The Opsician Theme or Opsikion was a Byzantine theme located in northwestern Asia Minor. Created from the imperial retinue army, the Opsikion was the largest and most prestigious of the early themes, being located closest to Constantinople. Involved in several revolts in the 8th century, it was split in three. 750, lost its former pre-eminence. It survived as a middle-tier theme until after the Fourth Crusade; the Opsician theme was one of the first four themes, has its origin in the praesental armies of the East Roman army. The term Opsikion derives from the Latin term Obsequium, which by the early 7th century came to refer to the units escorting the emperor on campaign, it is possible. In the 640s, following the disastrous defeats suffered during the first wave of the Muslim conquests, the remains of the field armies were withdrawn to Asia Minor and settled into large districts, called "themes", thus the Opsician theme was the area where the imperial Opsikion was settled, which encompassed all of north-western Asia Minor from the Dardanelles to the Halys River, with Ancyra as its capital.
The exact date of the theme's establishment is unknown. It is possible that it initially included the area of Thrace, which seems to have been administered jointly with the Opsikion in the late 7th and early 8th centuries; the unique origin of the Opsikion was reflected in several aspects of the theme's organization. Thus the title of its commander was not stratēgos as with the other themes, but komēs, in full komēs tou basilikou Opsikiou. Furthermore, it was not divided into tourmai, but into domesticates formed from the elite corps of the old army, such as the Optimatoi and Boukellarioi, both terms dating back to the recruitment of Gothic foederati in the 4th–6th centuries, its prestige is further illustrated by the seals of its commanders, where it is called the "God-guarded imperial Opsikion". Being the theme closest to the imperial capital Constantinople and enjoying a position of pre-eminence among the other themes, the counts of the Opsikion were tempted to revolt against the emperors.
In 668, on the death of Emperor Constans II in Sicily, the count Mezezius staged an abortive coup. Under the patrikios Barasbakourios, the Opsikion was the main power-base of Emperor Justinian II. Justinian II settled many Slavs captured in Thrace there, in an attempt to boost its military strength. Most of them, deserted to the Arabs on the first battle. In 713, the Opsikian army rose up against Philippikos Bardanes, the man who overthrew and murdered Justinian, enthroned Anastasios II, only to overthrow him too in 715 and install Theodosios III in his place. In 717, the Opsicians supported the rise of Leo III the Isaurian to the throne, but in 718, their count, the patrikios Isoes, rose up unsuccessfully against him. In 741–742, the kouropalatēs Artabasdos used the theme as a base for his brief usurpation of Emperor Constantine V. In 766, another count was blinded after a failed mutiny against the same emperor; the revolts of the Opsician theme against the Isaurian emperors were not only the result of its counts' ambition: the Opsicians were staunchly iconodule, opposed to the iconoclast policies of the Isaurian dynasty.
As a result, Emperor Constantine V set out to weaken the theme's power by splitting off the new themes of the Boukellarioi and the Optimatoi. At the same time, the emperor recruited a new set of elite and staunchly iconoclast guard regiments, the tagmata; the reduced Opsikion was downgraded from a guard formation to an ordinary cavalry theme: its forces were divided into tourmai, its count fell to the sixth place in the hierarchy of thematic governors and was renamed to the "ordinary" title of stratēgos by the end of the 9th century. In the 9th century, he is recorded as receiving an annual salary of 30 pounds of gold, of commanding 6,000 men; the thematic capital was moved to Nicaea. The 10th-century emperor Constantine Porphyrogennetos, in his De Thematibus, mentions further nine cities in the theme: Cotyaeum, Midaion, Myrleia, Parion and Abydus. In the great Revolt of Thomas the Slav in the early 820s, the Opsikion remained loyal to Emperor Michael II. In 866, the Opsician stratēgos, George Peganes, rose up along with the Thracesian Theme against Basil I the Macedonian the junior co-emperor of Michael III, in c.
