Bjørvika is a neighborhood in the Sentrum borough of Oslo, Norway. The area is an inlet in the inner Oslofjord, situated between Akershus Fortress, it serves as an outlet for the river Akerselva. Since the 2000s, it has been undergoing urban redevelopment, being transformed from a container port; when completed, the Bjørvika neighborhood will be a new urban center in Oslo. The multi-purpose medium-rises of the Barcode Project dominates the skyline to the north; the National Opera is located at Bjørvika, both the Oslo Public Library and the Munch/Stenersen museum is under construction here, the latter replacing the existing Munch Museum in 2020. The Norse form of the name was Bjárvík; the first element is the genitive of býr, "town, city". Oslo was first established in the 11th century in the area around where the Alna River flows into the Oslofjord, due to the strategic location both with regard to transport and military; the place became the seat of a bishop in 1100. By 1300, the population had reached about 3000.

Construction of Akershus Fortress started in 1299. At the time, the city was made of wooden buildings, had six churches, three monasteries and two manors: one for the king and one for the bishop; the city declined during the 16th century. Following the reformation in 1537, the economic base of the city fell away, the city was struck by fire. Following the 1624 fire, King Christian IV ordered a new city plan, changed the name of the city from Oslo to Christiania, in his own honor. A square city grid was introduced, the first brick buildings were built; the city grew as an important port for lumber export, the Bjørvika area east of the city developed with port facilities. By 1801, the city had 8900 residents. From 1814, Christiania became the capital of Norway, which had regained partial independence from Denmark and entered a union with Sweden. Industrialization started in 1840 along the Aker River; the population grew and new infrastructure was built. Commercial activities increased, in 1854 the railway station was opened, connecting Christiania to Lake Mjøsa via the Hoved Line.

In 1835, the population was 18,000. From 1878, the Oslofjord was kept permanently open with icebreakers. By 1900, Kristiania was the leading shipping city in the nation, among the most important in the world. In 1960, sales of cars exploded following the deregulation of sales. A new road system through Bjørvika was opened in 1970. Ten years the Oslo Tunnel connected the city's two railway networks together. Starting in the 1960s, containerization and automation became leading trends in the development of the port technology; the steady construction of new roads and port facilities created a physical and visual barrier that hindered Oslo from having access to the waterfront. European route E18 took up 1.8 kilometres of waterfront, until the Bjørvika Tunnel opened in May 2010. Archaeological findings Archaeologists discovered six medieval ships at least 500 years old in April 2019 in the modern Bjørvika district in connection with urban refinement and the construction of a high-speed railway; the ships date back the 1300s-1600s.

The project manager and archaeologist of the Norwegian Maritime Museum, Elling Utvik Wammer, noted that the findings are unique in Norway and called them “an archaeological fairytale”. The last ship found here in ten meters long is a cargo ship of the 16th century. Another archaeologist Marja-Liisa Grue supposes that it could be used to carry stones to nearby Akershus Fortress; the archaeologist team believe that the findings will light upon the great city fire of 1624 and the little-known period named Reformation in Norway history. Bjørvika is being redeveloped as part of the Fjord City plans for the Oslo waterfront. In 2010, the Bjørvika Tunnel was completed, in 2012, Bispelokket and the rest of the remaining E18 was removed. A new avenue, Dronning Eufemias gate, is constructed along the current route of Bispegata, it will serve as a main route for public transport, the Ekeberg Line of the Oslo Tramway is planned to be rerouted along the avenue in 2018/2019. The area is just south of Oslo Central Station, can be reached via the Oslo T-bane at Jernbanetorget.

HAV Eiendom, a subsidiary of the Oslo Port Authority, is responsible for developing the area. When finished, it will have 4 -- about 20,000 jobs. In addition, several major cultural institutions will be located in Bjørvika, it is estimated. In 2008, the Oslo Opera House opened at Bjørvika. Costing 3.3 billion kr and built by Statsbygg, it was designed by Snøhetta. Bjørvika was preferred as a location over Vestbanen; the opera has a large, slanting roof open to the public. In 2008, the Norwegian Parliament decided to build the Munch Museum, the Stenersen Museum and the Oslo Public Library at Bjørvika to form a new cultural center. Between Dronning Eufemias gate and the central station are twelve medium-rise buildings, up to 22 stories tall; these have been christened the Barcode Buildings. The first, the offices of PricewaterhouseCoopers, was completed in 2007; the last building was completed in 2016. The height of the buildings created a heated debate. Bjørvika SK is the local sports club established in 2009.

They field a soccer team that plays in the Oslo Fotballkrets 8 division. The head office of Avinor is located in Bjørvika, on the sea side of Oslo Central Station

XRX (web application architecture)

In software development XRX is a web application architecture based on XForms, REST and XQuery. XRX applications store data on both the web client and on the web server in XML format and do not require a translation between data formats. XRX is considered a simple and elegant application architecture due to the minimal number of translations needed to transport data between client and server systems; the XRX architecture is tightly coupled to W3C standards to ensure XRX applications will be robust in the future. Because XRX applications leverage modern declarative languages on the client and functional languages on the server they are designed to empower non-developers who are not familiar with traditional imperative languages such as JavaScript, Java or. Net. XRX is a zero translation application architecture that uses XML to store data in the client web browser, on the application server and in the database server, it is because each of these layers use XML as the same structural data model that XRX applications do not have to translate data structures to and from both object and relational data structures.

Because of the lack of need for translation, XRX is considered to have a elegant design. The XRX web application architecture allows developers to focus on the business problem and not the translation problem. XRX benefits from several advances in software technology: A model–view–controller architecture that separates the data from its presentation and business logic. A single element for all server submissions; this replaces much of the JavaScript code required in most AJAX applications. An advanced event model consistent with W3C standards that frees applications from having to deal with vendor-specific and browser-specific event handling. A Dependency graph, used to store the dependency structure of the client controllers; this frees the developer from having to manually update either the model or the views when data changes in an application. This allows spreadsheet-like applications to be created on the client with little effort. A declarative programming style that allows most client XForms applications to be created using a small set of 20 elements.

This allows rich client applications to be created without knowledge of JavaScript or other procedural scripting languages. An easy-to-extend system for creating new user interface controls using the EXtensible Bindings Language; this allows developers to add new controls at any time without fear of incompatibilities with W3C standards. Many native XML databases have built-in REST interfaces making each XQuery inherently a RESTful web service. A functional programming model that promotes side-effect free systems that are easier to debug and easier to run on multiple processors. An easy-to-extend system using XQuery modules. Both XRX client and server components support a wide range of XML related standards such as XPath, XML Schema and XML Namespaces Consistent use of REST interfaces to exchange data between the client and server for all transfers of data including as-you-type data checking and suggest functions Consistent integration of W3C standards including use of XPath and XML Schema data types A large library of standard of functions used on both the client and server One of the principal benefits of the XRX architecture is that it avoids the requirement to "shred" complex data structures into relational structures and reconstitute the data back into structures when a record is edited on the client.

Another benefits of the XRX Web application architecture is that it avoids most of the problems around the object-relational impedance mismatch. Another advantage is. Many traditional web application architectures created in the late 1990 were based on middle object tiers and persistence layers that used tabular data streams and relational database systems; because each of these layers used different structures to store the models the systems required much additional complexity to translate between layers. Early examples of using a zero-translation architecture in multi-tier systems can be traced back to the rise of object-oriented databases in the 1990s. See OODBMS History Mark Birbeck suggested that the combination of XForms, XQuery with REST interfaces between the two had many advantages in a meeting to the UK XML User Group in September 2006, his presentation was one of the first to suggest that the combination of three technologies: XForms and XQuery with REST interfaces would have beneficial effects.

Mark termed this process "Skimming" but that term did not seem to be contagious. Erik Bruchez of Orbeon spoke at the XML 2007 conference on Boston in December 2007. In his presentation "XForms and the eXist XML database: a perfect couple", Bruchez showed that many people were discovering synergistic benefits of XForms on the client and XQuery on the server; the label for XRX was suggested by a blog posting by Dan McCreary on December 14, 2007. It was in this article that Dan suggested the need for a contagious meme for the ideas behind the XRX architecture. Although XRX was intended to connote the use of XForms on the client, REST as an interface and XQuery on the server, other proponents of the symmetrical use of XML on the client and server have generalized the term to encompass any XML-centric web client and any server that can store and query XML documents; this use of XRX is referred to as "shallow XRX". These generalizations do benefit from a simplified zero-translation architecture but many do not benefit from REST interfaces, XPath for consistent data selection, declarative systems in the client, functional languages on the server (one of the key aspects

Vine Cynthia Colby Foster

Vine Cynthia Colby was one of the pioneering women in medicine. The women in the Colby family had a higher education uncommon for the time due to the effort and support of Colby's grandmother, Celestia Rice Colby. Celestia Rice Colby's diaries were published in 2006: Circumstances are Destiny: An Antebellum Woman's Struggle to Define Sphere edited by Tina Stewart Brakebill, her daughter was Vine Cynthia Colby. Vine Cynthia Colby bears the name of her mother's best friends and Cynthia, both died young. In June 1870, Vine Cynthia Colby graduated from high school in Freeport and soon afterwards she moved with her family to Ann Arbor, where she enrolled at University of Michigan. On December 19, 1873, Vine Cynthia Colby married a fellow student at University of Michigan, Sidney Foster. Sidney Foster graduated in 1874, Vine Cynthia Colby graduated with a B. Ph. from the College of Literature and the Arts in 1876. In 1877 the Fosters moved to Keokuk, where they both graduated from medical school. After graduation the Fosters moved to New York, where they opened a joint practice.

Vine Colby Forster died at only 25 years old, in March 1878 from pelvic peritonitis and is buried at Moira Community Cemetery, Moira. Dr. June Rose Colby, Vine Cynthia Colby's sister, graduated with an A. B. from Literary Class of State Normal School in 1878, who received graduate degrees in 1885, A. M. and 1886, Ph. D; when she died in 1936 she left $500 to University of Michigan League, Ann Arbor, to purchase German and French books for the Rest Room of the League Building in memory of her sister Vine Colby Foster and directed that her sister's name was inscribed in each book purchased from this fund. Vine Colby one of the member of The Potters, her niece, was named after Vine Cynthia Colby Foster