Birmingham is a major city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England. It is the second-largest city and metropolitan area in England and the United Kingdom, with 1.1 million inhabitants within the city area and 3.8 million inhabitants within the metropolitan area. Birmingham is referred to as the second city of the United Kingdom. Located in the West Midlands county and region in England 100 miles from Central London, Birmingham, as one of the United Kingdom's major cities, is considered to be the social, cultural and commercial centre of both the East and West Midlands. Distinctively, Birmingham only has small rivers flowing through it the River Tame and its tributaries River Rea and River Cole – one of the closest main rivers is the Severn 20 miles west of the city centre. Birmingham's urban area is the second-largest in the United Kingdom, with its most estimated population in 2017 being 2,897,303, it lies within the most populated English district. A market town in the medieval period, Birmingham grew in the 18th-century Midlands Enlightenment and subsequent Industrial Revolution, which saw advances in science and economic development, producing a series of innovations that laid many of the foundations of modern industrial society.
By 1791 it was being hailed as "the first manufacturing town in the world". Birmingham's distinctive economic profile, with thousands of small workshops practising a wide variety of specialised and skilled trades, encouraged exceptional levels of creativity and innovation and provided an economic base for prosperity, to last into the final quarter of the 20th century; the Watt steam engine was invented in Birmingham. The resulting high level of social mobility fostered a culture of political radicalism which, under leaders from Thomas Attwood to Joseph Chamberlain, was to give it a political influence unparalleled in Britain outside London, a pivotal role in the development of British democracy. From the summer of 1940 to the spring of 1943, Birmingham was bombed by the German Luftwaffe in what is known as the Birmingham Blitz; the damage done to the city's infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive urban regeneration in subsequent decades.
Birmingham's economy is now dominated by the service sector. The city is a major international commercial centre, ranked as a beta- world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network the joint highest ranking with Edinburgh and Manchester of all British cities outside of London, its metropolitan economy is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $121.1bn, its six universities make it the largest centre of higher education in the country outside London. Birmingham's major cultural institutions – the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, the Birmingham Royal Ballet, the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, the Library of Birmingham and the Barber Institute of Fine Arts – enjoy international reputations, the city has vibrant and influential grassroots art, music and culinary scenes; the city will host the 2022 Commonwealth Games. Birmingham is the fourth-most. People from Birmingham are called Brummies, a term derived from the city's nickname of "Brum", which originates from the city's old name, which in turn is thought to have derived from "Bromwich-ham".
The Brummie accent and dialect are distinctive. Birmingham's early history is that of a marginal area; the main centres of population and wealth in the pre-industrial English Midlands lay in the fertile and accessible river valleys of the Trent, the Severn and the Avon. The area of modern Birmingham lay in between, on the upland Birmingham Plateau and within the densely wooded and sparsely populated Forest of Arden. There is evidence of early human activity in the Birmingham area dating back to around 8000 BC, with stone age artefacts suggesting seasonal settlements, overnight hunting parties and woodland activities such as tree felling; the many burnt mounds that can still be seen around the city indicate that modern humans first intensively settled and cultivated the area during the bronze age, when a substantial but short-lived influx of population occurred between 1700 BC and 1000 BC caused by conflict or immigration in the surrounding area. During the 1st-century Roman conquest of Britain, the forested country of the Birmingham Plateau formed a barrier to the advancing Roman legions, who built the large Metchley Fort in the area of modern-day Edgbaston in AD 48, made it the focus of a network of Roman roads.
Birmingham as a settlement dates from the Anglo-Saxon era. The city's name comes from the Old English Beormingahām, meaning the home or settlement of the Beormingas – indicating that Birmingham was established in the 6th or early 7th century as the primary settlement of an Anglian tribal grouping and regio of that name. Despite this early importance, by the time of the Domesday Book of 1086 the manor of Birmingham was one of the poorest and least populated in Warwickshire, valued at only 20 shillings, with the area of the modern city divided between the counties of Warwickshire and Worcestershire; the development of Birmingham into a significant urban and commercial centre began in 1166, when the Lord of the Manor Peter de Bermingham obtained a charter to hold a market at his castle, followed this with the creation of a planned market town and seigneurial borough within his demesne or manorial estate, around the site that became the Bull Ring. This established Birmingham as the primary commerc
David Ian "Joe" Jackson is an English musician and singer-songwriter. Having spent years studying music and playing clubs, Jackson scored a hit with his first release, "Is She Really Going Out with Him?", in 1979. This was followed by a number of new wave singles before he moved to more jazz-inflected pop music and had a Top 10 hit in 1982 with "Steppin' Out", he is associated with the 1980s Second British Invasion of the US. He has composed classical music, he received 5 Grammy Award nominations. Born in Burton upon Trent, David Jackson spent his first year in nearby Swadlincote, Derbyshire, he grew up in the Paulsgrove area of Portsmouth, where he attended the Portsmouth Technical High School. Jackson's parents moved to nearby Gosport. Jackson learned to play the violin but soon switched to piano and prevailed on his father to install one in the hall of their Paulsgrove council house. Jackson began playing piano in bars at the age of 16, he won a scholarship to study musical composition at London's Royal Academy of Music.
