Alain Rey is a French linguist and radio personality. He is the editor-in-chief at French dictionary publisher Dictionnaires Le Robert. Rey was born in Pont-du-Château on August 30, 1928. After studying political science and art history at the Sorbonne, Rey served in the 4th Regiment of the Tunisian Troops. While stationed in Algeria in 1952, he replied to an advertisement placed by Paul Robert, compiling a new French dictionary and looking for linguists. Rey become Robert's first collaborator, on Dictionnaire analogique. Robert's network of lexicographers grew and Rey married his colleague Josette Debove in 1954. In 1964 the first Le Robert dictionary was published, followed by an abridged Le Petit Robert in 1967. Rey went on to supervise the publication of many more dictionaries under the Le Robert trademark: the Petit Robert. On 20th October 2016 a new and expanded edition of the Dictionnaire historique will be published in two volumes in a case. In 2005, he published the Dictionnaire culturel en langue française.
Beyond the printed page, Rey enjoys the status of a French media personality. Between 1993 and 2006, he appeared daily on France Inter's morning radio show, Sept neuf trente, in a three-minute closing segment called Le mot de la fin, in which he presented an entertaining analysis of French vocabulary. Rey garnished these segments with political commentary of a libertarian stripe. Rey's segment was retired in 2006 — a move that for some signalled France Inter's desire for new blood to capture a younger demographic, his last segment with France Inter, which aired June 29, 2006, examined the word salut. Between 2004 and 2005, Rey appeared after the 8 o'clock evening news on the channel France 2, in a segment entitled Démo des Mots, in which he explained the history of French financial jargon. In 2005, the French Minister of Culture and Communication awarded him the title of Commander in the French Ordre des Arts et des Lettres. Rey is a signatory of the Appel à la vigilance contre le néocréationnisme et les intrusions spiritualistes en science, published in France in December 2005.
Since September 2007, Rey has appeared on Laurent Baffie's Sunday morning radio show on Europe 1. On July 14th 2017, French YouTuber Squeezie made a song with two popular rappers called Bigflo & Oli. To get the words for the song they randomly selected words from a dictionary, directed by Rey, they made a joke about how people Rey became a running joke. On September 29 2017, Squeezie made another song with Bigflo & Oli, this time they invited Alain himself to choose their words, they chose words for him to rap. Littré, l’humaniste et les mots, 1970 La Lexicologie: Lectures, 1970 Théories du signe et du sens, volume 1 and 2 Le Lexique: Images et modèles, 1977 Les Spectres de la bande, essai sur la BD, 1978 Noms et notions: la terminologie — Que sais-je?, 1979 and 1992 Le Théâtre, 1980 Encyclopédies et dictionnaires — Que sais-je?, 1982 Révolution, histoire d’un mot, 1989 Le reveil-mots, 1998 Des mots magiques, 2003 À mots découverts, 2006 Antoine Furetière: Un précurseur des Lumières sous Louis XIV, 2006 Mille ans de langue française.
Histoire d'une passion, Perrin, 2007 L’amour du français: contre les puristes et autres censeurs de la langue, Denoël, 2007 Miroirs du monde: une histoire de l'encyclopédisme, Fayard, 2007 Lexi-com'. Tome 1, De Bravitude à Bling-Bling, Fayard, 2008. Le français: Une langue qui défie les siècles, coll. "Découvertes Gallimard", Paris: Gallimard, 2008. On croit que l'on maîtrise les mots, mais ce sont. Le langage ne sert pas uniquement à s'exprimer, il sert aussi à mentir, à influencer, à se faire valoir. "France might be a republic but linguistically, it's still a monarchy... In my opinion, language must be an observatory, not a conservatory". Biography Portrait in Libération
Cossacks were a group of predominantly East Slavic-speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Eastern and Southern Ukraine and in Southern Russia. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper, Don and Ural river basins and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of both Ukraine and Russia; the origins of the first Cossacks are disputed, though the 1710 Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk claimed Khazar origin. The emergence of Cossacks is dated to the 14th or 15th centuries, when two connected groups emerged, the Zaporozhian Sich of the Dnieper and the Don Cossack Host; the Zaporizhian Sich were a vassal people of Poland–Lithuania during feudal times. Under increasing pressure from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the mid-17th century the Sich declared an independent Cossack Hetmanate, initiated by a rebellion under Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Afterwards, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought most of the Cossack state under Russian rule.
