The crude birth rate in a year or other period is the total number of live births per 1,000 population. The number of live births is taken from a universal registration system for births; the birth rate is used to calculate population growth. The estimated average population may be taken as the mid-year population. Another term used interchangeably with birth rate is natality; when the crude death rate is subtracted from the crude birth rate, the result is the rate of natural increase. This is equal to the rate of population change; the total birth rate —typically indicated as births per 1,000 population—is distinguished from a set of age-specific rates. The first known use of the term "birth rate" in English was in 1859; the average global birth rate was 18.5 births per 1,000 total population in 2016. The death rate was 7.8 per 1,000. The RNI was thus 10.6 percent. In 2012 the average global birth rate was 19.611 according to the World Bank and 19.15 births per 1,000 total population according to the CIA, compared to 20.09 per 1,000 total population in 2007.
The 2016 average of 18.6 births per 1,000 total population equates to 4.3 births per second or about 256 births per minute for the world. The birth rate is an issue of policy for national governments; some seek to increase the birth rate with financial incentives or provision of support services to new mothers. Conversely, other countries have policies to reduce the birth rate. Policies to increase the crude birth rate are known as pro-natalist policies, policies to reduce the crude birth rate are known as anti-natalist policies. Non-coercive measures such as improved information on birth control and its availability have achieved good results in countries such as Iran and Bangladesh. There has been discussion on whether bringing women into the forefront of development initiatives will lead to a decline in birth rates. In some countries, government policies have focused on reducing birth rates by improving women's rights and reproductive health. High birth rates are associated with health problems, low life expectancy, low living standards, low social status for women and low educational levels.
Demographic transition theory postulates that as a country undergoes economic development and social change its population growth declines, with birth rates serving as an indicator. At the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, women's issues gained considerable attention. Family programs were discussed, 137 countries drafted a World Population Plan of Action; as part of the discussion, many countries accepted modern birth control methods such as the birth control pill and the condom while opposing abortion. Population concerns, as well as the desire to include women in the discourse, were discussed. Birth rates ranging from 10–20 births per 1,000 are considered low, while rates from 40–50 births per 1,000 are considered high. There are problems associated with both extremes. High birth rates may stress government welfare and family programs, more store up overpopulation for the future. Additional problems faced by a country with a high birth rate include educating a growing number of children, creating jobs for these children when they enter the workforce, dealing with the environmental impact of a large population.
Low birth rates may stress the government to provide adequate senior welfare systems and stress families who must support the elders themselves. There will be fewer children to support an aging population. In the 20th century, several authoritarian governments sought either to increase or to decrease the birth rates, sometimes through forceful intervention. One of the most notorious natalist policies was that in communist Romania in 1967–1990, during the time of communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu, who adopted a aggressive natalist policy which included outlawing abortion and contraception, routine pregnancy tests for women, taxes on childlessness, legal discrimination against childless people; this policy has been depicted in documentaries. These policies temporarily increased birth rates for a few years, but this was followed by a decline due to the increased use of illegal abortion. Ceaușescu's policy resulted in over 9,000 women dying due to illegal abortions, large numbers of children put into Romanian orphanages by parents who could not cope with raising them, street children in the 1990s, overcrowding in homes and schools.
This aggressive natalist policy led to a generation, some of whom would not otherwise have been born, who led the Romanian Revolution which overthrew and executed him. In stark contrast to Ceaușescu's natalist policy was China's one child policy, in effect from 1978 to 2015, which included abuses such as forced abortions; this policy has been deemed responsible for the common practice of sex selective abortion which led to an imbalanced sex ratio in the country. Given strict family size limitations and a preference for sons, girls became unwanted in China becaus
Pastor Humberto Lay Sun is a Peruvian evangelical minister of the Iglesia Biblica Emmanuel, an architect, a politician. He is of Chinese descent, he studied at the Colegio San Andrés. He was a commissioner on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission that investigated abuses by the Shining Path, Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, the Military of Peru during the 1980s and 1990s, he was a Congressman representing Lima for the 2011–2016 term. From 1953 to 1957 he studied at the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería and received an architecture degree, he started his professional career in his family's import business. From 1979 on Lay was an important pastor in Alianza Cristiana y Misionera Church, whose largest temples he designed, thanks to his profession. In October 1987, he founded the Iglesia Bíblica Emmanuel in Lima, capital of Peru. Since this Christian church has developed and Pastor Lay has got a top position among the Christian leaders and pastors in Perú; this church is a well-known missionary church.
