click links in text for more info


Bindusara Amitraghāta or Amitrochates was the second Mauryan emperor of India. He was the son of the dynasty's founder Chandragupta, the father of its most famous ruler Ashoka. Bindusara's life is not documented as well as the lives of these two emperors: much of the information about him comes from legendary accounts written several hundred years after his death. Bindusara consolidated the empire created by his father; the 16th century Tibetan Buddhist author Taranatha credits his administration with extensive territorial conquests in southern India, but some historians doubt the historical authenticity of this claim. Ancient and medieval sources have not documented Bindusara's life in detail. Much of the information about him comes from Jain legends focused on Chandragupta and the Buddhist legends focused on Ashoka; the Jain legends, such as Hemachandra's Parishishta-Parvan were written more than a thousand years after his death. Most of the Buddhist legends about Ashoka's early life appear to have been composed by Buddhist writers who lived several hundred years after Ashoka's death, are of little historical value.

While these legends can be used to make several inferences about Bindusara's reign, they are not reliable because of the close association between Ashoka and Buddhism. Buddhist sources that provide information about Bindusara include Divyavadana, Mahavamsa, Vamsatthappakasini and the 16th century writings of Taranatha; the Jain sources include the 12th century Parishishta-Parvan by Hemachandra and the 19th century Rajavali-Katha by Devachandra. The Hindu Puranas mention Bindusara in their genealogies of Mauryan rulers; some Greek sources mention him by the name "Amitrochates" or its variations. Bindusara was born to the founder of the Mauryan Empire; this is attested including the various Puranas and the Mahavamsa. The Dipavamsa, on the other hand, names Bindusara as the son of the king Shushunaga; the prose version of Ashokavadana states that Bindusara was the son of Nanda, a 10th-generation descendant of Bimbisara. Like Dipavamsa, it omits Chandragupta's name altogether; the metrical version of Ashokavadana contains a similar genealogy with some variations.

Chandragupta had a marriage alliance with the Seleucids, which has led to speculation that Bindusara's mother might have been Greek or Macedonian. However, there is no evidence of this. According to the 12th century Jain writer Hemachandra's Parishishta-Parvan, the name of Bindusara's mother was Durdhara; the name "Bindusara", with slight variations, is attested by the Buddhist texts such as Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa. Other Puranas give different names for Chandragupta's successor. For example, the various recensions of Bhagavata Purana mention him as Varikara; the different versions of Vayu Purana call him Nandasara. The Mahabhashya names Chandragupta's successor as Amitra-ghata; the Greek writers Strabo and Athenaeus call him Amitrochates respectively. In addition, Bindusara was given the title Devanampriya, applied to his successor Ashoka; the Jain work Rajavali-Katha states. Both Buddhist and Jain texts mention a legend about. Both accounts state that Chandragupta's minister Chanakya used to mix small doses of poison in the emperor's food to build his immunity against possible poisoning attempts.

One day, not knowing about the poison, shared his food with his pregnant wife. According to the Buddhist legends, the queen was seven days away from delivery at this time. Chanakya arrived. Realizing that she was going to die, he decided to save the unborn child, he cut open her belly with a sword to take out the foetus. Over the next seven days, he placed the foetus in the belly of a goat freshly killed each day. After seven days, Chandragupta's son was "born", he was named Bindusara. The Jain text Parishishta-Parvan names the queen as Durdhara, states that Chanakya entered the room the moment she collapsed. To save the child, he took the baby out. By this time, a drop of poison had reached the baby and touched its head. Therefore, Chanakya named him Bindusara, meaning "the strength of the drop"; the prose version of Ashokavadana names three sons of Bindusara: Sushima and Vigatashoka. The mother of Ashoka and Vigatashoka was a woman named Subhadrangi, the daughter of a Brahmin of the Champa city; when she was born, an astrologer predicted that one of her sons would be a king, the other a religious man.

When she grew up, her father took her to Bindusara's palace in Pataliputra. Bindusara's wives, jealous of her beauty, trained her as the royal barber. Once, when the Emperor was pleased with her hairdressing skills, she expressed her desire to be a queen. Bindusara was apprehensive about her low class, but made her the chief queen after learning about her Brahmin descent; the couple had two sons: Vigatashoka. Bindusara did not like Ashoka because his "limbs were hard to the touch". Another legend in Divyavadana names Ashoka's mother as Janapadakalyani. According to the Vamsatthappak

Peter L. Jensen

Peter Laurits Jensen was a Danish American engineer and entrepreneur. He founded Jensen Radio Manufacturing Company. Peter Laurits Jensen was born on the island of Falster in Denmark during 1886, his education was in Danish high schools from which he graduated in 1902. He attended Amherst College in Massachusetts and graduated with his liberal arts degree in 1906, he died in Western Springs, during 1961 at the age of 75. He began employment as an apprentice in the laboratory of Valdemar Poulsen, the inventor of magnetic recording and the Poulsen System of Radio in 1903. Became assistant to Poulsen in 1905 and was sent to the United States to assist in introducing the Poulsen Radio Arc System in 1909, he was employed as engineer by the Federal Telegraph Company in California, which purchased the Poulsen patent, until November 1910. In 1911, he co-founded with Edwin S. Pridham the Commercial Wireless and Development Co. in Napa, utilizing the financial backing of Richard O'Conner and the engineering assistance of master mechanic Carl Albertus.