930, Basil Chalkocheir revolted against Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos. Both revolts, were quelled, are a far cry from the emperor-making revolts of the 8th century; the theme existed through the Komnenian period, was united with the Aegean theme sometime in the 12th century. It also survived after the Fourth Crusade into the Empire of Nicaea: George Akropolites records that in 1234, the Opsician theme fell under the "Italians". Asia Minor Slavs
The Sakarya is the third longest river in Turkey. It runs through; the source of the river is the Bayat Yaylası, located to the northeast of Afyon. Joined by the Porsuk Çayı close by the town of Polatlı, the river runs through the Adapazarı Ovası before reaching the Black Sea; the Sakarya was once crossed by the Sangarius Bridge, constructed by the East Roman Emperor Justinian I. In 13th century, the valley of the Sakarya was part of the frontier of the Byzantine Empire and the home of the Söğüt tribe. By 1280, Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII had constructed a series of fortifications along the river to control the area, but a 1302 flood changed the course of the river and made the fortifications useless; the Söğüt tribe went on to establish the Ottoman Empire. From downstream to upstream, it is dammed at Yenice, Gökçekaya and Sarıyar. Battle of Sakarya Sakarya Province Sangarius Bridge Nana
Gemlik is a town and district in the Bursa Province in Turkey on the southern gulf of Armutlu Peninsula on the coast of the Sea of Marmara. It is located 29 km from Bursa, not far from Istanbul. Gemlik was called Kios until 1922, when its Greek inhabitants, who composed around 80% of the population, forced to leave Asia Minor as part of the population exchange with Greece]; as of 2009, the total population of Gemlik is 100,000. Gemlik harbor is one of the most important harbors in Turkey; the remains of the ancient Greek town of Kios can be found east of Gemlik. The city is renowned for olives and olive oils. Marmara Birlik, a cooperative of olive farmers and producers, it is ranked among the top olive producers in the world; as of 1920, the British were calling Geumlek in publications. Gemlik borders the Sea of Marmara, it exhibits typical Mediterranean weather with mild, wet winters. Gemlik is bordered on three sides with the Samanli Mountains lying to the west. To its west lies the Sea of Marmara.
There is a large plain spanning much of the east end of Gemlik to the coast. Karsak Stream, which originates at İznik Lake, divides this plain into two parts; the coast of Gemokk is straight. The gulf of Gemlik called Incir port or Kilyos, is 35 km from east to west, 10–15 km from north to south, 100-150 meters deep. Tuzla and Kapakli lie at either end of the gulf. For many years, this gulf had been used for docking ships, but now it serves as a tourist attraction; the largest river in the area is Karsak, near İznik Lake. Another river, Koca stream, is near Engürücük. For the site's history before 1922, see Kios; as of 1920, Gemlik was estimated to have a population of 5,000. At that time, it had a naval yard, no longer in use. On September 11, 1922, Gemlik's remaining Greek citizens were forced to flee to Greece due to pressure by Turkey to abandon the area; the popular Kurşunlu beaches are located in Gemlik. Giannis Papaioannou, Greek Rebetika singer and composer Lauderhill, United States
Cius renamed Prusias on the Sea after king Prusias I of Bithynia, was an ancient Greek city bordering the Propontis, in Bithynia, had a long history, being mentioned by Aristotle and Apollonius Rhodius. It became a place of much commercial importance, it joined the Aetolian League, was destroyed by Philip V of Macedon in the Second Macedonian War. It was rebuilt by Prusias I of Bithynia. An important chain in the ancient Silk Road, it became known as a wealthy town. Cius became an early Christian bishopric, its bishop, took part in the First Council of Nicaea in 325. The names of many of his successors in the first millennium are known from extant contemporary documents. At first a suffragan of Nicomedia, it soon became an autocephalous archdiocese, being listed as such in Notitiae Episcopatuum from the 7th century onward. No longer a residential bishopric, Cius is today listed by the Catholic Church. Following the population exchange in 1923, the Greek refugees from Cius established the village of Nea Kios, in Argolis, Greece.
There are only few remnants of its harbour today. Somewhat more to the west, the new modern town of Gemlik, Bursa Province, Turkey is found. Richard Talbert, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, p. 52. William Smith, Classical Dictionary, s.v. "Cius". Hazlitt, Classical Gazetteer, "Cius" Kios - The Greek City in Asia Minor Catholic Encuclopedia - Cius
An isthmus is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated. A tombolo is an isthmus that consists of a spit or bar, a strait is the sea counterpart of an isthmus. Canals are built across isthmuses, where they may be a advantageous shortcut for marine transport. For example, the Panama Canal crosses the Isthmus of Panama, connecting the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Another example is the Welland Canal in the Niagara Peninsula, it connects Lake Ontario to Lake Erie. The city of Auckland in the North Island of New Zealand is situated on an isthmus. Isthmus and land bridge are related terms with isthmus having a broader meaning. A land bridge is an isthmus connecting the Earth's major landmasses; the term land bridge is used in biogeology to describe land connections that used to exist between continents at various times and were important for migration of people, various species of animals and plants, e.g. Bering Land Bridge.
An isthmus is a land connection between two bigger landmasses, while a peninsula is rather a land protrusion, connected to a bigger landmass on one side only and surrounded by water on all other sides. Technically, an isthmus can have canals running from coast to coast, thus resemble two peninsulas. Major isthmuses include the Isthmus of Panama and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the Americas, the Isthmus of Kra in South-East Asia, the Isthmus of Suez between Africa and Asia, the Karelian Isthmus in Europe. Of historic importance was the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece. Land bridge List of isthmuses List of straits
İzmit, sometimes Kocaeli, known as Nicomedia in antiquity, is a city in Turkey, the administrative center of the Kocaeli Province as well as the Metropolitan Municipality. It is located at the Gulf of İzmit in the Sea of Marmara, about 100 km east of Istanbul, on the northwestern part of Anatolia; the city center has a population of 300,611. The population of the province is 1,459,772. Unlike other provinces in Turkey, apart from Istanbul, the whole province is included within the municipality of the metropolitan center. Nicomedia was the eastern and most senior capital city of the Roman Empire between 286 and 324, during the Tetrarchy introduced by Diocletian. Following Constantine the Great's victory over co-emperor Licinius at the Battle of Chrysopolis in 324, Nicomedia served as an interim capital city for Nova Roma. İzmit derives from the Ancient Greek name of Nicomedia. Names used in English prior to official Turkish Latinization include Ismid and Isnikmid; the geographical location of İzmit is between 40°-41° N and 29°-31° E, surrounded by the Gulf of İzmit at south and the Sea of Marmara at west, the Black Sea at north, Sakarya at east.
The city is built on hill slopes because of the cramped area, while flat plains surround the gulf, near the sea. This topographic structure divided the city into two parts; the first was created on flat plains. The railway and highway networks pass from this area, close to the Sea of Marmara; the second part was built on hills, with many historic houses from the Ottoman period in the old quarters. İzmit has a humid subtropical climate, with considerable Mediterranean influences. Summers are hot and humid, the average maximum temperature is around 29 °C in July and August, although temperatures exceed 30 °C in June, July and September. Winters are cool and damp, the lowest average minimum temperature is around 3 °C in January. Precipitation is high and evenly distributed the year round. Highest temperature was 44.1 °C in July 2000. Lowest temperature was −18 °C in February 1929. Highest snow thickness was 90 cm in February 1929. In Antiquity, the city in Greek was called Olbia. After being destroyed, it was rebuilt and founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia in 264 BC under the name of Nicomedia.
It remained one of the most important cities in northwestern Asia Minor. Hannibal committed suicide in nearby Libyssa; the historian Arrian was born there. Nicomedia was the metropolis of Bithynia under the Roman Empire, Diocletian made it the eastern capital city of the Roman Empire in 286 when he introduced the Tetrarchy system. Nicomedia remained as the eastern capital of the Roman Empire until Licinius was defeated by Constantine the Great in 324. Constantine resided in Nicomedia as his interim capital city for the next six years. Constantine died in a royal villa at the vicinity of Nicomedia in 337. Owing to its position at the convergence of the Asiatic roads leading to the new capital, Nicomedia retained its importance after the foundation of Constantinople. At 451, the local bishopric was promoted to a Metropolitan see under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople; until the late 11th century it was under Byzantine rule. It was captured by Seljuk Turks. Soon after it was returned to Byzantine sovereignty as a consequence of the successes of the First Crusade.
After capture of Constantinople in 1204 the city, with most of the Bithynia province, became a part of the Latin Empire. It was recaptured by the Byzantines around 1235 and stayed in its borders until first half of the 14th century; the city was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1337. Byzantine rule renewed in 1402 but the Ottomans reconquered it in 1419. Under Ottoman rule, it was the capital of the Sanjak of Kocaeli. In the early 20th century, it remained the seat of a pasha, a Greek metropolitan, an Armenian archbishop.İzmit was occupied by the United Kingdom on 6 July 1920 during the Turkish War of Independence. The British left it to Greece on 27 October 1920. İzmit was re-taken by the Turks on 28 June 1921. As of 1920, the British reported that the city had a population of about 13,000. In 1920–1921 atrocities where committed in the city and its surroundings during the Greco-Turkish War against the civilian population. An Allied report stated that a large number of excesses were committed by both sides during the last year, while the Turkish atrocities in the Izmit peninsula "have been more considerable and ferocious than those on the part of the Greeks".
