Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport is a regional airport located on the Toronto Islands in Toronto, Canada. The airport is referred to as Toronto Island Airport and was known as Port George VI Island Airport and Toronto City Centre Airport; the airport's name honours Billy Bishop, the Canadian World War I flying ace and World War II Air Marshal. It is used by civil aviation, air ambulances, regional airlines using turboprop planes. In 2018, it was ranked Canada's ninth-busiest airport, the sixth-busiest Canadian airport that serves the U. S. Conceived in the 1930s as the main airport for Toronto, the construction of the airport was completed in 1939 by the Toronto Harbour Commission. At the same time, the THC built Malton Airport as an alternate, but nearby Malton became Toronto's main passenger airline hub instead, leaving the island airport for general aviation and military purposes. During the 1940s and 1950s, several political leaders proposed an expansion of the island airport to enable scheduled passenger airlines and reduce the annual operating costs.
Malton was sold in 1962 to the Government of Canada in exchange for an expansion and improvements to the island airport. After the expansion, civil flights increased to a peak of over 200,000 annual flights in the 1960s. Although regional airlines were introduced in the 1970s, the annual number of flights went into decline and closure was discussed. In 1983, a 50-year tripartite agreement between the Government of Canada, the City of Toronto government and the Harbour Commission, which limited noise and banned jet use for scheduled airlines, allowed airport operations to continue. In the 1990s, in an era of government cost-cutting, questions about the airport's future were raised again due to its annual deficit. At the same time, redevelopment was taking over north of the airport and several studies suggested that the airport was incompatible with development. In 1999, the new Toronto Port Authority replaced the THC; the TPA's mandate was to make the port and airport self-sufficient and it determined that the airport needed to expand to end the annual subsidy.
Although an expansion of the airport was and is politically controversial, the TPA has worked with new regional airline Porter Airlines since 2003 to increase scheduled carrier flights. Under the new financial model, carriers pay landing fees and departing passengers pay airport improvement fees to the TPA. Porter launched in 2006 and passenger volumes increased to the point that airport operations became self-sufficient by 2010. In 2010, Porter opened a new terminal. In 2015, a pedestrian tunnel to the airport was opened, after a previous plan to build a bridge was cancelled. In 2013, Porter proposed expanding the airport further and modifying the operating agreement to allow it to use Bombardier CS100 jet planes at the airport; the proposal, estimated to cost CA$1 billion in public expenditure, went to PortsToronto for further study. In November 2015, after the 2015 Canadian federal election, the new government announced that it would not re-open the tripartite agreement to allow jets. Ports Toronto subsequently cancelled the expansion proposal studies.
The airport is located on south-west of Downtown Toronto. The airport has one main east–west runway, a shorter runway 20 degrees off, a seaplane base, Billy Bishop Toronto City Water Aerodrome; the airport is used for regional airline service and for general aviation, including medical emergency flights, small charter flights, private aviation. Under its operating agreement, jet aircraft are banned from the airport, with the exception of MEDEVAC flights. There is one passenger terminal at the airport, built in 2010; the airport is operated as a division of PortsToronto, a federal corporation, which manages Toronto harbour. The airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency; the CBSA officers at the airport can handle aircraft with up to 90 passengers. The airport does not have United States border preclearance, although this has been approved by both Canada and US governments; the airport's hours of operation are 6:45 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. except for MEDEVAC flights.
The airport's hours are governed by the 2003 update of the Tripartite Agreement, which set the hours of operation. Airfield crash fire rescue and EMS are provided by the Billy Bishop Airport Emergency Response Service, backed up by Toronto Fire Services and Toronto EMS; the airport is accessible from a pedestrian tunnel at the foot of Eireann Quay, free to use. From a pavilion on the mainland end, a 240 m pedestrian tunnel and a tunnel for sewage and water mains connect to the airport; the pedestrian tunnel has moving sidewalks, with elevators at both ends. On the island side, an escalator serves patrons. A consortium known as Forum Infrastructure Partners, composed of firms Arup, PCL and Technicore, built and maintains the tunnel. A ferry operates between the same location and the airport every 15 minutes from 5:15 a.m. to midnight. A free shuttle bus service operates between the intersection of York Street and Front Street and the airport. There is a taxi stand at the dock. Short-term and long-term parking is available on the island.
There is no curb-side parking. The 509 Harbourfront streetcar line, which connects to the subway, serves the intersection of Bathurst Street and Queens Quay, one block north of the ferry dock; the airport imposes a $15 airport improvement fee surcharge on each passe
Laurence "Laurie" Bell is an English professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Örebro Syrianska. Bell has spent time with English sides Macclesfield Town and Hyde United. Bell joined Stockport County's School of Excellence at the age of eight, before moving to Manchester City's academy four years later. However, City let him go at the age of 16. After which he spent two years on a youth team apprenticeship at Rochdale, where he was part of a Football League Youth Alliance-title winning squad; however the club released him in May 2011. Bell played college soccer at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee between 2011 and 2014. In 2013, he captained the Milwaukee Panthers to their victory in the Horizon League conference and qualification to the 2013 NCAA Division I Men's Soccer Championship, scoring 13 goals along the way, being named as the Horizon League's player of the year and an NCAA First-Team All-American. While at college, Bell appeared for USL PDL club Ventura County Fusion in 2014.
Bell was invited to the MLS 2015 Combine, hampered by a recurrence of patellar tendinitis which he had suffered during his teenage years, went undrafted in the 2015 MLS SuperDraft. Bell signed with United Soccer League club Tulsa Roughnecks in March 2015. After one season with the Roughnecks, a spell with semi-professional side Hyde United in his native England, Bell joined Swedish second division club Karlslunds IF HFK on a one-year contract in April 2016, he was named Player of the Year at Karlsunds IF HFK, after recording 11 goals and 10 assists in 24 matches and firing Karlslunds to 5th position in Division 2 - the club's highest finish for 7 years. In December 2016, The Guardian published a blog by Bell about the challenges of pursuing a low paying football career. In January 2017 Bell joined English Conference side Macclesfield Town before being sent out on loan to Hyde United. In March 2017, Bell re-joined Swedish side Karlslunds IF HFK. In January 2019, Bell left Karlslunds to join fellow Division 1 side BK Forward.
After a year with Forward, Bell joined newly-promoted Division 1 side Örebro Syrianska on a one-year deal. Laurie Bell at Soccerway Milwaukee Panthers profile
In the compound eye of invertebrates such as insects and crustaceans, the pseudopupil appears as a dark spot which moves across the eye as the animal is rotated. This occurs because the ommatidia that one observes "head-on" absorb the incident light, while those to one side reflect it; the pseudopupil therefore reveals which ommatidia are aligned with the axis along which the observer is viewing. The pseudopupil analysis technique is used to study neurodegeneration in insects like Drosophila, it is useful for study of neurodegenerative diseases. An adult Drosophila eye consists of nearly 800 unit ommatidia which are repeated in a symmetrical pattern; each ommatidium contains 8 photoreceptor cells. Neurodegeneration leads to degradation of photoreceptors. By visualising and counting the intact rhabdomeres, degradation level can be measured. Thus, using analysing pseudopupil, one can study neurodegeneration