Jensen and Pridham moved from Napa in 1916, changed the company name in 1917 to the Magnavox Company. Jensen was employed as chief engineer until 1925, he built with Edwin S. Pridham the first moving coil loudspeaker in 1915. Called the moving coil principle, the electro-dynamic principle from which the term dynamic speaker evolved. In 1916 he patented the first contained and complete electric reproducing phonograph. Made the first public address system and used on Christmas Eve in 1915 in San Francisco at a gathering where 75,000 people were present and who heard distinctly all the speeches and announcements; the public address systems under the name of Magnavox were used all over the United States. It was used by U. S. President Woodrow Wilson in 1919. World-wide there were no other companies manufacturing public address systems until 1920, he designed the Magnavox dynamic loudspeaker for reception of radio broadcasting in 1919. He invented and patented, with Edwin S. Pridham, the first anti-noise self-neutralizing microphone in 1917 which allowed wireless communication between aircraft and the ground.

This type became known as the lip microphone used in the First and Second World Wars. Jensen resigned from Magnavox in 1925, founded the Jensen Radio Manufacturing Company in 1927, he marketed speakers under the trade name "Jensen". He remained president of firm until 1940, he was a consultant to the Radio and Radar Division of the U. S. War Production Board in Washington, D. C. from 1942 to 1946. In 1945, he founded Jensen Industries Inc. for the manufacturing of phonograph needles—and in the manufacturing of the stainless steel sink. Jensen was made an honorary Member of the Audio Engineering Society in 1955, he was honoured by the American Institute of Radio Engineers. He was elected an Extraordinary Member of the Danish Engineering Society, knighted by the King of Denmark in the Order of the Dannebrog. Peter Jensen, The Great Voice Howard Fertsler, "Jensen, Peter Laurits" in Frank Hoffman, ed. Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound, 2nd. Ed. Volume 1, Page 541. Magnavox Company History of Jensen Loudspeakers Peter L. Jensen and the Magnavox Loudspeaker In Memoriam Mette Stougård: Denmark's Forgotten Inventor.

March 23, 2001 Historical Monument in Napa, Ca. Jensen History

2002–03 Scottish Inter-District Championship

The 2002–03 Scottish Inter-District Championship was a rugby union competition for Scotland's professional district teams. With the re-emergence of the Border Reivers professional team and the collapse of the Welsh-Scottish League to make way for a shortened Celtic League, the Scottish Rugby Union reinstated the Scottish Inter-District Championship for the professional sides. Glasgow and Edinburgh fought it out in a renamed Pro Cup sponsored by Bank of Scotland; the Bank of Scotland Pro Cup lasted one year. When the Celtic League was expanded the following year the SRU realised that there was no room in the schedule for a separate Scottish Inter-District Championship; this was despite both sponsor and fans happiness with the return of a national tournament

Causality (book)

Causality: Models and Inference is a book by Judea Pearl. It is an analysis of causality, it is considered to have been instrumental in laying the foundations of the modern debate on causal inference in several fields including statistics, computer science and epidemiology. In this book, Pearl espouses the Structural Causal Model; this model is a competing viewpoint to the Rubin causal model. Some of the material from the book was reintroduced in the more general-audience targeting The Book of Why. Pearl succeeds in bringing together in a general nonparametric framework the counterfactual tradition of causal analysis with the variants of structural equation modeling worth keeping; the graph theory that he uses to accomplish this fusion is elegant. Thus, Causality is a major statement. Causality Causal inference Structural equation modeling Book Homepage

2014 Sunderland City Council election

The 2014 Sunderland City Council Election took place on 22 May 2014 to elect members of Sunderland Metropolitan Borough Council in Tyne and Wear, England, as part of the wider 2014 United Kingdom local elections. A third of the council were up for election, the Labour Party stayed in overall control of the council; the Labour Party remained with its majority reduced by one. Although Labour gained a seat from the Conservatives in St Chad's, they lost a seat to the Conservatives in St Peter's; the largest shock of the night was the Labour Mayor, Councillor Robert Heron, losing his Copt Hill seat to Independent candidate Anthony Allen by 70 votes. Labour's one gain against two losses left them with a net loss of one councillor. For the first time UKIP fielded a candidate in every ward, which led to them finishing second behind Labour, in terms of the popular vote, with 24%. Although UKIP failed to gain a seat, they came within 119 votes in Hetton and came second in 16 of the 23 wards they contested.

This led to a reduction in Labour's share of the vote in 18 out of the 25 wards. The overall turnout in the election was 33%. After the election, the composition of the council was as follows

Afro Blue (Dee Dee Bridgewater album)

Afro Blue is the debut studio album by American jazz singer Dee Dee Bridgewater. The record was released in Japan in 1974, via Trio Records label; the album was recorded in Tokyo with a quintet of musicians including brothers Ron and Cecil Bridgwater. Band Dee Dee Bridgewater – vocals George Mrazbass Motohiko Hinodrums, bells Roland Hannapiano Ron Bridgewater – tenor saxophone, African castanets, vibra-clap Cecil Bridgewatertrumpet, kalimbaProduction Takao Ishizuka – producer Kiyoshi Koyama – liner notes Y. Kannari – recording, mixing M. Ohkawa – recording, mixing Official website