The Sich with its lands became an autonomous region under the Russian-Polish protectorate. The Don Cossack Host, established by the 16th century, allied with the Tsardom of Russia. Together they began a systematic conquest and colonisation of lands in order to secure the borders on the Volga, the whole of Siberia and the Yaik and the Terek rivers. Cossack communities had developed along the latter two rivers well before the arrival of the Don Cossacks. By the 18th century Cossack hosts in the Russian Empire occupied effective buffer zones on its borders; the expansionist ambitions of the Empire relied on ensuring the loyalty of Cossacks, which caused tension given their traditional exercise of freedom, self-rule, independence. Cossacks such as Stenka Razin, Kondraty Bulavin, Ivan Mazepa and Yemelyan Pugachev led major anti-imperial wars and revolutions in the Empire in order to abolish slavery and odious bureaucracy and to maintain independence; the empire responded with ruthless executions and tortures, the destruction of the western part of the Don Cossack Host during the Bulavin Rebellion in 1707–08, the destruction of Baturyn after Mazepa's rebellion in 1708, the formal dissolution of the Lower Dnieper Zaporozhian Host in 1775, after Pugachev's Rebellion.
By the end of the 18th century Cossack nations had been transformed into a special military estate, "a military class". Similar to the knights of medieval Europe in feudal times or the tribal Roman auxiliaries, the Cossacks came to military service having to obtain charger horses and supplies at their own expense; the government provided only supplies for them. Cossack service was considered the most rigorous one; because of their military tradition, Cossack forces played an important role in Russia's wars of the 18th–20th centuries, such as the Great Northern War, the Seven Years' War, the Crimean War, Napoleonic Wars, the Caucasus War, numerous Russo-Persian Wars, numerous Russo-Turkish Wars and the First World War. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Tsarist regime used Cossacks extensively to perform police service, they served as border guards on national and internal ethnic borders. During the Russian Civil War and Kuban Cossacks were the first people to declare open war against the Bolsheviks.
By 1918 Russian Cossacks declared the complete independence and formed independent states, the Don Republic and the Kuban People's Republic. The Ukrainian State emerged. Cossack troops formed the effective core of the anti-Bolshevik White Army, Cossack republics became centers for the anti-Bolshevik White movement. With the victory of the Red Army, the Cossack lands were subjected to Decossackization and the Holodomor. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Cossacks made a systematic return to Russia. Many took an active part in post-Soviet conflicts. In Russia's 2002 Population Census, 140,028 people reported their ethnicity as Cossacks. There are Cossack organizations in Russia, Ukraine and the United States. Max Vasmer's etymological dictionary traces the name to the Old East Slavic word козакъ, kozak, a loanword from Cuman, in which cosac meant "free man", from Turkish/Turkic languages quazzaq rabble rouser, trouble maker, outcast rebel, from Tatar languages Kazak skinny bollard The ethnonym Kazakh is from the same Turkic root.
In modern Turkish it is pronounced as "Kazak". In written sources the name is first attested in Codex Cumanicus from the 13th century. In English, "Cossack" is first attested in 1590, it is not clear when new Slavic people apart from Brodnici and Berladniki started settling in the lower reaches of major rivers such as the Don and the Dnieper after the demise of the Khazar state. It is unlikely it could have happened before the 13th century, when the Mongols broke the power of the Cumans, who had assimilated the previous population on that territory, it is known that new settlers inherited a lifestyle that persisted there long before, such as those of the Turkic Cumans and the Circassian Kassaks. However, Slavic settlements in southern Ukraine started to appear early during the Cuman rule, with the earliest ones, like Oleshky, dating back to the 11th century. Early "Proto-Cossack" groups are reported to have come into existence within the present-day Ukraine in the mid-13th century as the influence of Cumans grew weaker, though some have ascribed their origins to as early as the tenth century.
Some historians suggest that the Cossack people were of mixed ethnic origins, descending from Russians, Belarusians, Turks and others who settled or passed through the vast Steppe. However some Turkologists arg
In France and the Francophone world, a brasserie is a type of French restaurant with a relaxed setting, which serves single dishes and other meals. The word brasserie is French for "brewery" and, by extension, "the brewing business". A brasserie can be expected to have professional service, printed menus, traditionally, white linen—unlike a bistro which may have none of these. A brasserie is open every day of the week and serves the same menu all day. A classic brasserie dish is steak frites. "Brasserie" is French for "brewery", from Middle French brasser "to brew", from Old French bracier, from Vulgar Latin braciare, of Celtic origin. Its first usage in English was in 1864; the origin of the word stems from the fact that beer was brewed on the premises rather than brought in: thus an inn would brew its own beer as well as supply food and invariably accommodation too. In 1901 Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary of the English Language defined "brasserie" as "in France, any beer-garden or saloon".
In 2000 The New Penguin English Dictionary included this definition of "brasserie": "a small informal French-style restaurant". In Northern France towards the Belgian border, there has been a revival of old breweries which have been converted into restaurants and hotels, reverting to brewing their own beer as micro-brews; the term is used in the United Kingdom applied to small restaurants in city centres. According to the OQLF, a brasserie restaurant is an Établissement qui tient à la fois du restaurant et du bar, où l'on consomme principalement des repas simples et de la bière a brewpub. La Mère Catherine Café French cuisine
For the music venue in New York City, see SideWalk Cafe. A sidewalk cafe is an outdoor part of a cafe, it is an area where customers go to relax and socialize. Other activities at a sidewalk cafe might include studying, reading, or using, if it is available, the cafe's internet access. Many people who frequent sidewalk cafes do so for the comfortable and quaint atmosphere. In a sidewalk cafe there are tables and chairs for dining and relaxing. Sometimes they are permanently outside, however they are taken inside on closing time, or earlier if it gets colder. There are parasols depending on the style and decor of any particular sidewalk cafe and there may be a low fence around it for protection against wind and/or for the purpose of space separation and decoration. Cafes where food is the main attraction are for dining and meetings, both business and casual. A cafe where coffee is the main attraction is for socializing, reading, studying and dining. There are several types of cafes and venues as well as types of people that frequent these places for different activities.
Depending on the country and on permits alcohol may not be served. In some places local laws allow drinking alcohol in a sidewalk cafe but not on a public bench etc. A cafe or restaurant needs a permit from the municipality to have an outdoor area; this permit will not be granted if due to lack of space there is too much inconvenience for passers-by. The municipality may restrict the opening hours for the outdoor area. Ramati, Raquel. How to Save Your Own Street definitions
A landlord is the owner of a house, condominium, land or real estate, rented or leased to an individual or business, called a tenant. When a juristic person is in this position, the term landlord is used. Other terms include owner; the term landlady may be used for female owners, lessor may be used regardless of gender. The manager of a UK pub speaking a licensed victualler, is referred to as the landlord/lady; the concept of a landlord may be traced back to the feudal system of manoralism, where a landed estate is owned by a Lord of the Manor members of the lower nobility which came to form the rank of knights in the high medieval period, holding their fief via subinfeudation, but in some cases the land may be directly subject to a member of higher nobility, as in the royal domain directly owned by a king, or in the Holy Roman Empire imperial villages directly subject to the emperor. The medieval system continues the system of villas and latifundia of the Roman Empire. In modern times, landlord describes any individual or entity providing housing for persons who cannot afford or do not want to own their own homes.
They may be peripatetic, stationed on a secondment away from their home, not want the risk of a mortgage and/or negative equity, may be a group of co-occupiers unwilling to enter into the ties of co-ownership, or may be improving their credit rating or bank balance to obtain a better-terms future mortgage. Renters at the lowest end of the payment scale may be in social or economic difficulty and due to their address or length of tenure may suffer a social stigma. A sometimes promoted social stigma can impact certain for-profit owners of rental property in troubled neighborhoods; the term "slumlord" / "slum landlord" is sometimes used to describe landlords in those circumstances. Public improvement money/private major economic investment can negate the stigma. In the extreme government compulsory purchase powers in many countries enable slum clearance to replace the worst of neighbourhoods. Examples: In Minneapolis, downmarket landlords vocally and financially opposed a major reform and redevelopment plan of city officials and, in the 2001 election, succeeded in defeating the incumbent mayor and half the city council.
Peter Rachman was a landlord who operated in Notting Hill, London in the 1950s and until his 1962 death. He became notorious for exploitation of his tenants, with the word "Rachmanism" entering the Oxford English Dictionary, his henchmen included Michael de Freitas, who created a reputation as a black-power leader, Johnny Edgecombe, who became a promoter of jazz and blues, which helped to keep him in the limelight. A rental agreement, or lease, is the contract defining such terms as the price paid, penalties for late payments, the length of the rental or lease, the amount of notice required before either the homeowner or tenant cancels the agreement. In general, responsibilities are given as follows: the homeowner is responsible for making repairs and performing property maintenance, the tenant is responsible for keeping the property clean and safe. Many owners hire a property management company to take care of all the details of renting their property out to a tenant; this includes advertising the property and showing it to prospective tenants and preparing the written leases, once rented, collecting rent from the tenant and performing repairs as needed.
In the United States, residential homeowner–tenant disputes are governed by state law regarding property and contracts. State law and, in some places, city law or county law, sets the requirements for eviction of a tenant. There are a limited number of reasons for which a landlord or landlady can evict his or her tenant before the expiration of the tenancy, though at the end of the lease term the rental relationship can be terminated without giving any reason; some cities and States have laws establishing the maximum rent a landlord can charge, known as rent control, or rent regulation, related eviction. There is an implied warranty of habitability, whereby a landlord must maintain safe and habitable housing, meeting minimum safety requirements such as smoke detectors and a locking door; the most common disputes result from either the landlord's failure to provide services or the tenant's failure to pay rent—the former can lead to the latter. The withholding of rent is justifiable cause for eviction, as explained in the lease.
