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Bird's-eye view

A bird's-eye view is an elevated view of an object from above, with a perspective as though the observer were a bird used in the making of blueprints, floor plans, maps. It can be an aerial photograph, but a drawing. Before manned flight was common, the term "bird's eye" was used to distinguish views drawn from direct observation at high locations, from those constructed from an imagined perspectives. Bird's eye views; the last great flourishing of them was in the mid-to-late 19th century, when bird's eye view prints were popular in the United States and Europe. The terms aerial view and aerial viewpoint are sometimes used synonymous with bird's-eye view; the term aerial view can refer to any view from a great height at a wide angle, as for example when looking sideways from an airplane window or from a mountain top. Overhead view is synonymous with bird's-eye view but tends to imply a less lofty vantage point than the latter term. For example, in computer and video games, an "overhead view" of a character or situation places the vantage point only a few feet above human height.

See top-down perspective. Recent technological and networking developments have made satellite images more accessible. Microsoft Bing Maps offers direct overhead satellite photos of the entire planet but offers a feature named Bird's eye view in some locations; the Bird's Eye photos are angled at 40 degrees rather than being straight down. Satellite imaging programs and photos have been described as offering a viewer the opportunity to "fly over" and observe the world from this specific angle. In filmmaking and video production, a bird's-eye shot refers to a shot looking directly down on the subject; the perspective is foreshortened, making the subject appear short and squat. This shot can be used to give an overall establishing shot of a scene, or to emphasise the smallness or insignificance of the subjects; these shots are used for battle scenes or establishing where the character is. It is shot by lifting the camera up by hands or by hanging it off something strong enough to support it; when a scene needs a large area shot, it is a crane shot.

Bird's-eye views are common in the broadcasting of sports events in the 21st century, with the increased usage of the Skycam and other devices like it, such as the CableCam and Spidercam. A distinction is sometimes drawn between a bird's-eye view and a bird's-flight view, or "view-plan in isometrical projection". Whereas a bird's-eye view shows a scene from a single viewpoint in true perspective, for example, the foreshortening of more distant features, a bird's-flight view combines a vertical plan of ground-level features with perspective views of buildings and other standing features, all presented at the same scale; the landscape appears "as it would unfold itself to any one passing over it, as in a balloon, at a height sufficient to abolish sharpness of perspective, yet low enough to allow of distinct view of the scene beneath". The technique was popular among local surveyors and cartographers of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Aerial landscape art Aerial perspective Aerial photography Camera angle Cinematic techniques Filmmaking Google Earth Pictorial map Pictometry Plans Top-down perspective Video production Worm's-eye view

José da Silva Lisboa

José da Silva Lisboa, first Baron and Viscount of Cairu, was an economist, jurist and Brazilian politician, active at the time of Independence of the Brazil and credited for the promotion of important economic reforms. He held various positions in the economic and political administration of Brazil after the transfer or the Portuguese Court to Brazil in 1808, including Deputy of the Royal Chamber of Commerce and Judge of the House of Supplication. Cairu played an important role in encouraging the teaching of political economy in the country, participated in the drafting of the decrees that determined the opening of Brazilian ports and the end of the prohibition of manufactures in Brazil, his attitude favorable to the economic development of the United Kingdom of Brazil would end up contributing to the conditions indispensable to the political independence of Brazil in 1822. For his contributions, the Viscount of Cairu figures "with place of honor in the pantheon of the heroes of the Brazilian homeland".

Son of a Portuguese architect, Henrique da Silva Lisboa, Helena Nunes de Jesus, José studied in Bahia from the age of eight philosophy and piano. He completed his studies at the University of Coimbra, where he followed legal and philosophical courses from 1774, graduating in 1778. Bachelor in canons by the University of Coimbra, he was appointed professor of national and moral philosophy for the city of Salvador, chair which he held for 19 years, besides having created the chair of Greek language in the city. In 1797 he returned to Portugal, obtaining his retirement and the appointment to the place of deputy and secretary of the Inspection Bureau of sugar and Bahia Tobacco, where he took office in 1798 and stayed until 1808. In 1801 he published his first book Principles of Mercantile Law and Laws of the Navy for the use of the Portuguese youth, which includes maritime insurance, maritime exchange, bills of exchange, merchant contracts and causes of trade. In 1804 he published his main work, the Principles of Political Economy, the first Portuguese-written book inspired in Adam Smith's work When Dom Joao VI arrived in Bahia in 1808, Cairu drew up a representation of merchants from Salvador, in which they requested the opening of the Brazilian ports to the friendly nations of Portugal, which resulted in the Royal Charter of January 24, 1808.