The 7.6 Mw earthquake of 17 August 1999 devastated the region with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX. The shock left half a million homeless, it took several years for the city to recover from this disaster, remnants remain visible. There are numerous tourist attractions in the city center and its adjacent region, such as remains of the ancient Acropolis, Amphitheater, Necropolis the Demeter Temple the Hellenistic Üçtepeler Mound King Tombs Roman city walls and cisterns parts of the Temple of Augustus parts of the Palace and Arsenal of Diocletian the Byzantine fortress at the core of the Roman city walls Orhan Gazi Mosque the 14th century Süleyman Paşa Hamam the 16th century Imaret Mosque and Pertev Paşa Mosque, designed by the great Ottoman architect M
The Nicene Creed is a statement of belief used in Christian liturgy. It is called Nicene because it was adopted in the city of Nicaea by the First Council of Nicaea in 325. In 381, it was amended at the First Council of Constantinople, the amended form is referred to as the Nicene or the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed; the Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian churches use this profession of faith with the verbs in the original plural, but the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic churches convert those verbs to the singular. The Anglican and many Protestant denominations use the singular form, sometimes the plural; the earlier Apostles' Creed is used in the Latin West, but not in the Eastern liturgies. On Sundays and solemnities, one of these two creeds is recited in the Roman Rite Mass after the homily; the Nicene Creed is part of the profession of faith required of those undertaking important functions within the Catholic Church. In the Byzantine Rite, the Nicene Creed is sung or recited at the Divine Liturgy preceding the Anaphora, is recited daily at compline.
The purpose of a creed is to provide a doctrinal statement of correct orthodoxy. The creeds of Christianity have been drawn up at times of conflict about doctrine: acceptance or rejection of a creed served to distinguish believers and deniers of particular doctrines. For that reason, a creed was called in Greek a σύμβολον, which meant half of a broken object which, when fitted to the other half, verified the bearer's identity; the Greek word passed through Latin symbolum into English "symbol", which only took on the meaning of an outward sign of something. The Nicene Creed was adopted to resolve the Arian controversy, whose leader, Arius, a clergyman of Alexandria, "objected to Alexander's apparent carelessness in blurring the distinction of nature between the Father and the Son by his emphasis on eternal generation". In reply, Alexander accused Arius of denying the divinity of the Son and of being too "Jewish" and "Greek" in his thought. Alexander and his supporters created the Nicene Creed to clarify the key tenets of the Christian faith in response to the widespread adoption of Arius' doctrine, henceforth marked as heresy.
The Nicene Creed of 325 explicitly affirms the co-essential divinity of the Son, applying to him the term "consubstantial". The 381 version speaks of the Holy Spirit as glorified with the Father and the Son; the Athanasian Creed describes in much greater detail the relationship between Father and Holy Spirit. The earlier Apostles' Creed does not explicitly affirm the divinity of the Son and the Holy Spirit, but in the view of many who use it, this doctrine is implicit in it; the original Nicene Creed was first adopted in 325 at the First Council of Nicaea. At that time, the text ended with the words "We believe in the Holy Spirit", after which various anathemas against Arian propositions were added. F. J. A. Hort and Adolf von Harnack argued that the Nicene creed was the local creed of Caesarea recited in the council by Eusebius of Caesarea, their case relied on a specific interpretation of Eusebius' own account of the Council's proceedings. More recent scholarship has not been convinced by their arguments.
The large number of secondary divergences from the text of the creed quoted by Eusebius make it unlikely that it was used as a starting point by those who drafted the conciliar creed. Their initial text was a local creed from a Syro–Palestinian source into which they awkwardly inserted phrases to define the Nicene theology; the Eusebian Creed may thus have been either a second or one of many nominations for the Nicene Creed. Soon after the Council of Nicaea, new formulae of faith were composed, most of them variations of the Nicene Symbol, to counter new phases of Arianism; the Catholic Encyclopedia identifies at least four before the Council of Sardica, where a new form was presented and inserted in the Acts of the Council, though it was not agreed on. What is known as the "Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed" or the "Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed" received this name because of a belief that it was adopted at the Second Ecumenical Council held in Constantinople in 381 as a modification of the original Nicene Creed of 325.
In that light, it came to be commonly known as the "Nicene Creed". It is the only authoritative ecumenical statement of the Christian faith accepted by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and the major Protestant denominations, it differs in a number of respects, both by addition and omission, from the creed adopted at the First Council of Nicaea. The most notable difference is the additional section "And in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver-of-Life, who proceedeth from the Father, who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, who spake by the prophets, and in one, holy and Apostolic Church. We acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins, we look for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come. Amen."Since the end of the 19th century, scholars have questioned the traditional explanation of the origin of this creed, passed down in the name of the council, whose official acts have been lost over time. A local council of Constantinople in 382 and the third ecumenical council made no mention of it, with the latter affirming the 325 creed of Nicaea as a valid