Jackson's first band, formed in Gosport, was called Edward Bear renamed Arms and Legs. The band broke up in 1976 after two unsuccessful singles, he was still known as David Jackson when he joined Arms and Legs, but around this time he picked up the nickname "Joe," based on his perceived resemblance to the puppet character Joe Piano, Snoopy in Joe Cool guise playing piano. Jackson spent some time performing on the cabaret circuit to make money to record a demo. In 1978, a record producer signed him to A&M Records; the next year the newly formed Joe Jackson Band released their debut album Look Sharp! A mix of rock, melodic jazz, new wave, it mined a vein similar to that of contemporaries Elvis Costello and Graham Parker; the album enjoyed wide critical success: in 2013 Rolling Stone magazine named Look Sharp! Number 98 in a list of the 100 best debut albums of all time; some commercial success followed, as the debut single "Is She Really Going Out with Him?" reached the top 40 in 5 countries, no. 9 in Canada.
The Joe Jackson Band released I'm the Man in 1979. The album followed a similar musical pattern, received good, though not as strong, reviews, it did produce the single "It's Different for Girls", which became Jackson's highest charting UK single, peaking at no. 5. Beat Crazy followed in 1980. Jackson collaborated with Lincoln Thompson in reggae crossover. In 1981, Jackson produced an album for the British power pop group the Keys; the Keys Album was the group's only LP. The Joe Jackson Band toured extensively. Jackson subsequently recorded an album of old-style swing and blues tunes, Jumpin' Jive, with songs by Cab Calloway, Lester Young, Glenn Miller, Louis Jordan; the album, associated single release, was credited to the band "Joe Jackson's Jumpin' Jive". Jackson's 1982 album Night and Day was his only studio album to reach either the UK or US Top 10, peaking at No. 3 and at No. 4. Two singles released from the album, "Steppin' Out" and "Breaking Us in Two", were US top 20 hits; the tracks "Real Men" and "A Slow Song" referred obliquely to New York City's early 1980s gay culture.
"Real Men" became a top 10 hit in Australia. By 1984, New York had become Jackson's home base, he recorded Body and Soul there, an album he said was "from the point of view of a relative newcomer". Influenced by pop and jazz standards and salsa, it had the US No. 15 hit single "You Can't Get What You Want". In 1985 Jackson played piano on Joan Armatrading's album Secret Secrets, in 1986 he collaborated with Suzanne Vega on the single "Left of Center" from Pretty in Pink's soundtrack. Jackson's next album was Big World, with all-new songs recorded live in front of an audience instructed to remain silent while music was playing. Released in 1986, it was a three-sided double record; the instrumental album Will Power, with heavy classical and jazz influences, set the stage for things to come but before he left pop behind, he put out two more albums, Blaze of Glory and Laughter & Lust. In 1995, Jackson contributed his version of "Statue of Liberty" on a tribute album for the English band XTC called A Testimonial Dinner: The Songs of XTC.
In the late 1990s Jackson expanded into classical music. In 2000 he released a follow-up album and Day II. In 2003, he reunited his original quartet for the album Volume 4, a lengthy tour. In 2004, he contributed a cover of Pulp's "Common People" with William Shatner for Shatner's album Has Been. In 2005 he teamed up with Todd Rundgren and the string quartet ETHEL for a tour of the US and Europe. A dedicated smoker, he gave up his New York apartment in 2006 in protest over the ascendancy of smoking bans, made the Berlin neighbourhood Kreuzberg his new home, it was there that he recorded, with longtime collaborators Graham Maby and Dave Houghton, his eighteenth studio album, Rain. In 2015, Jackson announced the completion of his follow-up to 2012's The Duke via his official website; the album's title, Fast Forward, track list were confirmed in addition to North American tour dates. The titular first single was released for streaming via his official Soundcloud page; the entire record was posted before being taken down a day later.