D. João ordered Silva Lisboa to accompany him to Rio de Janeiro, where he arrived on March 7, in the following April he was appointed judge of the Supreme Court. In August 1808 he was appointed deputy of the Royal Chamber of Commerce, Agriculture and Navigation of the State of Brazil. Silva Lisboa tried to reconcile Portugal and Brazil and prevent the separation between them, for this he founded a newspaper, The Conciliador of the United Kingdom, in which he defended the rights of the Prince and pondered the advantages of the continental monarchy; when the hope for conciliation disappeared, in order not to lose the support of the crown, Lisboa did not hesitate to fight for the independence movement led by the prince regent D. Pedro I. Defender of the centralization of the power, Silva Lisboa fought in the press the revolutionaries of the Confederation of the Equator and polemizou with the Typhis Pernambucano of Frei Caneca. After independence, he continued receiving honorary distinctions, he was awarded in 1825 with the title of Baron and in 1826 as Viscount of Cairu, was chosen as senator of the Brazilian Empire.

In 1832, he began to fight for the creation of a University in Rio de Janeiro, a fact only concretized a hundred years with the foundation of UFRJ

David Levy (chess player)

David Neil Laurence Levy is an English International Master of chess and a businessman. He is noted for his involvement with computer chess and artificial intelligence, as the founder of the Computer Olympiads and the Mind Sports Olympiads, he has written more than 40 books on chess and computers. Levy went to Queen Elizabeth's School, Barnet, he won the London Junior Chess Championship in 1965 and 1966. He won the Scottish Chess Championship in 1968, he tied for fifth place at the 1969 Praia da Rocha Zonal tournament, scoring over two-thirds and thereby obtaining the title of International Master. He played on Board One for the Scottish team at the 1972 Chess Olympiad in Skopje, scoring six wins, five draws, seven losses. Levy became a professional chess writer in 1971. Several of his books were co-written with English Grandmaster Raymond Keene. Levy was married to Keene's sister Jacqueline for 17 years, he has functioned as literary agent for the escaped Great Train robber, Ronald Biggs and claims to have masterminded his escape from British justice.

In 1974, Levy together with Monty Newborn and Ben Mittman organized the first World Computer Chess Championship. In 1978, he co-founded the International Computer Chess Association. In the late 1970s, Levy consulted with Texas Instruments on the development of the Chess module for the TI-99/4A Home Computer Project and went on to set up Intelligent Software to produce chess software and hardware for a number of companies including Milton Bradley. Intelligent Software would collapse as a result of its involvement in the failed Enterprise home computer. In 1997, he funded the team that won the Loebner Prize for the program called "CONVERSE"; the prize competition rewards the program, best able to simulate human communication. Levy entered the contest again in 2009, won. From 1986 to 1992 and from 1999 to 2018, he was the president of the International Computer Games Association, he was Chairman of the Rules and Arbitration Committee for the Kasparov vs Deep Junior chess match in New York City in 2003.

Levy once started a business called Tiger Computer Security with Mathew Bevan. Levy wrote Love and Sex with Robots, published in the United States in 2007 by HarperCollins, forthcoming from Duckworth in the UK, it is the commercial edition of his PhD thesis, which he defended on 11 October 2007, at Maastricht University, Netherlands. On 17 January 2008, he appeared on the late night television show The Colbert Report to promote his book. In September 2009, Levy predicted, he defended his controversial views on the potential future wide use of sex robots by the public, by sex offenders, in an interview with the Guardian newspaper in December 2015. Levy has been working on a range of sexually erotic chatbots, which have been created by a team based in a lab in Malaysia; however his research into human-robot sexual relations has not been viewed favourably by the Malaysian authorities who ruled the 2015 Congress on Love and Sex with Robots, due to be co-chaired by Levy, as illegal following the organisers attempt to imply the Malaysian governments' endorsement by using the Tourism Malaysia logo on their website.

