click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Birmingham Walk of Stars

The Broad Street Walk of Stars is a walk of fame-style installation on the pedestrian pavement of Broad Street, England, which honours notable people from the Birmingham area or with significant connections with it. The scheme is funded by the Broad Street Business Improvement District; the criteria for a person to have their star added to the walk include that they must have performed at one of Birmingham's major venues such as the International Convention Centre, National Indoor Arena, Symphony Hall and The Rep theatre. They must be from the area or have prominent links with Birmingham and the Midlands region; the walk honours the residents of the city who have made a significant contribution in the categories of music, film, theatre, sport and literacy. The idea for a Walk of Fame style tribute was first thought of by a local Birmingham man Garry Raybould, who approached the Broad Street Business Improvement District who developed the idea and created the name Broad Street Walk of Stars together with a brand and registration of the original website, www.walkofstars.co.uk which became popular and was chosen by Radio 2 as'Website of the Day'.

The first star to be honoured was Ozzy Osbourne on 6 July 2007. The event was held in Centenary Square and introduced by Elliott Webb from Birmingham's commercial radio station BRMB and the star was presented to Ozzy by Lord Mayor of Birmingham Randal Brew; the Ozzy Osbourne presentation created £1.7M worth of worldwide publicity for the area. Comedian Jasper Carrott was the second person to have a star installed on Broad Street on 15 September 2007; the star was presented to him by the Lord Mayor of Birmingham during ArtsFest in front of a 10,000 strong crowd. In December 2007, Noddy Holder became the third inductee on the Walk of Stars, presented to him on a canal boat, during the Broad Street Christmas Canal Boat Light Parade; the stars were fenced off following safety concerns about their polished surfaces. Leicestershire-based Charcon Specialist Products, who produced the stars, was consulted over the situation. Murray Walker was inducted into the Walk of Stars. A joint induction took place on 12 September 2008 for BBC Radio 4 series The Archers and cast member Norman Painting.

On 7 October 2008, the BBC announced. The following month founder member of Black Sabbath, Tony Iommi was inducted. On 26 March 2009, it was announced that each of five local football clubs would have a star commemorating their teams, a player, or a specific era; the presentation ceremonies will be staggered between August. The Walk of Stars website lists other potential nominees; these include: Bill Oddie Clive Owen The Moody Blues Electric Light Orchestra Benjamin Campbell Judas Priest Denise Lewis Johnnie Walker Martin Shaw Benjamin Zephaniah Adrian Chiles Tiswas Sir Simon Rattle Cat Deeley Robert Plant UB40 Duran Duran The Move List of Walks of Fame

Calappa calappa

Calappa calappa known as the smooth box crab or red-spotted box crab, is a tropical marine species of crab with an Indo-Pacific distribution, showing great variability in its patterning and colouration. First described as Cancer calappa by Linnaeus in 1758 from a specimen originating from Ambon Island, in 1781 as Cancer fornicatus by Fabricius, it was placed in the genus Calappa by Lancelot Alexander Borradaile in 1903; the name calappa is associated with kelapa, the Malay word for'coconut'. Occurring in the intertidal zone to a depth of 50 m, this species has a carapace of about 15 cm, indistinctly rugose on the anterior half, with wavy lines edging the posterior, it is active during the night hours, is able, when threatened, to swiftly burrow beneath the sand. It feeds on mollusks such as clams, steadying them with its legs and using its pincers, either prising the valves apart or breaking them. Calappa species "have evolved structures that are designed to deal with the more common dextral snails - they have become right-handed.

This asymmetry has evolved convergently in at least two groups of crabs, a Cretaceous crab known as Megaxantho and the extant box crabs. Here, one of the claws is enlarged and operates with a scissor-like action that facilitates peeling open the snail." This species can be found in Mombasa, Aldabra Island, Mauritius, Japan, Borocay, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Shark Bay, Abrolhos Islands, New Caledonia, Hawaiian Islands, Society Islands. Diverosa gallery Keoki Stender gallery YouTube Bent Christensen

Second Sacred War

The Second Sacred War was the Spartan defeat of Phocians at Delphi and the restoration of Delphian self-control. In 458 or 457 BC, Phocians captured three towns in the Spartan metropolis of Doris. A Spartan army marched on Doris, defeated the Phocians, restored Dorian rule. On their way back to Peloponnese, Athenians attacked the Spartan army. After the Five Years Truce, Sparta embarked on a campaign of truncating "Athens' imperialistic ambitions in Central Greece"; the Second Sacred War was a conflict over the occupation of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi: Spartans removed the Athenian-backed Phocians and returned stewardship to the Delphians. After the Spartans left, however, an Athenian army—led by Pericles—took the city and re-installed Phocian rule. Accepting the writings of Philochorus, a group of historians led by Karl Julius Beloch, Benjamin Dean Meritt, Theodore Wade-Gery, Malcolm Francis McGregor argued that the Spartan ejection of the Phocians occurred in 449 BC, that the Athenians re-installed them in 447 BC.