Lay is the president of Unión Nacional de Iglesias Cristianas Evangélicas del Perú - UNICEP. He is a member of the Fraternidad Internacional de Pastores Cristianos - FIPAC. After the downfall of Alberto Fujimori's dictatorial regime in 2001, Lay was active in the National Anti-corruption Initiative and Commission of Truth and National Reconciliation. Humberto Lay is a well-respected leader in the Christian evangelical world in Peru and abroad. Iglesia Biblica Emmanuel, which he founded in October 1987, is one of the most important churches in Peru and has many churches in several cities of Peru. Lay left his position as main pastor at that church when he entered political life, left his position to Ps. Saúl Gutiérrez, since the main pastor. In November 2005, Lay founded the National Restoration party, a rally of conservative evangelicals, which he has chaired since. Although Humberto Lay Sun ran unsuccessfully for president in the 2006 elections on the National Restoration ticket, obtaining 4.38% of the valid votes, the top political leaders in Peru have taken in count as he represents an important electoral base of evangelical Christians in Peru.
For the 2011 general elections, Lay integrated his National Restoration into the Alliance for the Great Change of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski and was elected Congressman for this group, as the only member of his party, as the eldest lawmaker in the 2011–2016 congressional period. Webpage of National Restoration Lay Sun's biography on the webpage of the Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission Resume on the National Electoral Committee siteTemplate:Peruvian Congress 2011–2016
Clifford Christopher Cocks CB FRS is a British mathematician and cryptographer. In 1973, while working at the United Kingdom Government Communications Headquarters, he invented a public key cryptography algorithm equivalent to what would become the RSA algorithm; the idea was classified information and his insight remained hidden for 24 years, despite being independently invented by Rivest and Adleman in 1977. Public-key cryptography using prime factorisation is now part of nearly every Internet transaction. Cocks was educated at Manchester Grammar School and went on to study the Mathematical Tripos as an undergraduate at King's College, Cambridge, he continued as a PhD student at the University of Oxford, where he specialised in number theory under Bryan Birch, but left academia without finishing his doctorate. Cocks left Oxford to join Communications-Electronics Security Group, an arm of GCHQ, in September 1973. Soon after, Cocks was told about James H. Ellis' non-secret encryption by Nick Patterson, an idea, published in 1969 but never implemented.
Several people had attempted creating the required one-way functions, but Cocks, with his background in number theory, decided to use prime factorization, did not write it down at the time. With this insight, he developed what became known as the RSA encryption algorithm. GCHQ was not able to find a way to use the algorithm, treated it as classified information; the scheme was passed to the NSA. With a military focus, financial considerations, low computing power, the power of public-key cryptography was unrealised in both organisations: I judged it most important for military use. In a fluid military situation you may meet unforeseen threats or opportunities.... If you can share your key and electronically, you have a major advantage over your opponent. Only at the end of the evolution from Berners-Lee designing an open internet architecture for CERN, its adaptation and adoption for the Arpanet... did public key cryptography realise its full potential. -Ralph Benjamin In 1977 the algorithm was independently invented and published by Rivest and Adleman, who named it after their initials.