In Canada, residential homeowner–tenant disputes are governed by provincial law regarding property and contracts. Provincial law sets the requirements for eviction of a tenant. There are a limited number of reasons for which a landlord can evict a tenant; some provinces have laws establishing the maximum rent a landlord can charge, known as rent control, or rent regulation, related eviction. There is an implied warranty of habitability, whereby a landlord must maintain safe and habitable housing, meeting minimum safety requirements. Residential rental market Private sector renting is governed by many of the Landlord and Tenant Acts, in particular the Landlord and Tenant Act 1985 which sets bare minimum standards in tenants' rights against their landlords. Another key statute is the Housing Act 2004. Rents can be increased at the end of a usual six-month duration, on proper notice given to the tenant. A Possession Order under the most common type, the Assured Shorthold Tenanc
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a modest-quality mattress in a small room to large suites with bigger, higher-quality beds, a dresser, a refrigerator and other kitchen facilities, upholstered chairs, a flat screen television, en-suite bathrooms. Small, lower-priced hotels may offer only the most basic guest facilities. Larger, higher-priced hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare and event facilities, tennis or basketball courts, restaurants, day spa, social function services. Hotel rooms are numbered to allow guests to identify their room; some boutique, high-end hotels have custom decorated rooms. Some hotels offer meals as part of a board arrangement. In the United Kingdom, a hotel is required by law to serve food and drinks to all guests within certain stated hours. In Japan, capsule hotels provide a tiny room suitable only for sleeping and shared bathroom facilities.
The precursor to the modern hotel was the inn of medieval Europe. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, coaching inns served as a place for lodging for coach travelers. Inns began to cater to richer clients in the mid-18th century. One of the first hotels in a modern sense was opened in Exeter in 1768. Hotels proliferated throughout Western Europe and North America in the early 19th century, luxury hotels began to spring up in the part of the 19th century. Hotel operations vary in size, function and cost. Most hotels and major hospitality companies have set industry standards to classify hotel types. An upscale full-service hotel facility offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, an on-site restaurant, the highest level of personalized service, such as a concierge, room service, clothes pressing staff. Full service hotels contain upscale full-service facilities with a large number of full service accommodations, an on-site full service restaurant, a variety of on-site amenities.
Boutique hotels are smaller independent, non-branded hotels that contain upscale facilities. Small to medium-sized hotel establishments offer a limited amount of on-site amenities. Economy hotels are small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer basic accommodations with little to no services. Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized hotels that offer longer-term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership involving ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage. A motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Boutique hotels are hotels with a unique environment or intimate setting. A number of hotels have entered the public consciousness through popular culture, such as the Ritz Hotel in London; some hotels are built as a destination in itself, for example at casinos and holiday resorts. Most hotel establishments are run by a General Manager who serves as the head executive, department heads who oversee various departments within a hotel, middle managers, administrative staff, line-level supervisors.
The organizational chart and volume of job positions and hierarchy varies by hotel size and class, is determined by hotel ownership and managing companies. The word hotel is derived from the French hôtel, which referred to a French version of a building seeing frequent visitors, providing care, rather than a place offering accommodation. In contemporary French usage, hôtel now has the same meaning as the English term, hôtel particulier is used for the old meaning, as well as "hôtel" in some place names such as Hôtel-Dieu, a hospital since the Middle Ages; the French spelling, with the circumflex, was used in English, but is now rare. The circumflex replaces the's' found in the earlier hostel spelling, which over time took on a new, but related meaning. Grammatically, hotels take the definite article – hence "The Astoria Hotel" or "The Astoria." Facilities offering hospitality to travellers have been a feature of the earliest civilizations. In Greco-Roman culture and ancient Persia, hospitals for recuperation and rest were built at thermal baths.
Japan's Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan, founded in 705, was recognised by the Guinness World Records as the oldest hotel in the world. During the Middle Ages, various religious orders at monasteries and abbeys would offer accommodation for travellers on the road; the precursor to the modern hotel was the inn of medieval Europe dating back to the rule of Ancient Rome. These would provide for the needs of travellers, including food and lodging and fodder for the traveller's horse and fresh horses for the mail coach. Famous London examples of inns include the Tabard. A typical layout of an inn had an inner court with bedrooms on the two sides, with the kitchen and parlour at the front and the stables at the back. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, coaching inns served as a place for lodging for coach travellers. Coaching inns stabled teams of horses for stagecoaches and mail coaches and replaced tired teams with fresh teams. Traditionally they were seven miles apart, but this depended much on the terrain.
Some English towns had as many as ten such inns and rivalry between them was intense, not only for the income from the stagecoach operators but for the revenu
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent