The Bishop of London is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers 458 km2 of 17 boroughs of Greater London north of the River Thames and a small part of the County of Surrey; the see is in the City of London where the seat is St Paul's Cathedral, founded as a cathedral in 604 and was rebuilt from 1675 following the Great Fire of London. Third in seniority in the Church of England after the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the bishop is one of five senior bishops who sit as of right as one of the 26 Lords Spiritual in the House of Lords; the other four senior bishops are the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Archbishop of York, the Bishop of Durham and the Bishop of Winchester. The bishop's residence is The Dean's Court, City of London. For over 1000 years, Fulham Palace was the residence and from the 18th century the bishop had chambers at London House next to the Bishop's Chapel in Aldersgate Street; the current Bishop of London is Sarah Mullally.
She was confirmed on 8 March 2018 after acting in post after her canonical election on 25 January 2018. The diocesan bishop of London has had direct episcopal oversight in the Two Cities area since the institution of the London area scheme in 1979. According to a 12th-century list, which may be recorded by Jocelyne of Furness, there had been 14 "archbishops" of London, claiming London's Christian community was founded in the 2nd century under the legendary King Lucius and his missionary saints Fagan, Deruvian and Medwin. None of, considered credible by modern historians but, although the surviving text is problematic, either Bishop Restitutus or Adelphius at the 314 Council of Arles seems to have come from Londinium. However, according to sources, there had been 16 Romano-British "bishops" of London; the location of Londinium's original cathedral is uncertain. The present structure of St Peter upon Cornhill was designed by Christopher Wren following the Great Fire in 1666 but it stands upon the highest point in the area of old Londinium and medieval legends tied it to the city's earliest Christian community.
In 1995, however, a large and ornate 4th-century church was discovered on Tower Hill, which seems to have mimicked St Ambrose's cathedral in the imperial capital at Milan on a still-larger scale. This possible cathedral was built between 350 and 400 out of stone taken from other buildings, including its veneer of black marble, it was burnt down in the early 5th century. Following the establishment of the archdiocese of Canterbury by the Gregorian mission, its leader St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Saxon kingdom of Essex. Bede records that Augustine's patron, King Æthelberht of Kent, built a cathedral for his nephew King Sæberht of Essex as part of this mission; this cathedral was dedicated to St Paul. Although it's not clear whether Lundenwic or Lundenburh was intended, it is assumed the church was located in the same place occupied by the present St Paul's Cathedral atop Ludgate Hill in London. Renaissance rumours that the cathedral had been erected over a Roman temple of the goddess Diana are no longer credited: during his rebuilding of the cathedral following the Great Fire of 1666, Christopher Wren reported discovering no trace of such a structure.
Because the bishop's diocese includes the royal palaces and the seat of government at Westminster, he has been regarded as the "King's bishop" and has had considerable influence with members of the Royal Family and leading politicians of the day. Since 1748 it has been customary to appoint the Bishop of London to the post of Dean of Her Majesty’s Chapels Royal, which has the amusing effect of putting under the bishop's jurisdiction, as dean, several chapels which are geographically in the Diocese of London but, as royal peculiars, are outside the bishop's jurisdiction as bishop; the Bishop of London had responsibility for the church in the British colonies in North America, although after the American Revolution of 1776, all that remained under his jurisdiction were the islands of the British West Indies. The diocese was further reduced in 1846, when the counties of Essex and Hertfordshire were ceded to the Diocese of Rochester; the Report of the Commissioners appointed by his Majesty to inquire into the Ecclesiastical Revenues of England and Wales, noted the annual net income for the London see was £13,929.
The dates and names of these early bishops are uncertain. Among those who called Assistant Bishop of London, or coadjutor bishop, were: 1884–1886: Jonathan Titcomb, former Bishop of Rangoon — for Central and Northern Europe 1897–1910: Alfred Barry, a Canon of Windsor, Rector of St James's Church, assistant bishop in West London, former Anglican Bishop of Sydney 1962–1966: Ambrose Reeves, former Anglican Bishop of Johannesburg Diocese of London website Bishop of London refuses to ban gay Bishop from church service The papers of the Bishops of London covering 1423–1945 are held at Lambeth Palace Library
Tesco has expanded its operations outside the UK to 11 other countries in the world. Tesco continues to see growth elsewhere. Sam Pointer's international expansion strategy has responded to the need to be sensitive to local expectations in other countries by entering into joint ventures with local partners, such as Samsung Group in South Korea, Charoen Pokphand in Thailand, appointing a high proportion of local personnel to management positions, it makes small acquisitions as part of its strategy: for example, in its 2005/2006 financial year it made acquisitions in South Korea, one in Poland and one in Japan. In late 2004 the amount of floorspace Tesco operated outside the United Kingdom surpassed the amount it had in its home market for the first time, although the United Kingdom still accounted for more than 75% of group revenue due to lower sales per unit area outside the UK. In September 2005 Tesco announced that it was selling its operations in Taiwan to Carrefour and purchasing Carrefour's stores in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Both companies stated that they were concentrating their efforts in countries where they had strong market positions. The following table shows the number of stores, total store size in area and sales for Tesco's international operations; the store numbers and floor area figures are as at 18 April 2012. Tesco opened its first store in the Czech Republic in 1996 and now has over 300 stores, with further planned. Tesco opened its first stores in the Czech Republic by buying US corporation Kmart's operations in the country and converting them into Tesco stores. Tesco is keen to expand non-food items and has opened petrol stations and offers personal finance services in the Czech Republic. There are nine Tesco Extra stores in the Czech Republic – three in Prague, two in Plzeň, one in Brno, Mladá Boleslav and Ostrava. By 2012 the company had 322 stores in the Czech Republic, it is a market leader in the country. Tesco owned a French food retailer called Catteau between 1993 and 1997, which operated a chain of 92 stores in NE France under the Cedico, Hyper Cedico and Cedimarche banners.
Tesco operated a "Vin Plus" outlet in Calais, selling wine and spirits, which closed on 30 August 2010. Tesco launched in Hungary in 1994 after purchasing a small local supermarket group trading as S-Market based in Szombathely, in the West of Hungary, it opened its first hypermarket in Hungary at the Polus Centre in Budapest in 1996. Tesco operates through more than 200 stores in Hungary with further openings planned. Tesco Hungary offers a clothing line and personal finance services. In August 2010 opened the first Tesco Extra in Budapest; the second Tesco Extra opened in Debrecen in 2012. Tesco entered the Polish market in 1995, it operates from 450 stores. Tesco Poland sells various brands including its own branded line of products as well as regional produce, personal finance services and on-line photo processing. In August 2008 Tesco opened the first Extra store in Poland located in Częstochowa. There are 27 Tesco Extra stores in Poland. In November 2019, having suffered years of net losses and despite extensive cost-cutting and attempts at streamlining of its business model, Tesco announced its intent to sell all of its operations in Poland.
The acquisition is expected to happen by February 2020. Tesco Slovakia opened in 1996, it now operates from 123 stores. Tesco Slovakia has put great emphasis on organic products. However, Tesco Slovakia caused controversy amongst the Slovak government when it was found to have come foul of food safety laws in 2006. In April 2010 the first Tesco Extra in Central Europe opened in Bratislava – Petrzalka, Slovakia as part of a pilot project for Tesco in the region, including the first self-service cash flow in Central Europe. There are seven Tesco Extra stores in Slovakia – three in Bratislava and one in Zvolen, Banska Bystrica and Spišská Nová Ves. In 2010 first Tesco Express stores were opened in Bratislava with current number of 16 shops. Tesco operates store called'My' in Bratislava which accept Clubcard and share some branding, most promotions do not apply for My. Tesco in Slovakia operates mobile network "Tesco Mobile" and petrol stations. Tesco first operated in the Irish grocery market in the early 1980s, selling its operations there in March 1986.
Tesco re-entered the Irish market in 1997 after the purchase of Power Supermarkets Ltd. It now operates from 101 stores across Ireland. Like Tesco stores in the UK, these offer a home delivery shopping service available to 80% of the Irish population as well as petrol, mobile telephone, personal finance, flower delivery service and a weight-loss programme. Tesco's loyalty programme, Clubcard, is offered in the country. Tesco Ireland claims to be the largest purchaser of Irish food with an estimated €1.5 billion annually. Tesco Ireland operates a number of Tesco Extra hypermarkets in Ireland, with Clarehall Extra on the Malahide Road being the first to open in 2006. Tesco's largest hypermarket store in Europe, with a floorspace of 18,500 m2, opened in Naas in Co Kildare in November 2010; the country's newspaper of record the Irish Times in April 2011 said that "Increasingly, Ireland is being viewed as a provincial backwater by the parent company – albeit a profitable little backwater – and all the strategic decisions are being taken in the UK.
In 2008 Tesco opened its first eco store in Co.. Waterford, it is expected to use 45% less energy than other Tesco supermarkets of similar size. Tesc
David Nachmansohn was a German-Jewish biochemist responsible for elucidating the role of phosphocreatine in energy production in the muscles, the role of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in nerve stimulation. He is recognised for his basic research into the biochemistry and mechanism underlying bioelectric phenomena, he was born in Ekaterinoslav, moving to Berlin at an early age. In 1926 he went to the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Biologie where he worked in the laboratory under Otto Meyerhof. Nachmansohn discovered that contracting muscles contained more phosphocreatine than contracting ones, which led to the hypothesis that phosphocreatine was involved in the regeneration of the ATP, built up to provide energy during muscular contraction. Leaving Nazi-era Berlin, Nachmansohn arrived in Paris in 1933 and took up a position in the Sorbonne. There he discovered that acetylcholinesterase is present at high concentrations in many different types of excitable nerve and muscle fibres and in brain tissue - lending support for Otto Loewi and Henry Dale's novel proposal that acetylcholine functions in the transmission of impulses from nerves across junctions to other nerves or to muscles.
Nachmansohn obtained active solutions of acetylcholinesterase from the electric organ of the marbled electric ray. Nachmansohn moved to Yale University in 1939 and while there published studies confirming the presence of higher concentration of acetylcholinesterase in the electric organ of electric eels; this work demonstrated a strong connection between the release of acetylcholine and the electric discharge. In 1942 Nachmansohn moved into a laboratory at Columbia University where his group continued to publish on the mechanism underlying electric discharge in fish. David Nachmansohn was elected member of Leopoldina in 1963 and became a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1965, he was made an Honorary Fellow of the Weizmann Institute in 1972. David Nachmansohn — Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences