The Venetian Causeway crosses Biscayne Bay between Miami on the mainland and Miami Beach on a barrier island in south Florida. The man-made Venetian Islands and non-bridge portions of the causeway were created by materials which came from the dredging of the bay; the Venetian Causeway follows the original route of the Collins Bridge, a wooden 2.5 mi long structure built in 1913 by John S. Collins and Carl G. Fisher which opened up the barrier island for unprecedented growth and development; the causeway has one toll plaza on the westernmost Venetian Island. The toll for an automobile is $3.00. The causeway has two bascule bridges. At the Downtown/Western Beginning of the causeway travelers are greeted by two columns vertically saying "VENETIAN WAY" along with a sign indicating that there is a weight limit. At the South Beach/Eastern Terminus, drivers must choose whether to go north onto Dade Boulevard or eastbound onto 17th Street to Ocean Drive, Collins Ave/A1A, Lincoln Road, City Hall, The Convention Center, Jackie Gleason Theater and the beach.
The Venetian Causeway was re-dedicated in 1999 after the completion of a $29 million restoration and replacement project. A popular use of the causeway is for exercising, which includes both bicycling. Belle Isle Collins Bridge Di Lido Island Biscayne Island Rivo Alto Island John S. Collins Carl G. Fisher New York Times Article: Islands of Calm
Biscayne Bay Campus
The Biscayne Bay Campus, located in North Miami, Florida, is a branch campus of Florida International University. With a student body of more than 7,000, it is the largest branch campus in Florida’s State University System. FIU’s nationally ranked schools of Chaplin School of Hospitality and Tourism Management and Mass Communication, Environment and Society, Business Administration are headquartered at BBC. Offering numerous undergraduate majors and selected graduate degrees located about an hour from FIU main campus. Encompassing nearly 200 acres, the campus is surrounded by the largest urban park in Florida, Oleta River State Park, it includes a library, an aquatic center, a conference center, a food court and a marine science research facility. FIU's Biscayne Bay Campus completed renovations in the Fall of 2014, including a new Panther Plaza, Wolfe University Center Lobby, Wolfe University Center Lounge, Wine Spectator Restaurant, Hubert Library Instructional Lab, Food Court, Royal Caribbean International Performance and Production Facility.
The Food Network & Cooking Channel South Beach Wine & Food Festival celebrated its 15th anniversary in February 2016. The Festival now attracts more than 65,000 guests annually to its 85+ events throughout the weekend. To date, the Festival has raised more than $24 million for the School. On December 19, 2013, FIU's president Mark B. Rosenberg announced a new partnership between FIU and Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.. that includes a 130,000-square-foot, state-of-the-art rehearsal and production studio on Friday for Royal Caribbean’s onboard entertainment, provides learning and practical opportunities for our FIU students.. Located on FIU’s Biscayne Bay Campus, the production studio features three-story studios, a 300-seat theater, 20,000-square-foot costume-making facility, 10 rehearsal studios, recording and video editing facilities; the Wolfe University Center serves as the social community center for Biscayne Bay Campus. The facility received a $2 million renovation completed in the Fall of 2014.
The Wolfe University Center is a multipurpose building consisting of a theater, three meeting rooms, an executive conference room, four ballrooms. The Wolfe University Center can accommodate up to 500 guests, it features ATM, food court, computer lab, business center, bookstore on site, student video game lounge, in-house caterer, on-site ropes course and team-building, recreational areas such as tennis courts, olympic pool and gym. Home to cultural and recreational programs, it offers involvement opportunities for students, staff and visitors; the Student Government Association represents the student body. Their sole purpose is to ensure that student voices are expressed to the administrators. SGC-BBC represents the student body's needs on the Biscayne Bay Campus of Florida International University. SOC oversees all the clubs at Florida International University's Biscayne Bay Campus; the Student Programming Council is an organization that programs events for the FIU students and its community.
Events include comedy shows, concerts, pool parties, special events and lectures. Members of SPC have the opportunity to gain leadership experience and learn how to program a variety of events. In addition, the council works with other organizations on campus to provide more diverse programming to students. Bay Vista Housing was the student housing from 1985 to 2014. In the Fall of 2016 the new BayView Student Living opened up. Bay Vista Housing was a apartment-style building that opens into a courtyard. Bay Vista Housing was closed down in 2014 for refurbishment, it is located about 30 miles north of the MMC Campus in North Miami. It will reopen. BayView Student Living opened in July 2016. Florida International University - Official website FIU Biscayne Bay Campus - Official Biscayne Bay Campus website FIU BBC Student Affairs
University of Miami
The University of Miami is a private, nonsectarian research university in Coral Gables, United States. As of 2018, the university enrolls 17,331 students in 12 separate colleges/schools, including the Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine in Miami's Health District, a law school on the main campus, the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science focused on the study of oceanography and atmospheric sciences on Virginia Key, with research facilities at the Richmond Facility in southern Miami-Dade County; the university offers 138 undergraduate, 144 master's, 68 doctoral degree programs, of which 64 are research/scholarship and four professional areas of study. Over the years, the university's students have represented all 50 states and close to 150 foreign countries. With more than 15,000 full and part-time faculty and staff, UM is a top 10 employer in Miami-Dade County. UM's main campus in Coral Gables has over 5.7 million square feet of buildings. Research is a component of each academic division, with UM attracting $345.8 million in sponsored research grants in FY 2018.
UM offers a large library system with over 3.9 million volumes and exceptional holdings in Cuban heritage and music. UM offers a wide range of student activities, including fraternities and sororities, a student newspaper and a radio station. UM's intercollegiate athletic teams, collectively known as the Miami Hurricanes, compete in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. UM's football team has won five national championships since 1983 and its baseball team has won four national championships since 1982. A group of citizens chartered the University of Miami in 1925 with the intent to offer "unique opportunities to develop inter-American studies, to further creative work in the arts and letters, to conduct teaching and research programs in tropical studies", they believed. They were overly optimistic about future financial support for UM because the South Florida land boom was at its peak. During the Jim Crow era, there were three large state-funded universities in Florida for white males, white females, black coeds.
The university began in earnest in 1925 when George E. Merrick, the founder of Coral Gables, gave 160 acres and nearly $5 million, to the effort; these contributions were land contracts and mortgages on real estate, sold in the city. The university was chartered on April 1925 by the Circuit Court for Dade County. By the fall of 1926, when the first class of 372 students enrolled at UM, the land boom had collapsed, hopes for a speedy recovery were dashed by a major hurricane. For the next 15 years the university remained solvent; the first building on campus, now known as the Merrick Building, was left half built for over two decades due to economic difficulties. In the meantime, classes were held at the nearby Anastasia Hotel, with partitions separating classrooms, giving the university the early nickname of "Cardboard College."In 1929, founding member William E. Walsh and other members of the Board of Regents resigned in the wake of the collapse of the Florida economy. UM's plight was so severe that students went door to door in Coral Gables collecting funds to keep it open.
A reconstituted ten-member Board was chaired by UM's first president Bowman Foster Ashe. The new board included Merrick, Theodore Dickinson, E. B. Douglas, David Fairchild, James H. Gilman, Richardson Saunders, Frank B. Shutts, Joseph H. Adams, J. C. Penney. In 1930, several faculty members and more than 60 students came to UM when the University of Havana closed due to political unrest. UM filed for bankruptcy in 1932. In July 1934, the University of Miami was reincorporated and a Board of Trustees replaced the Board of Regents. By 1940, community leaders were replacing administration as trustees; the university survived this early turmoil. During Ashe's presidency, the university added the School of Law, the Business School, the School of Education, the Graduate School, the Marine Laboratory, the School of Engineering, the School of Medicine. During World War II, UM was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a Navy commission.
One of Ashe's longtime assistants, Jay F. W. Pearson, assumed the presidency in 1952. A charter faculty member and a marine biologist by trade, Pearson retained the position until 1962. During his presidency, UM awarded its first doctorate degrees and saw an increase in enrollment of more than 4,000; the social changes of the 1960s and 1970s were reflected at UM. In 1961, UM began to admit black students. African Americans were allowed full participation in student activities and sports teams. After President Stanford pressed for minority athletes, in December 1966, UM signed Ray Bellamy, an African American football player. With Bellamy, UM became the first major college in the Deep South with a Black football player on scholarship. UM established an Office of Minority Affairs to promote diversity in both undergraduate and professional school admissions. With the start of the 1968 football season, President Henry Stanford barred the playing of "Dixie" by the university's band. UM regulated female student conduct more than men's conduct with a staff under the Dean of Women watching over the women.
UM combined the separate Dean of Men and Dean of Women positions in 1971. In 19
A toll bridge is a bridge where a monetary charge is required to pass over. The private or public owner builder and maintainer of the bridge uses the toll to recoup their investment, in much the same way as a toll road; the practice of collecting tolls on bridges harks back to the days of ferry crossings where people paid a fee to be ferried across stretches of water. As boats became impractical to carry large loads, ferry operators looked for new sources of revenue. Having built a bridge, they hoped to recoup their investment by charging tolls for people, animals and goods to cross it; the original London Bridge across the river Thames opened as a toll bridge, but an accumulation of funds by the charitable trust that operated the bridge saw that the charges were dropped. Using interest on its capital assets, the trust now owns and runs all seven central London bridges at no cost to taxpayers or users. In the United States, private ownership of toll bridges peaked in the mid-19th century, by the turn of the 20th century most toll bridges were taken over by state highway departments.
In some instances, a quasi-governmental authority was formed, toll revenue bonds were issued to raise funds for construction and/or operation of the facility. Peters and Kramer observed that "...little research has been done to quantify the impact of toll collection on society as a whole..." and therefore they published a comprehensive analysis of the Total Societal Cost associated with toll collection as a means of taxation. TSC is the sum of administrative, compliance and pollution costs. In 2000 they estimated it to be $56,914,732, they found that a user of a toll road is subject to a form of triple taxation, that in the final analysis toll collection is a inefficient means of funding the development of highway infrastructure. Nakamura and Kockelman show that tolls are by nature regressive, shifting the burden of taxation disproportionately to the poor and middle classes. Electronic toll collection, branded under names such as EZ-Pass, SunPass, IPass, FasTrak, GoodToGo, 407ETR, became prevalent to metropolitan areas in the 21st century.
Amy Finkelstien, a public finance economist at MIT, reports that as the fraction of drivers using electronic toll collection increased toll rates increased as well, because people were less aware of how much they're paying in tolls. Electronic tolling proposals that represented the shadow price of electronic toll collection may have misled decision makers. Consumers have additionally endured an increased administrative burden associated with paying toll bills and navigating toll collection company on-line billing systems. Additionally, visitors to a region may incur e-toll tag fees imposed by their rental car company; the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 identified and attempted to address a similar problem associated with the government collection of information. Approvals were to be secured by government agencies before promulgating a paper form, survey or electronic submission that will impose an information collection burden on the general public. However, the act did not anticipate and thus address the consumer burden associated with funding infrastructure via electronic toll collection instead of through more traditional forms of taxation.
In some instances, tolls have been removed after retirement of the toll revenue bonds issued to raise funds for construction and/or operation of the facility. Examples include the Robert E. Lee Memorial Bridge in Richmond, Virginia which carries U. S. Route 1 across the James River, the 4.5-mile long James River Bridge 80 miles downstream which carries U. S. Highway 17 across the river of the same name near its mouth at Hampton Roads. In other cases major facilities such as the Chesapeake Bay Bridge near Annapolis and the George Washington Bridge over Hudson River between New York City and New Jersey, the continued collection of tolls provides a dedicated source of funds for ongoing maintenance and improvements. Sometimes citizens revolt against toll plazas, as was the case in Florida. Tolls were in place on four bridges crossing the St. Johns River, including I-95; these tolls paid for the respective bridges as well as many other highway projects. As Jacksonville continued to grow, the tolls created bottlenecks on the roadway.
In 1988, Jacksonville voters chose to eliminate all the toll booths and replace the revenue with a ½ cent sales tax increase. In 1989, the toll booths were removed. In Scotland, the Scottish Parliament purchased the Skye Bridge from its owners in late 2004, ending the requirement to pay an unpopular expensive toll to cross to Skye from the mainland. In 2004, the German government cancelled a contract with the "Toll Collect" syndicate after much negative publicity; the term "Toll Collect" became a popular byword among Germans used to describe everything wrong with their national economy. It has become common for a toll bridge to only charge a fee in one direction; this helps reduce the traffic congestion in the other direction, does not reduce revenue when those travelling the one direction are forced to come back over the same or a different toll bridge. A practice known as shunpiking evolved which entails finding another route for the specific purpose of avoiding payment of tolls. In some situations where the tolls were increased or felt to be unreasonably high, informal shunpiking by individuals escalated into a form of boycott by regular users, with the goal of applying the financial stress of lost toll revenue to the authority determining the levy.
