Biomechanics is the study of the structure and motion of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics. Biomechanics is a branch of biophysics; the word "biomechanics" and the related "biomechanical" come from the Ancient Greek βίος bios "life" and μηχανική, mēchanikē "mechanics", to refer to the study of the mechanical principles of living organisms their movement and structure. Biological fluid mechanics, or biofluid mechanics, is the study of both gas and liquid fluid flows in or around biological organisms. An studied liquid biofluid problem is that of blood flow in the human cardiovascular system. Under certain mathematical circumstances, blood flow can be modeled by the Navier–Stokes equations. In vivo whole blood is assumed to be an incompressible Newtonian fluid. However, this assumption fails. At the microscopic scale, the effects of individual red blood cells become significant, whole blood can no longer be modeled as a continuum.
When the diameter of the blood vessel is just larger than the diameter of the red blood cell the Fahraeus–Lindquist effect occurs and there is a decrease in wall shear stress. However, as the diameter of the blood vessel decreases further, the red blood cells have to squeeze through the vessel and can only pass in a single file. In this case, the inverse Fahraeus -- the wall shear stress increases. An example of a gaseous biofluids problem is that of human respiration. Respiratory systems in insects have been studied for bioinspiration for designing improved microfluidic devices. Biotribology is the study of friction and lubrication of biological systems human joints such as hips and knees. In general, these processes are studied in the context of Contact mechanics and tribology; when two surfaces rub against each other, the effect of that rubbing on either surface will depend on friction and lubrication at the point of contact. For example, the femoral and tibial components of knee implants rub against each other during daily activity such as walking or stair climbing.
If the performance of the tibial component needs to be analyzed, the principles of contact mechanics and tribology are used to determine the wear performance of the implant and the lubrication effects of synovial fluid. Additional aspects of biotribology include analysis of subsurface damage resulting from two surfaces coming in contact during motion, i.e. rubbing against each other, such as in the evaluation of tissue-engineered cartilage. Comparative biomechanics is the application of biomechanics to non-human organisms, whether used to gain greater insights into humans or into the functions and adaptations of the organisms themselves. Common areas of investigation are Animal locomotion and feeding, as these have strong connections to the organism's fitness and impose high mechanical demands. Animal locomotion, has many manifestations, including running and flying. Locomotion requires energy to overcome friction, drag and gravity, though which factor predominates varies with environment. Comparative biomechanics overlaps with many other fields, including ecology, developmental biology and paleontology, to the extent of publishing papers in the journals of these other fields.
Comparative biomechanics is applied in medicine as well as in biomimetics, which looks to nature for solutions to engineering problems. Computational biomechanics is the application of engineering computational tools, such as the Finite element method to study the mechanics of biological systems. Computational models and simulations are used to predict the relationship between parameters that are otherwise challenging to test experimentally, or used to design more relevant experiments reducing the time and costs of experiments. Mechanical modeling using finite element analysis has been used to interpret the experimental observation of plant cell growth to understand how they differentiate, for instance. In medicine, over the past decade, the Finite element method has become an established alternative to in vivo surgical assessment. One of the main advantages of computational biomechanics lies in its ability to determine the endo-anatomical response of an anatomy, without being subject to ethical restrictions.
This has led FE modeling to the point of becoming ubiquitous in several fields of Biomechanics while several projects have adopted an open source philosophy. The mechanical analysis of biomaterials and biofluids is carried forth with the concepts of continuum mechanics; this assumption breaks down when the length scales of interest approach the order of the micro structural details of the material. One of the most remarkable characteristic of biomaterials is their hierarchical structure. In other words, the mechanical characteristics of these materials rely on physical phenomena occurring in multiple levels, from the molecular all the way up to the tissue and organ levels. Biomaterials are classified in two groups and soft tissues. Mechanical deformation of hard tissues may be analysed with the theory of linear elasticity. On the other hand, soft tissues undergo large deformations and thus their analysis rely on the finite strain theory and computer simulations; the interest in continuum biomechanics is spurred by the need for realism in the development of medical simulation.
The application of biomechanical principles to plants, plant organs and cells
An administrative court is a type of court specializing in administrative law disputes concerning the exercise of public power. Their role is to ascertain; such courts are considered separate from general courts. The administrative acts are recognized from the hallmark that they become binding without the consent of the other involved parties; the contracts between authorities and private persons fall to the jurisdiction of the general court system. Official decisions contested in administrative courts include: taxation dispensation of monetary benefits environmental licenses building inspection child custody involuntary commitment immigration decisions summary public payments In several countries, in addition to general courts, there is a separate system of administrative courts, where the general and administrative systems do not have jurisdiction over each other. Accordingly, there is a local administrative court of first instance an appeals court and a Supreme Administrative Court separate from the general Supreme Court.
The parallel system is found in countries like Egypt, Germany, Italy, some of the Nordic Countries, Portugal and others. In France, Greece and Sweden, the system has three levels like the general system, with local courts, appeals courts and a Supreme Administrative Court. In Finland, Italy and Taiwan, the system has two levels, where the court of first instance is a regional court. In Germany, the system is more complicated, courts are more specialized. In Sweden and Finland, legality of decisions of both state agencies and municipal authorities can be appealed to the administrative courts. In accordance with the principle of the legal autonomy of municipalities, administrative courts can only review and rule on the formal legality of the decision, not its content. In the case of state agencies, administrative courts may rule on the actual content of the decision. In the United States, administrative courts are tribunals within administrative agencies, are distinct from judicial courts. Decisions of administrative courts can be appealed to a judicial court.
Notably, in 1952, the Communist East German government abolished the administrative courts as "bourgeois". This limited the citizens' ability to contest official decisions. In 1989, re-establishment of the system began in DDR, but the German reunification made this initiative obsolete; the Administrative Court is a specialist court of the Queen's Bench Division of the High Court of Justice in England and Wales Administrative courts in Greece Supreme Administrative Court of the Republic of Poland Administrative Courts in Finland Administrative courts in Sweden Administrative law judges in the United States
The Gardiner Lyceum was the first vocational trade school in the United States. The purpose of the school was for giving young men the skills they needed to accomplish their chosen trade, it was a vocational school education for farmers and other specialized trades of the nineteenth century. It provided the scientific and technical education needed for their vocation or to become schoolmasters. Robert Hallowell Gardiner founded the school in 1822 on land with buildings he gave to the new school; the school was given statewide recognition when there was an Act in addition to an Act to incorporate was passed in February 1823 by the state of Maine governor, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives of the State of Maine, the president of the Bowdoin College, the president of the Waterville College and others called the Board of Visitors. The directors of the Gardiner Lyceum school were men associated with higher education; the first principal and main instructor of the school was Benjamin Hale.
The next principal was a professor of Hamilton College of New York and president of the State universities of Missouri and Wisconsin. The next principal was a supreme judge in the state of New Hampshire; the next principal was a graduate of Brown University. Maine legislature provided the school with $2,000 in funds in 1823; the legislature provided the school with funds of $1,000 per year for six years starting in 1825. The first year in operation the school had twenty students; the school had 53 students in 1824. It had 120 students in 1825. In 1826 the student level fell off to only 55 pupils. Since the location of the new school was in Gardiner, Maine and it was a lyceum, it took on the name "Gardiner Lyceum"; the courses were designed for the realistic and useful applications of mathematics and science with emphasis on liberal and cultural subjects. They were designed to make scientific farmers and skillful craftsmen; the main object of the courses of the Gardiner Lyceum was intended to be something between High School, preparatory agenda for entering into college, a college or university education.
Gardiner Lyceum was intended as a practical vocational school that prepared the students with an immediate trade. The school was intended as a two-year agenda; the school was a lyceum, a secondary schooling, more technical that High School and less scholarly than a college or university education. It was for trade training for immediate employment in the field of their choice; the courses of the school classes were in various fields of advanced mathematics, surveying, hydrostatics, chemistry, natural philosophy, natural history. There were courses in navigation and carpentry; the principal object of the lyceum was in establishing young men to be practical in running a farm profitable or do professionally whatever occupation they chose. The agricultural courses were designed to give future agriculturist the practical training of science upon which he could run a farm or be associated with farming in his trade; the school provided potential leads for employment in hopes of getting a return on its expenses in training the student.
There is a set of Laws printed in 1825 by P. Shelton on how the school was to be regulated - a copy held by the Library of Congress. In the Preface it gives the language It is unnecessary to add that this system is found not only to prepare young men for the real business of life, but to give them manliness of feeling and character. A stone building was built for the school. There was fourteen acres of land provided for agriculture training for those students that were going to become farmers and of agricultural occupations; the land was worth about $4,000 at the time. The school had available to the pupils, besides books, a workshop at no cost to them which consisted of circular saws, models and specimens in natural history; the school additionally provided modern equipment and tools for training. The school struggled financially for 6 years from 1826 until it closed in 1832 for various reasons, but due to lack of funds that it needed to continue running. Mr. Gardiner, the founder had to close the school.
The concept of teaching "scientific farming" was first started by the Gardiner Lyceum. In the United States about a thousand similar schools teaching this concept were in place a decade later. Berg, Gary A.. Why Distance Learning?: Higher Education Administrative Practices. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-57356-530-1. Cattell, James McKeen; the Scientific Monthly. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 22 July 2013. Conference on Post-secondary Occupational Education, Pennsylvania. The... Annual Pennsylvania Conference on Post-secondary Occupational Education. Center for the Study of Higher Education, Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved 22 July 2013. Gazette, Literary; the United States Literary Gazette. Cummings, Hilliard, & Company. Retrieved 22 July 2013. Gordon, Howard R. D.. The History and Growth of Vocational Education in America. Waveland PressInc. ISBN 978-1-57766-260-0. Kingsbury, Henry D.. Illustrated history of Kennebec County, Maine. H. W. Blake & Company. P. 201.