democrat John Murtha, provided Murtha's widow decided not to run, he ended his bid for Congress ten days citing the need for the party to unite behind one candidate. Appearances on C-SPAN
Pennsylvania State University
The Pennsylvania State University is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania. Founded in 1855 as the Farmers’ High School of Pennsylvania, known as the University of State College, Penn State conducts teaching and public service, its instructional mission includes undergraduate, graduate and continuing education offered through resident instruction and online delivery. Its University Park campus, the flagship campus, lies within the Borough of State College and College Township, it has two law schools: Penn State Law, on the school's University Park campus, Dickinson Law, located in Carlisle, 90 miles south of State College. The College of Medicine is located in Hershey. Penn State has another 19 commonwealth campuses and 5 special mission campuses located across the state. Penn State has been labeled one of the "Public Ivies," a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.
Annual enrollment at the University Park campus totals more than 46,800 graduate and undergraduate students, making it one of the largest universities in the United States. It has the world's largest dues-paying alumni association; the university's total enrollment in 2015–16 was 97,500 across its 24 campuses and online through its World Campus. The university offers more than 160 majors among all its campuses and administers $3.62 billion in endowment and similar funds. The university's research expenditures totaled $836 million during the 2016 fiscal year. Annually, the university hosts the Penn State IFC/Panhellenic Dance Marathon, the world's largest student-run philanthropy; this event is held at the Bryce Jordan Center on the University Park campus. In 2014, THON raised a program record of $13.3 million. The university's athletics teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Penn State Nittany Lions, they compete in the Big Ten Conference for most sports. The school was founded as a degree-granting institution on February 22, 1855, by Pennsylvania's state legislature as the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania.
Centre County, became the home of the new school when James Irvin of Bellefonte, donated 200 acres of land – the first of 10,101 acres the school would acquire. In 1862, the school's name was changed to the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, with the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, Pennsylvania selected the school in 1863 to be the state's sole land-grant college; the school's name changed to the Pennsylvania State College in 1874. George W. Atherton became president of the school in 1882, broadened the curriculum. Shortly after he introduced engineering studies, Penn State became one of the ten largest engineering schools in the nation. Atherton expanded the liberal arts and agriculture programs, for which the school began receiving regular appropriations from the state in 1887. A major road in State College has been named in Atherton's honor. Additionally, Penn State's Atherton Hall, a well-furnished and centrally located residence hall, is named not after George Atherton himself, but after his wife, Frances Washburn Atherton.
His grave is in front of Schwab Auditorium near Old Main, marked by an engraved marble block in front of his statue. In the years that followed, Penn State grew becoming the state's largest grantor of baccalaureate degrees and reaching an enrollment of 5,000 in 1936. Around that time, a system of commonwealth campuses was started by President Ralph Dorn Hetzel to provide an alternative for Depression-era students who were economically unable to leave home to attend college. In 1953, President Milton S. Eisenhower, brother of then-U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and won permission to elevate the school to university status as The Pennsylvania State University. Under his successor Eric A. Walker, the university acquired hundreds of acres of surrounding land, enrollment nearly tripled. In addition, in 1967, the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, a college of medicine and hospital, was established in Hershey with a $50 million gift from the Hershey Trust Company. In the 1970s, the university became a state-related institution.
As such, it now belongs to the Commonwealth System of Higher Education. In 1975, the lyrics in Penn State's alma mater song were revised to be gender-neutral in honor of International Women's Year. In 1989, the Pennsylvania College of Technology in Williamsport joined ranks with the university, in 2000, so did the Dickinson School of Law; the university is now the largest in Pennsylvania, in 2003, it was credited with having the second-largest impact on the state economy of any organization, generating an economic effect of over $17 billion on a budget of $2.5 billion. To offset the lack of funding due to the limited growth in state appropriations to Penn State, the university has concentrated its efforts on philanthropy. In 2011, the university and its football team garnered major international media attention and criticism due to a sex abuse scandal in which university officials were alleged to have covered up incidents of child sexual abuse by former football team
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Pi Kappa Alpha
Pi Kappa Alpha known as Pike, is a college fraternity founded at the University of Virginia in 1868. The fraternity has over 225 chapters and colonies across the United States and abroad with over 15,500 undergraduate members and 280,000 lifetime initiates; the fraternity's vision statement is "To set the standard of integrity and achievement for our members, host institutions, the communities in which we live." Pi Kappa Alpha was founded on March 1, 1868, at 47 West Range at the University of Virginia by six graduate students: Robertson Howard, Julian Edward Wood, James Benjamin Sclater Jr. Frederick Southgate Taylor, Littleton Waller Tazewell Bradford and William Alexander. On March 1, 1869 one year after the Alpha Chapter at the University of Virginia was formed, the Beta Chapter of Pi Kappa Alpha was founded at Davidson College. Theta Chapter, at Rhodes College, took over the responsibilities of Alpha chapter when the Fraternity was in decline in its infancy. John Shaw Foster, a junior founder from Theta Chapter, helped to reestablish Alpha Chapter at the University of Virginia.
Theta Chapter is the longest continual running chapter of Pi Kappa Alpha, having been founded in 1878. After a decade of decline, Pi Kappa Alpha was "re-founded" as part of the Hampden–Sydney Convention, held in a dorm room at Hampden–Sydney College; the four delegates to the Hampden–Sydney Convention are referred to as the Junior Founders. Pi Kappa Alpha was not organized as a sectional fraternity, however by constitutional provision it became so in 1889, it remained a southern fraternity until the New Orleans Convention in 1909 when Pi Kappa Alpha declared itself a national organization. Like many other social fraternities at the time, Pi Kappa Alpha limited its membership to white men; the race restriction was removed in 1964. Its rituals are based on Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Shield & Diamond is the official quarterly publication of Pi Kappa Alpha, it was first printed in December 1890 by Robert Adger Smythe, the Grand Secretary and Treasurer, under the name The Pi Kappa Alpha Journal.
The name was changed to Shield & Diamond in 1891. Pike University is the name used for all of the fraternity's leadership programs; the program is administered by the fraternity's professional staff. Founded in 1948 as a 501 tax exempt organization for charitable, literary & educational purposes. Events held by the university include International Convention, the Academy, the Chapter Executives Conference, several regional Leadership Summits. Pike University grants more than $100,000 in scholarships each year. In 1948, Pi Kappa Alpha established and chartered the "Pi Kappa Alpha Memorial Foundation" as a 501 organization; the foundation grants $350,000 in grants to undergraduate members each year. It provides funding to the fraternity and its chapters for leadership programs and chapter house facilities; the foundation grants initiation fee scholarships to undergraduates inducted into Phi Beta Kappa, Omicron Delta Kappa, Order of Omega, Phi Kappa Phi, Tau Beta Pi honoraries. The Pike Foundation maintains and operates the Memorial Headquarters in Memphis, Tennessee.
This facility houses professional staffs, the Harvey T. Newell Library, the Freeman Hart Museum; the building is a war memorial built in 1988 to recognize the military services of members who died in the line of duty. A Gold Star Memorial was dedicated on August 1, 2008. In 1976, Samuel Mark Click, a pledge at Texas Tech University, was killed participating in a scavenger hunt as part of a hazing event, he was trying to collect a letter, under a railroad tie when he was hit by a train. In 1988, three Pi Kappa Alpha members at Florida State University were charged in the sexual battery of a freshman female student; the victim was left in the hallway of another fraternity house. The case made national headlines for weeks; the fraternity members all struck plea deals, the fraternity was banned from the school for twelve years. Pi Kappa Alpha was allowed to return to the school in 2000 despite strong protests. In 1988, several members of Pi Kappa Alpha were arrested for a sexual assault that took place at Stetson University.
In 2002, Albert Santos, a pledge at the University of Nevada at Reno, drowned in a lake participating in a hazing ritual. He and several pledges were told to swim in a lake in their underwear but Santos could not swim; the fraternity was banned from the campus after his death. Santos' family sued the fraternity for negligence. In 2007, the chapter at the University of Central Florida was shut down after the fraternity racked up more than 20 misconduct and hazing violations. In 2008, 10 Pike members were arrested at Tulane University for pouring boiling hot water on pledges; the chapter was accused of drugging and sexually assaulting several female students at the fraternity's annual bacchanal. Florida International University suspended the fraternity in 2013 after the discovery of photos on Facebook of hazing and drug deals, as well as sexually explicit photos of women taken without their consent; the UNC-Charlotte chapter of Pi Kappa Alpha was suspended after student placed in IC for alcohol-related hazing in 2013.
In 2014 a county judge dismissed charges against three members, found the fourth not guilty. The university found the fraternity guilty of hazing, suspended its charter for eight years. In 2010, the chapter at Cornell University was placed on suspension for four years “due to its history of alcohol and hazing-related infractions over several years, which culminated in a Jan. 22, 2010, incident involving high-risk drinking," according to the Cornell Chronicle. The chapter was suspended again in March 2017 for violating university
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Luke Robert Ravenstahl is an American politician who served as the 59th Mayor of Pittsburgh from 2006 until 2014. A Democrat, he became the youngest mayor in Pittsburgh's history in September 2006 at the age of 26, he was among the youngest mayors of a major city in American history. A graduate of North Catholic High School, Ravenstahl attended the University of Pittsburgh before graduating from Washington & Jefferson College. Four months after his graduation, aged 23, he ran for a seat on the Pittsburgh City Council, he was elected and took office in January 2004 before being appointed City Council President in December 2005. After the death of Pittsburgh mayor Bob O'Connor, Ravenstahl became the mayor, per the city's charter, on September 1, 2006, he won a special election in 2007, a regular election in 2009. He did not seek reelection in the 2013 election and Democrat Bill Peduto was elected to succeed him as mayor. Ravenstahl's term ended in January 2014. Ravenstahl's father, Robert P. Ravenstahl, Jr. is a district magistrate on the Northside, head coach for the North Catholic High School football team.
His grandfather, Robert P. Ravenstahl, Sr. represented the 20th legislative district as a state representative, was a Democratic ward leader in the North Side, was defeated in the 1976 Democratic primary by a young Tom Murphy, who would go on to become mayor himself. Ravenstahl's mother is a teacher's aide with the Allegheny Intermediate Unit. Ravenstahl is the eldest of three brothers including Adam Ravenstahl, a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. Ravenstahl graduated from North Catholic High School in 1998, where he was class president and played baseball and football, he attended Washington & Jefferson College, where he graduated with honors with a degree in business administration in December 2002. He was W&J's starting place kicker on the football team for three years and was team captain for his senior year, he holds the school record for most consecutive extra points. Following graduation from W&J, Ravenstahl worked as an account manager for a courier service. In August 2004, he married Erin Lynn Feith.
They resided in the Summer Hill neighborhood of the Northside. Ravenstahl attends mass weekly at Holy Wisdom Parish on the Northside. Luke and Erin's only child was born on October 2008, shortly before 9:30 in the morning, he is named Cooper Luke Ravenstahl. On May 19, 2007, Ravenstahl delivered the keynote address at Washington & Jefferson College's 208th commencement celebration, he served as honorary co-captain with fellow W&J graduate Roger Goodell during W&J's 2006 homecoming football game. As a sign of support for the Pittsburgh Steelers' 2009 AFC Championship game against the Baltimore Ravens, Ravenstahl ceremonially changed his name to "Luke Steelerstahl" on January 14, 2009. Court officials did not file the name change paperwork, his legal name remains Ravenstahl. On November 23, 2009, Ravenstahl announced that he and his wife, had split and that he has moved out of the home that they had shared, he was quoted as saying "She doesn't like the limelight. She didn't like the fact, she doesn't like the public nature of the position."
On November 24, the mayor announced that he and his wife were "formally separating," but had no plans to file for divorce. On March 11, 2011, Erin Ravenstahl filed for divorce citing irreconcilable differences, their divorce was finalized in late July 2011. In 2012, along with several members of the Pittsburgh Steelers, made an appearance in The Dark Knight Rises, kicking off to the Gotham Rogues. In April 2003, Ravenstahl ran for the Democratic nomination for the Pittsburgh City Council's District 1 seat against incumbent Barbara Burns. Ravenstahl defeated Burns with 54.5% of the vote. He credited his win to a combination of grassroots campaigning, a voter registration drive aimed at 18- to 25-year-olds, a general dissatisfaction with Mayor Murphy. Ravenstahl was sworn in as the youngest member of City Council in Pittsburgh's history in January 2004. During his first few weeks on City Council, Ravenstahl's bill to reduce the newly imposed parking tax from 50% to 33% was vetoed by Mayor Tom Murphy, unwilling to balance the budget with $3 million from the Urban Redevelopment Authority.
On December 6, 2005, Ravenstahl became the youngest President of the Pittsburgh City Council, when Gene Ricciardi stepped down from that post in a move seen as paving the way for ally Jim Motznik. However, Motznik was unable to secure the votes needed to win the presidency, Ravenstahl emerged as a compromise candidate, he was re-elected unanimously at the re-organization meeting in January 2006, when the new members of the city council took office. One of his first major hurdles was to deal with the two state budget oversight boards. Per provisions in the city's charter, Ravenstahl ascended from the office of City Council President to Mayor on September 1, 2006, following the death of Mayor Bob O'Connor. Per provisions in the city's charter, Ravenstahl ascended from the office of City Council President to Mayor on September 1, 2006, following the death of Mayor Bob O'Connor. Due to ambiguous language in the city's charter, a controversy developed about how long Ravenstahl could temporarily serve as mayor before an election had to be held.
Ravenstahl stated his desire to fulfill the remainder of O'Connor's term. The charter refers to holding a new election when someone ascends to mayor through a vacancy but makes no mention of serving out the full term, it was unclear when the election could or should be held due to a confusing phrase that says the "vacancy in the mayor's office shall be filled at the