They were opposed by historians led by Arnold Wycombe Gomme and Felix Jacoby who, rejecting Philochorus' chronology, assert that both marches on Delphi happened in 448 BC. This Sacred War and the Third were the only two; as of 1997, there was no extant evidence that these changes in Delphian governance had any effect on pilgrims to Pythia

Archie Wilmotte Leslie Bray

Archibald Wilmotte Leslie Bray was an English-American educator. Bray served as a founder and head of Department of Biology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, between 1925 and his death in 1942. Bray is credited by Nobel laureate Harold Ulrey as being an inspiration for him in switching from psychology to the natural sciences. A popular teacher at several universities including University of Montana and Rensselaer, a prominent freshman dormitory at RPI is named in his honor. Bray was born in Sheffield, England to Nicholas Bray Jr. a second generation silver chaser and Mary Ann Rawson. English-Canadian activist Roger Ernest Bray was his elder brother. A family legend credits Roger with keeping a truant young Archie in school. At the turn of the century Bray traveled through "most of the United States and some of South America" before he returned to England in 1905 to attend Cambridge University. At Cambridge Bray was a First Class King's Scholar, Triple distinction. During Bray’s time in Cambridge he was a member of the “Authentic Club,” a reorganized version of the Cambridge Apostles, served as captain of their association football team.

According to Harold Urey's apocryphal account of his early mentor, after receiving his natural science degree Bray was eager to travel and having spent all his money on passage across the Atlantic “started his sightseeing by train – freight train.” Bray did acknowledge that during this time he toured Newfoundland for two years and taught school in Labrador. He spent two years traveling through the rest of Canada following which Bray received a graduate degree in philosophy from the University of Oregon and did some graduate work at the University of Montana. Urey's account of his mentor was more fantastic saying Bray was traveling from Chicago with "nothing but the clothes on his back". "Bray was kicked off of the train in Missoula, where he next pursued a job at the University. As he had no credentials with him, he took a job as a janitor in the university. At some point, Urey’s story goes, the university realized that they had a Cambridge-educated biologist in their midst and Bray was promoted to the position of Assistant Professor in zoology."

As for Urey’s account of Bray starting at University of Montana as a janitor, according to his obituary Bray held several jobs before “settling down as an educator,” including cowhand, cabin boy, hotel porter, ditch digger, draughtsman. Starting in 1913, Bray spent four years at the University of Montana one year as an instructor and three years as Assistant Professor. One of his early students was future Nobel laureate Harold Urey. According to Urey, Bray was a born educator. "Professor Bray was just a splendid, model teacher who opened up the whole fascinating world of science to me.” Urey considered his mentor “master of every subject from chemistry to theology with the exception of math”. Bray enjoyed working with students outside of class and involved himself with the students in singing and debate, he organized a group of young students including Urey into a philosophical club that he called The Authentic Society. In 1915 this organization became the Alpha Delta Alpha fraternity. A history of the fraternity stated that the Society and the fraternity were modeled after the Cambridge Apostles, a 19th century “free discussion society” within Cambridge which consisted of the young Alfred Lord Tennyson and John Stuart Mill, among other “men of world prominence.”

The Montana Fraternity continually grew in importance, became one of the strong organizations of the University and politically. Weekly meetings of the society were held. In its first seven years the Fraternity reported the highest grade point average and graduation rate of any fraternity on campus; the membership took on extracurricular debates on various topics. Bray acted as an adviser to this group of young men. With World War I Bray enlisted as a biologist in the service of the Chemical Warfare Service in Washington, D. C. where he worked under Chief of the Defense Section, Arthur Lamb. There Bray investigated biological methods of detecting gas weapons. Up to this time Bray had hired Ulrey as a field biologist working for him in Montana; when Urey felt some pressure to join his fraternity brothers in military service and take part in the excitement of the war effort Bray advised his protege to join the war effort with his chemical training, telling the budding scientist that “A trained chemist should serve on the chemical side.”

Urey's heading his mentor's advice may have saved his life as most of his 37 fraternity members who enlisted in the war effort perished in World War I. Working under Harvard chemist Arthu

Speed limits in Canada

Canadian speed limits are set by different levels of government, depending on the jurisdiction under which the road falls, resulting in differences from province to province. The limits have been posted in kilometres per hour since September 1, 1977. Before when Canada used Imperial units, speed limits were in miles per hour. Statutory speed limits are default speed limits set by statute in each territory, they apply on roads. Posted speed limits may differ from the statutory speed limit. In most provinces and territories, statutory speed limits are 50 km/h in urban areas, 80 km/h in rural areas. There is no statutory speed limit for grade-separated freeways. Statutory speed limits for school zones tend to be 30 or 40 km/h in urban areas and 50 km/h in rural areas; the highest speed limit in Canada is found on British Columbia's Coquihalla Highway with a speed limit of 120 km/h. British Columbia's Okanagan Connector and Highway 19 possessed 120 km/h limits, but have since been reduced to 110 km/h.