The Congress on Love and Sex with Robots was again cancelled in 2018. Committee members of the International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment objected to plans to partner the two events in Montana and Springer Nature cancelled plans to publish the proceedings due to a lack of academic papers. Further controversy arose over the invitation of Steve Bannon to keynote at ACE leading to both events being cancelled. Levy was brought in to a new company called Retro Computers Ltd, by his friend Sir Clive Sinclair; this company was formed after a meeting with Sir Clive and Paul Andrews who conceived the Sinclair ZX Spectrum Vega games console, this was backed by members of the public on a crowd funding site raising over £150,000, delivered to backers that same year. A second portable console the ZX Spectrum Vega+ was proposed, crowd funded again, but two of the four founding directors left the company in April 2016 before the crowd funding finished, they left citing the last remaining director Levy.

Levy continued with the company installing two replacement directors, Suzanne Martin, Dr. Janko Mrsic-Flogel, both long term associates of Levy; the Vega+ console was intended to be delivered to backers in September 2016, but as of August 2017 the device remains unreleased amid claims of "infighting and legal battles". Despite condensed accounts being filed for the company at companies house no information has been provided to identify the status of funds. In September 2017 the company's bank statements were released showing that by 2017 all money raised via Indiegogo had been spent by RCL with no product to show for it, but calls from the backers for Levy to explain why the company had told The Inquirer that the missing funds were "safe" and "ring-fenced" went unanswered. On 23rd January 2019 a Petition to Wind Up the company was filed by Private Planet Limited, owned by Dr Mrsic-Flogel. Liquidators were appointed April 4th 2019 leaving backers empty-handed. In 1968, Levy and artificial intelligence pioneer John McCarthy were at a party hosted by Donald Michie.

McCarthy invited Levy to play a game of chess. McCarthy responded that'you might be able to beat me, but within 10 years there will be a computer program that can beat you.' Levy suggested they bet on it, Michie agreed to up the ante. Other AI experts signed on with the bet total reaching £1,250

Hazaragi culture

Hazaragi culture or Hazara culture refers to the culture of the Hazara people, who live in the Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan, the Balochistan province of Pakistan, elsewhere around the world where the Hazara diaspora is settled as part of the wider Afghan diaspora. The culture of the Hazara people is rich in heritage, with many unique customs and traditions, shares influences with Persian, Turco-Mongols and various Central Asian cultures; the Hazarajat region has an ancient history and was, at different periods, home to the Greco-Buddhist, Timurid civilisations, the Ghorid and Ghaznavid dynasties. In the early 13th century, the Mongols, led by Genghis Khan, settled in the region; each of these civilisations left visible imprints on the region's local culture. According to genetic evidence, the ethnic group has "patrimonial relations" to Turkic peoples and the Mongols, at the same time is related to neighboring Persianate peoples thus making them a distinct ethnic group; the Hazara native Hazaragi language is a variation of the Dari dialect of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan.

The Hazara were traditionally pastoral farmers active in herding in the central and southeastern highlands of Afghanistan. They belong to the Shi'a denomination of Islam, following either the Twelver or Ismaili sects, with a small minority of Sunnis. Buzkashi Pahlwani Tirandazi Hazara people Hazaragi dialect Hazara tribes Buzkashi

Greenwood Military Aviation Museum

The Greenwood Military Aviation Museum is an aviation museum located in Greenwood, Nova Scotia. The museum houses 15 aircraft and is highlighted by its Avro Lancaster, one of only 17 remaining in the world and one of only three to have flown sorties over continental Europe; the Greenwood Military Aviation Museum is located on CFB Greenwood. The base began its life in 1942 as RAF Station Greenwood, in July 1944 became RCAF Station Greenwood. Following the Unification of the Canadian Armed Forces in 1968 the base became CFB Greenwood; the museum was begun in 1992 after being initiated by base commander Colonel Kenneth Allen. Since its inception the collection has grown to encompass a large array of aircraft from throughout the RCAF's history

Kitamori Station

Kitamori Station is an East Japan Railway Company railway station on the Hanawa Line in the city of Hachimantai, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Kitamori Station is served by the 106.9 km Hanawa Line, is located 15.6 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Kōma. Kitamori Station has a single side platform serving a single bi-directional track; the station is unattended. Kitamori Station opened on April 1961 as a passenger station serving the village of Matsuo; the station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of JNR on April 1, 1987. National Route 282 Matsuo Post Office List of Railway Stations in Japan Official website