On 18 January 2019 Jackson
The Vietnam national under-22, under-23, Olympic football team represents Vietnam in international football tournaments at the under-22 and under-23 age level. The team is considered to be the feeder team for the Vietnam national football team. During the 2005 Southeast Asian Games in the Philippines, a betting and match-fixing scandal involving the team former captain Lê Quốc Vượng shocked the team reputation; the scandal destroyed several of the team players careers, including striker Phạm Văn Quyến and shattered Vietnamese public image towards the youth team to which many of their football fans shied away from the sport with the number of football attendance decrease dramatically. In 2007, the Hoàng Anh Gia Lai – Arsenal JMG Academy was established through partnership with Arsenal F. C. JMG Academy and the Vietnamese owned Hoàng Anh Gia Lai Corporation to revive the Vietnamese football scenes. Through training of the Vietnamese youth in the academy, this subsequently produced many new talented players which become part of the new generation of the under-23 squad.
Under Japanese coach Toshiya Miura, Vietnam made their first debut in this tournament having qualified from the AFC U-23 qualification in 2016. Positioned in Group I in the qualifiers, Vietnam claimed their first victory over Malaysia by 2–1, though losing to Japan by 0–2 in the next match; the team managed to gain a large victory over Macau by 7–0 in their last group match, subsequently became the group runners-up. The team placed in Group D, where they lost 1–3 to Jordan, 0–2 to Australia, 2–3 to United Arab Emirates; the team made their second entry in this tournament under South Korean coach Park Hang-seo having qualified from the AFC U-23 qualification in 2018. Drawn again in Group I in the qualifiers, the team started their first match with a 4–0 victory over Timor-Leste before accomplishing a great win of 8–1 over Macau. Although they lost to South Korea by 1–2 in the third group match, Vietnam qualified to the AFC U-23 Championship as the Group I runners-up; the team placed again in Group D.
Although they lost again to South Korea by 1–2, the team bounced back and defeated Australia by 1–0 before drawing 0–0 with Syria. The team became the group runners-up and subsequently became the first Southeast Asian team, alongside Malaysia, who were able to qualify into the quarter finals for the first time in the tournament as well in both team's history. At the quarter finals, Vietnam managed to lead the match into additional time with a draw score of 3–3 against former champion Iraq, before winning the penalty shoot-out by 5–3, sending the team to semi-finals; the team met Qatar with the match ending in another draw of 2–2 where they won the match with their second penalty shoot-out of the tournament by 4–3, resulting in the team being the first Southeast Asian football team in history to go to the finals in the competition's history and for the first time Vietnam had participated in the final of an AFC competition. At the finals, Vietnam lost to Uzbekistan by 1–2, claiming second place.
Despite Vietnam's failure to win the tournament, this was hailed as a historic achievement for Vietnam and the team received national wide welcome after returning from China and subsequently honored by the state for its historic performance. Vietnam tried to run for the race to host the competition, but was beaten by Thailand over the hosting rights. Thus, Vietnam had to take part on the 2020 AFC U-23 Championship qualification where Vietnam was seeded together with Thailand and Brunei, Thailand qualified regardless of results. Though being seeded in a tough group, Vietnam went on to overcome both opponents with over 11 goals scored and conceded none, topping the group with a perfect fashion including the famed 4–0 win over Thailand. In the main stage which served as the qualification for the 2020 Summer Olympics, Vietnam was again seeded into group D where they would once again reunite with Jordan and the United Arab Emirates, alongside North Korea, they had two 0-0 draws over United Arab Emirates and Jordan, before lose to North Korea by 1-2 and being eliminated by finished last place in the group.
In the 2018 Asian Games, Vietnam made another remarkable achievement under the guidance of coach Park as they qualified to the semi-finals for the first time in their history with a clean sheet. Drawn in Group D, the team beat Pakistan by 3–0, Nepal by 2–0, former champion Japan by 1–0 to lead the group. In the second round, Vietnam met Bahrain and defeated them by 1–0 before defeating Syria 1–0 in the quarter-finals in a match that went to overtime. At the semi-finals, Vietnam met the defending champion South Korea, led by their 2018 FIFA World Cup players such as pair strikers Son Heung-min, Hwang Hee-chan and their goalkeeper Jo Hyeon-woo, where they failed to continue their path to the finals after losing by 1–3; the team met United Arab Emirates for the bronze medal match. The score remained 1–1 after extra time, they ended up losing the penalty shoot-out 3–4; the victory in the 2019 football edition of the Southeast Asian Games is considered as the country first SEA Games men's football title since the Vietnamese reunification, having won the first edition of the 1959 Southeast Asian Peninsular Games through South Vietnam.
In the 2019 edition, Vietnam opened their campaign in Group B with a large victory over Brunei by 6–0 as well as Laos by 6–1 before defeating Indonesia and Singapore through a slim win by 2–1 and 1–0 respectively. In their last match in the group, Vietnam able to drawn itself by 2–2 against long-time SEA Games men's dominating champion Thailand after being left by two goals in the earlier minutes. After securing themselves in the t