There is no evidence of a hint or leak, conscious or unconscious, Cocks has dismissed the idea. The British achievement remained secret until 1997. In 1987, the GCHQ had plans to release the work, but Peter Wright's Spycatcher MI5 memoir caused them to delay revealing the research by ten years. 24 years after its discovery, on 18 December 1997, Cocks revealed the GCHQ history of public-key research in a public talk. James Ellis had died on 25 November 1997, a month before the public announcement was made. In 2001, Cocks developed one of the first secure identity-based encryption schemes, based on assumptions about quadratic residues in composite groups; the Cocks IBE scheme is not used in practice due to its high degree of ciphertext expansion. However, it is one of the few IBE schemes which do not use bilinear pairings, rely for security on more well-studied mathematical problems. In 1968, Cocks won a silver medal at the International Mathematical Olympiad. Clifford Cocks held the post of Chief Mathematician at GCHQ.
He established the Heilbronn Institute for Mathematical Research at the University of Bristol. Cocks was made a Companion of the Order of the Bath in 2008, he was awarded an honorary degree from the University of Bristol in 2008, an honorary Doctor of Science from the University of Birmingham in 2015. In 2010, he, James Ellis and Malcolm Williamson were honoured by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers for their part in public-key cryptography. Cocks was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2015, his certificate of election reads: Clifford Cocks is distinguished for his work in cryptography, he was the first to devise a practicable implementation of public key cryptography, more a practicable scheme for identity based public key encryption. Such achievements have been fundamental in ensuring the security of the world's electronic communications, security that we now take for granted
The Counselor is a 2013 crime thriller film directed by Ridley Scott and written by Cormac McCarthy. It stars Michael Fassbender as the eponymous Counselor as well as Penélope Cruz, Cameron Diaz, Javier Bardem and Brad Pitt; the film deals with primal human concerns like greed, mortality and trust related to the theme of corruption and profit in a high-stakes criminal environment. Out of greed, the Counselor gets irrevocably in over his head in a drug deal around the troubled Ciudad Juarez, Mexico/Texas border area; the Counselor was chosen as the closing film at the 2013 Morelia Film Festival and played the Cork Film Festival. The film was theatrically released on October 25, 2013 and is dedicated to Scott's brother, who died in 2012, it grossed $71 million worldwide against a budget of $25 million. A high-level cartel lawyer with dirty hands, known only as "The Counselor" and his girlfriend Laura are talking in bed. Meanwhile, somewhere in Mexico, cocaine is packaged in barrels and concealed in a sewage truck, driven across the border and stored at a sewage treatment plant.
After the Counselor goes to Amsterdam to meet with a diamond dealer to purchase an engagement ring for Laura, he proposes and she accepts. At a party back in Texas thrown by Reiner and girlfriend Malkina, a former call-girl with a greedy lust for money, the Counselor discusses a nightclub he and Reiner intend to run, as well as an upcoming drug deal, which would be his first. Reiner describes an execution device called "the bolito" which strangles and decapitates the victim; the Counselor meets with a business associate of Reiner's. He hears of the deal's 4000-percent return rate, but Westray warns the Counselor about becoming involved, saying that Mexican cartels are merciless; the Counselor remains outwardly unconcerned. Malkina gains knowledge of the deal through her access to Reiner and by conveniently overhearing various intercoms in Reiner's home. Reiner tells the Counselor how disturbed and oddly aroused he was from an incident where he witnessed Malkina masturbate with his Ferrari California's windshield.
The Counselor visits a client, a prison inmate named Ruth, on trial for murder. Ruth's son is a biker and a valued drug cartel member known as "the Green Hornet" arrested for speeding; the Counselor agrees to bail him out of jail. Malkina senses an opportunity to profit for herself, she employs "the Wireman" to steal the drugs. He decapitates the biker, Ruth's released son, with a wire stretched across an empty desert road; the Wireman steals the truck containing the cocaine. Learning of the theft, Westray meets with the Counselor to notify him that the biker is dead and the cocaine stolen, bleakly intoning the Counselor's culpability. Westray says he is leaving town and suggests the Counselor do the same. Westray explains that the cartel's ruthlessness extends to creating "snuff films" where murder victims are filmed having necrophilia performed on them on camera; the Counselor makes an urgent call to Laura, arranging to meet her in another state, where he will explain. The cartel has learned that the Counselor bailed out the Green Hornet, which appears as suspicious timing and blameworthy for the punitive purposes of the cartel.
In Texas, two cartel members pretending to be police officers pull over the Wireman and his accomplice, killing both and gunning down an innocent driver who comes upon the scene. Reiner is accidentally killed by cartel members; the cartel kidnaps Laura. In a last-ditch effort, the Counselor contacts Jefe, a high-ranking cartel member, for suggestions on what to do next. Jefe darkly and mordantly advises the Counselor to resign himself irrevocably to the choices he made long beforehand, speaking philosophically, citing the life and poetry of Antonio Machado to underline his advice; the Counselor goes to Mexico, hoping to rescue Laura there. A package is slipped under the door of his hotel room and in it he finds a DVD with "Hola!" Written on it, breaking down in heavy sobs at the awareness that the disc contains a snuff film of Laura sent by the cartel. In an unnamed location, Laura's body is dumped into a landfill. Malkina's failed effort to steal the drugs does not deter her, she tracks Westray to London, where she hires a blonde woman to steal his bank codes.
She has accomplices steal Westray's laptop, he is killed with the "bolito" device that Reiner had described. Malkina meets her banker at a restaurant, coolly explaining how she wants her profits and accounts to be handled. Writing for his Serpent Box blog on October 28, 2013, the novelist Vincent Carrella identified the Spanish poet Antonio Machado as the source of the poetic verses used by the cartel kingpin, when speaking to the Counselor. In the second half of the film, Jefe recites directly from the poem to the Counselor, "Caminante, no hay camino. Se hace camino al andar," which translates in its original context as: wanderer, there is no road; this passage is taken from Machado's poem Campos de Castilla with Machado's reflections upon the prospects of his own life after learning of his wife being diagnosed with terminal tuberculosis from which she would die within a year. Jefe uses the poem to inform the Counselor of his own impending demise. In the film, Jefe concludes by telling the Counselor, "You are the world.
And when you cease to exist, that world you have created will cease to exist." On January 18, 2012, it was reported that novelist Cormac McCarthy had sold his first spec script, The Counselor, to Nick Wechsler, Steve Schwartz and Paula Mae Schwar
Virginia University of Lynchburg is a private black Christian university in Lynchburg, Virginia. The university offers instruction and degrees in religious studies, including a Doctorate of Ministry program; the campus is a historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Virginia University of Lynchburg is the oldest school of higher learning in Lynchburg; the school was founded in 1886 and incorporated in 1888 by the Virginia Baptist State Convention as the coeducational "Lynchburg Baptist Seminary". Classes were first held in 1890 under the name Virginia Seminary. With the offering of a collegiate program in 1900, the name was again changed, to Virginia Theological Seminary and College. In 1962, the institution was renamed to College. In 1996, the school was given its current name; the campus includes three historic academic buildings on 6.82 acres: Graham Hall, Humbles Hall and the Mary Jane Cachelin Memorial Science and Library Building. These buildings and the Hayes Monument comprise a historic district, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2010.
Its first President was the Rev. Phillip F. Morris, pastor of the city's Court Street Baptist Church. Seeking a financial patron, Morris agreed to step down as president rather than yield to the demand of the American Baptist Home Mission Society that he step down from the pulpit to assume full-time leadership of the school. Rev. Morris would serve as President of the National Baptist Convention. Rev. Gregory W. Hayes, a graduate of Oberlin College, assumed the full-time position as President in 1891, serving until his death in 1906, his wife, Mary Rice Hayes Allen, biracial daughter of a Confederate general and mother of author Carrie Allen McCray, assumed the presidency until replaced by Dr. JRL Diggs in 1908. During Hayes' administration, controversy arose between black separatists and accommodationists over the future of the school; the chief patron wished it to become a pre-collegiate manual training institution. Hayes, among the separatists, returned the patronage to retain and strengthen black autonomy and academic integrity.
This move led to a schism within the National Baptist Convention. In July 2010, the school reached an agreement with Liberty University to help VUL students looking for degrees not offered at the school to complete their degrees at Liberty. Among the alumni of the university is John Chilembwe, a Nyasa Baptist preacher and leader of the 1915 Chilembwe uprising, who graduated in 1901; the Virginia University of Lynchburg was a member of the United States Collegiate Athletic Association. They were removed from the USCAA for failing to pay their membership fees; the Virginia University of Lynchburg is now a member of the National Christian College Athletic Association NCCAA. They are ineligible to join the NCAA and the NAIA due to insufficient academic accreditation, they are athletically known as the Dragons. Men's sports include basketball and track and field. Lawrence Carter, civil rights historian John Chilembwe, a Nyasa Baptist preacher and leader of the 1915 Chilembwe uprising Georgia Mabel DeBaptiste, academic James Robert Lincoln Diggs and civil rights activist Vernon Johns and civil rights activist W. Henry Maxwell and pastor Stella James Sims, biology professor at Storer College, Virginia University of Lynchburg, Bluefield State College Anne Spencer poet, civil rights activist and gardener Official website
The dérive is a revolutionary strategy put forward in the "Theory of the Dérive" by Guy Debord, a member at the time of the Letterist International. Debord defines the dérive as "a mode of experimental behavior linked to the conditions of urban society: a technique of rapid passage through varied ambiances." It is an unplanned journey through a landscape urban, in which participants drop their everyday relations and "let themselves be drawn by the attractions of the terrain and the encounters they find there". Though solo dérives are possible, Debord indicates that the most fruitful numerical arrangement consists of several small groups of two or three people who have reached the same level of awareness, since cross-checking these different groups' impressions makes it possible to arrive at more objective conclusions; the dérive's goals include studying the terrain of the city and emotional disorientation, both of which lead to the potential creation of Situations. The concept of the dérive has its origins in the Letterist International, an avant-garde and Marxist collective based in Paris.
The dérive was a critical tool for understanding and developing the theory of psychogeography, defined as the "specific effects of the geographical environment on the emotions and behavior of individuals."The dérive continued to be a critical concept in the theories of the Situationist International, a radical group of avant-garde artists and political theorists, formed out of the Letterist International, CoBrA, the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus in the 1950s. For the Situationists, the dérive was a revolutionary technique to combat the malaise and boredom of the society of the spectacle. Dérives are necessary, according to Situationist theory, because of the predictable and monotonous experience of everyday life in advanced capitalism. Debord observes in his Introduction to a Critique of Urban Geography: The sudden change of ambiance in a street within the space of a few meters. In any case they are never envisaged as depending on causes that can be uncovered by careful analysis and turned to account.
Several groups have adopted the concept of the dérive and applied it in their own form, including many modern organizations, most notably the Loiterers Resistance Movement, the London Psychogeographical Association and Sites, the Unilalia Group, the Providence Initiative for Psychogeographic Studies. Since 2003 in the United States, separate events known as the Providence Initiative for Psychogeographic Studies and Psy-Geo-Conflux have been dedicated to action-based participatory experiments similar to the dérive within the context of psychogeography. A smartphone app named Dérive was developed in the 21st century by a team including Eduardo Cachucho and Babak Fakhamzadeh; the smartphone app shows a series of simple geography-based directions such as "follow a red vehicle" to create the dérive. Cultural anthropology Flâneur Parkour Psychogeography Situationism Unitary urbanism Urban geography Urbanism Texts Introduction to a Critique of Urban Geography, Guy Debord, Theory of the Dérive, Guy Debord, Films Psychohydrography, a dérive film, by Peter Bo Rappmund Taxi, 2015, Iranian docufiction on Tehran by Jafar Panahi at The Guardian Drits, 2016, a Portuguese docufiction on Lisbon by Ricardo Costa