A dash means that there is no statutory speed limit: speed limits must always be posted. "N/A" means there is no such roadway in the territory. This table contains the most usual posted daytime speed limits, in kilometers per hour, on typical roads in each category; the values shown are not the fastest or slowest. In Ontario, speeding fines double in areas identified as "Community Safety Zones". In most Canadian provinces, as in most other locales, speed violation fines are double in construction zones, although in Ontario and Alberta, this only applies if workers are present in the construction zone. In Ontario, as of September 2007, drivers caught exceeding the posted speed limit by 50 km/h or more may have the vehicle that they are driving impounded for seven days, have their license suspended for seven days, have to appear before the court. For a first conviction, they face six demerit points. For a second conviction within 10 years of the first conviction, their license may be suspended for up to 10 years.

Since 2009 in both Ontario and Québec, trucks must be equipped with devices to electronically limit their speed to 105 km/h. In 2012, an Ontario court ruled that the law violated the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, however the law was upheld by the Ontario Court of Appeal in 2015. Radar detectors in Canada are legal only in British Columbia and Saskatchewan, they are illegal to possess in the other provinces and all three territories. Regardless of whether they are used or not and law enforcement officers may confiscate radar detectors, operational or not, impose substantial fines in provinces where radar detectors are illegal. Quebec penalizes $500 for use of a radar detector, along with confiscation of the device. A speed limit sign reads "MAXIMUM XX", such as "MAXIMUM 80" for 80 km/h. A minimum speed sign reads "XX MINIMUM", such as "60 MINIMUM" for 60 km/h. In British Columbia, a review of speed limits conducted in 2002 and 2003 for the Ministry of Transportation found that posted limits on investigated roads were unrealistically low for 1309 km and unrealistically high for 208 km.

The report recommended increasing speed limits on multi-lane limited-access highways constructed to high design standards from 110 km/h to 120 km/h. As described in that report, the Ministry is using "... Technical Circular T-10/00 to assess speed limits; the practice considers the 85th percentile speed, road geometry, roadside development, crash history." In July 2014, speed limits were adjusted on many of the province's highways, including some which were increased to 120 km/h the highest speed limit in Canada. Ontario's first provincial legislation governing automobile use came into effect in 1903, which included a 15 mph speed limit; the first provincial Highway Traffic Act passed in 1923 changed the speed limit for highways to 25 mph. Limits were increased, for rural roads, to 50 mph and again to 60 mph. In 1968 the maximum speed limit for freeways was raised to 70 mph. In 1976 the maximum speed limit for freeways was reduced to 60 mph, while the rural limit was reduced to 50 mph, except for main highways running through northern Ontario which were reduced to 55 mph.

In 1977, highways started using the metric system with speeds being increased to a maximum ranging from 80 to 100 km/h. In 2013, "speed too fast / exceed speed limit" contributed to 18.4% of all collisions, while "speeding" accounted for 55.2% of all driving convictions. An Ontario-based group is lobbying to increase speed limits from 100 km/h to 120-130 km/h. In 2015, the Ontario government announced a plan to reduce residential speed limits from the statutory default 50 km/h, either by reducing the statutory limit to 40 km/h or by giving municipalities the option to set their own statutory speed limits, as well as allowing posted speed limits in school zones to be lowered to 30 km/h. On September 26, 2019, speeds limits were increased as two-year trial to 110 km/h from 100 km/h as part of a pilot across Highway 402 from London to Sarnia, the Queen Elizabeth Way from St. Catharines/Lincoln to Hamilton, Highway 417 from Ottawa/Gloucester to the Ontario/Quebec border

1949 Summer Deaflympics

The 1949 Summer Deaflympics known as the 6th Deaf Olympiad is an international multi-sport event, held from 12 August 1949 to 16 August 1949. This event was hosted in Denmark; this Deaflympics was held after 10 years since the last edition of the Deaflympics due to World War II. Basketball and water polo were added as events for the first time in Deaflympics history; the following countries participated in the 1949 Deaflympics: Austria Belgium Czechoslovakia Denmark Finland France Great Britain Italy Netherlands Norway Sweden Switzerland United States of America Yugoslavia Athletics Cycling Diving Shooting Swimming Tennis Water polo Basketball Football * Host nation 100m Men 100m Women 200m 400m 800m 1500m 5000m 10000m 110m Hurdles 400m Hurdles High Jump Men High Jump Women Pole Vault Long Jump Men Long Jump Women Triple Jump Shot Put Men Shot Put Women Discus Throw Javelin Throw 4X100m Relay Men 4X100m Relay Women 4X400m Relay Olympic Relay Basketball Cycling- Road Individual Diving 3m Springboard Football Shooting Army Rifle 300m Shooting Team Classification Shooting Army Rifle 200m Swimming 100m FreestyleMen Swimming 100m Freestyle Women Swimming 200m Freestyle Women Swimming 400m Freestyle Men Swimming 400m Freestyle Women Swimming 1500m Freestyle Swimming 100m Backstroke Men Swimming 100m Backstroke Women Swimming 200m Breaststroke Men Swimming 200m Breaststroke Women Swimming 4x100m Freestyle Relay Men Swimming 4X50m Freestyle Relay Women Swimming 3x100m Medley Men Swimming 3x50m Medley Women Tennis Singles Men Tennis Singles Women Tennis Doubles Men Tennis Doubles Women Tennis Mixed Doubles Water Polo