One such example of shunpiking as a fo
An artificial island or man-made island is an island, constructed by people rather than formed by natural means. Artificial islands may vary in size from small islets reclaimed to support a single pillar of a building or structure, to those that support entire communities and cities. Early artificial islands included floating structures in still waters, or wooden or megalithic structures erected in shallow waters. In modern times artificial islands are formed by land reclamation, but some are formed by the incidental isolation of an existing piece of land during canal construction, or flooding of valleys resulting in the tops of former knolls getting isolated by water. One of the world's largest artificial islands, René-Levasseur Island, was formed by the flooding of two adjacent reservoirs. Despite a popular image of modernity, artificial islands have a long history in many parts of the world, dating back to the reclaimed islands of Ancient Egyptian civilization, the Stilt crannogs of prehistoric Scotland and Ireland, the ceremonial centers of Nan Madol in Micronesia and the still extant floating islands of Lake Titicaca.
The city of Tenochtitlan, the Aztec predecessor of Mexico City, home to 500,000 people when the Spaniards arrived, stood on a small natural island in Lake Texcoco, surrounded by countless artificial chinamitl islands. The people of Langa Langa Lagoon and Lau Lagoon in Malaita, Solomon Islands built about 60 artificial islands on the reef including Funaafou and Adaege; the people of Lau Lagoon build islands on the reef as these provided protection against attack from the people who lived in the centre of Malaita. These islands were formed one rock at a time. A family would take their canoe out to the reef which protects the lagoon and dive for rocks, bring them to the surface and return to the selected site and drop the rocks into the water. Living on the reef was healthier as the mosquitoes, which infested the coastal swamps, were not found on the reef islands; the Lau people continue to live on the reef islands. Many artificial islands have been built in urban harbors to provide either a site deliberately isolated from the city or just spare real estate otherwise unobtainable in a crowded metropolis.
An example of the first case is Dejima, created in the bay of Nagasaki in Japan's Edo period as a contained center for European merchants. During the isolationist era, Dutch people were banned from Nagasaki and Japanese from Dejima. Ellis Island, in Upper New York Bay beside New York City, a former tiny islet expanded by Land Reclamation, served as an isolated immigration center for the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century, preventing an escape to the city of those refused entry for disease or other perceived flaws, who might otherwise be tempted toward illegal immigration. One of the most well-known artificial islands is the Île Notre-Dame in Montreal, built for Expo 67; the Venetian Islands in Miami Beach, Florida, in Biscayne Bay added valuable new real estate during the Florida land boom of the 1920s. When the bubble that the developers were riding burst, the bay was left scarred with the remnants of their failed project. A boom town development company was building a sea wall for an island, to be called Isola di Lolando but could not stay in business after the 1926 Miami Hurricane and the Great Depression, dooming the island-building project.
The concrete pilings from the project still stand as another development boom roared around them, 80 years later. In 1969, the Flevopolder in the Netherlands was finished, as part of the Zuiderzee Works, it has a total land surface of 970 km2, which makes it by far the largest artificial island by land reclamation in the world. The island consists of two polders Eastern Southern Flevoland. Together with the Noordoostpolder, which includes some small former islands like Urk, the polders form Flevoland, the 12th province of the Netherlands that entirely consists of reclaimed land; the Pearl-Qatar is in the north of the Qatari capital Doha, home to a range of residential and tourism activities. Qanat Quartier is designed to be a'Virtual Venice in the Middle East'. Lusail & large areas around Ras Laffan, Hamad International Airport & Hamad Port; the United Arab Emirates is home to several artificial island projects. They include the Yas Island, augmentions to Saadiyat Island, Khalifa Port, Al Reem Island, Al Lulu Island, Al Raha Creek, al Hudairiyat Island, Palm Islands projects.
Of all these, only the Palm Jumeirah is complete and inhabited so far. The Burj Al Arab is on its own artificial island; the Universe, Palm Jebel Ali, Dubai Waterfront, Palm Deira are on hold. China has conducted a land reclamation project which had built at least seven artificial islands in the South China Sea totaling 2000 acres in size by mid 2015. One artificial island built on Fiery Cross Reef near the Spratly Islands is now the site of a military barracks, lookout tower and a runway long enough to handle Chinese military aircraft. Kansai International Airport is the first airport to be built on an artificial island in 1994, followed by Chūbu Centrair International Airport in 2005, both the New Kitakyushu Airport and Kobe Airport in 2006, Ordu Giresun Airport in 2016; when Hong Kong International Airport opened in 1998, 75% of the property was created using land reclamation upon the existing islands of Chek Lap Kok and Lam Chau. China is building several airports on artificial islands, they include runways of Shanghai int
Sewage is a type of wastewater, produced by a community of people. It is characterized by volume or rate of flow, physical condition and toxic constituents, its bacteriologic status, it consists of greywater, blackwater. Sewage travels from a building's plumbing either into a sewer, which will carry it elsewhere, or into an onsite sewage facility. Whether it is combined with surface runoff in the sewer depends on the sewer design; the reality is, that most wastewater produced globally remains untreated causing widespread water pollution in low-income countries: A global estimate by UNDP and UN-Habitat is that 90% of all wastewater generated is released into the environment untreated. In many developing countries the bulk of domestic and industrial wastewater is discharged without any treatment or after primary treatment only; the term sewage is nowadays regarded as an older term and is being more and more replaced by "wastewater". In general American English usage, the terms "sewage" and "sewerage" mean the same thing.
In common British usage, in American technical and professional English usage, "sewerage" refers to the infrastructure that conveys sewage. Before the 20th century, sewers discharged into a body of water such as a stream, lake, bay, or ocean. There was no treatment, so the breakdown of the human waste was left to the ecosystem. Today, the goal is that sewers route their contents to a wastewater treatment plant rather than directly to a body of water. In many countries, this is the norm. Current approaches to sewage management may include handling surface runoff separately from sewage, handling greywater separately from blackwater, coping better with abnormal events. Proper collection and safe, nuisance-free disposal of the liquid wastes of a community are recognized as a necessity in an urbanized, industrialized society; the wastewater from residences and institutions, carrying bodily wastes, washing water, food preparation wastes, laundry wastes, other waste products of normal living, are classed as domestic or sanitary sewage.
Liquid-carried wastes from stores and service establishments serving the immediate community, termed commercial wastes, are included in the sanitary or domestic sewage category if their characteristics are similar to household flows. Wastes that result from industrial processes such as the production or manufacture of goods are classed as industrial wastewater, not as sewage. Surface runoff known as storm flow or overland flow, is that portion of precipitation that runs over the ground surface to a defined channel. Precipitation absorbs gases and particulates from the atmosphere and leaches materials from vegetation and soil, suspends matter from the land, washes spills and debris from urban streets and highways, carries all these pollutants as wastes in its flow to a collection point. Sewage is a complex mixture of chemicals, with many distinctive chemical characteristics; these include high concentrations of ammonium, nitrogen, high conductivity, high alkalinity, with pH ranging between 7 and 8.
The organic matter of sewage is measured by determining its biological oxygen demand or the chemical oxygen demand. Sewage contains human feces, therefore contains pathogens of one of the four types: Bacteria, Viruses and Parasites such as helminths and their eggs Sewage can be monitored for both disease-causing and benign organisms with a variety of techniques. Traditional techniques involve filtering and examining samples under a microscope. Much more sensitive and specific testing can be accomplished with DNA sequencing, such as when looking for rare organisms, attempting eradication, testing for drug-resistant strains, or discovering new species. Sequencing DNA from an environmental sample is known as metagenomics. Sewage contains environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants. Trihalomethanes can be present as a result of past disinfection. Sewage has been analyzed to determine relative rates of use of prescription and illegal drugs among municipal populations. All categories of sewage are to carry pathogenic organisms that can transmit disease to humans and animals.
Sewage contains organic matter that can cause odor and attract flies. Sewage contains nutrients. A system of sewer pipes takes it for treatment or disposal; the system of sewers is called sewerage or sewerage system in British English and sewage system in American English. Where a main sewerage system has not been provided, sewage may be collected from homes by pipes into septic tanks or cesspits, where it may be treated or collected in vehicles and taken for treatment or disposal. Properly functioning septic tanks require emptying every 2–