Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a municipality. During the Viking Age the area was part of the northernmost Danish province. Oslo was founded as a city at the end of the Viking Age in the year 1040 under the name Ánslo, established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada; the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour, it was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. The city functioned as the capital of Norway during the 1814 -- 1905 union between Norway. From 1877, the city's name was spelled Kristiania in government usage, a spelling, adopted by the municipal authorities only in 1897. In 1925 the city, after incorporating the village retaining its former name, was renamed Oslo.

In 1948 Oslo merged with Aker, a municipality which surrounded the capital and, 27 times larger, thus creating the modern, vastly enlarged Oslo municipality. Oslo is the governmental centre of Norway; the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is maritime trade in Europe; the city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies and maritime insurance brokers. Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008, it was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide Cost of Living study.

Oslo was ranked as the 24th most liveable city in the world by Monocle magazine. As of 27 February 2020, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 693,491, while the population of the city's urban area of 4 November 2019 was 1,019,513; the metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million. The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time; this growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population, in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total population if immigrant parents are included; as of 27 February 2020, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 693,491. The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus; the city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y".

To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre. The urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated. Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 is built-up and 7 km2; the open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2. The city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838, it was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842. The rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948. Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county; as defined in January 2004 by the city council ^ The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour; the old site east of the Aker river was not abandoned however and the village of Oslo remained as a suburb outside the city gates.

The suburb called Oslo was included in the city proper. In 1925 the name of the suburb was transferred to the whole city, while the suburb was renamed "Gamlebyen" to avoid confusion; the Old Town is an area within the administrative district Gamle Oslo. The previous names are reflected in street names like Oslo Oslo hospital; the origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate. It is derived from Old Norse and was — in all probability — the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists interpret the original Óslo, Áslo or Ánslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or

Le Franc

Le Franc is a 1994 Senegalese short comedy film, directed by Djibril Diop Mambéty. Le Franc is about Marigo, a penniless musician living in a shanty town, relentlessly harassed by his formidable landlady; this film uses the French government's 50% devaluation of the West African CFA franc in 1994, the resulting hardships as the basis for a whimsical commentary on using the lottery for survival. Le Franc was intended as the first film of a trilogy under the title, Tales of Ordinary People. However, Mambety’s untimely death in 1998 prevented the completion of the third film. Marigo the musician dreams with his instrument – a congoma – confiscated by his landlady because he never pays the rent, he gets hold of a lottery ticket and decides to put it in a safe place while he waits for the draw: he glues it to the back of his door. The night of the draw, fortune blinds Marigo, he is the proud owner of the winning ticket, he sees himself as a millionaire, with a thousand congomas, an orchestra and a private plane… He has visions of the charismatic Aminata Fall, symbol of capitalism in Africa.

But there is small problem. African Film Festival of Cordoba-FCAT Bibliography"Le Franc-1995 -". Retrieved 2011-01-26. "LE FRANC and LA PETITE VENDEUSE DE SOLEIL - Notes for Viewing the Film". California Newsreel. Retrieved 2011-01-26. "Three Tales From Senegal". Retrieved 2011-01-29. Le Franc at AllMovie Le Franc on IMDb Le Franc at Rotten Tomatoes Le Franc at the TCM Movie Database

Liberty Hall (Tyler, Texas)

Liberty Hall is a downtown theater operated by the city of Tyler, Texas, in conjunction with the East Texas Symphony Orchestra. The venue offers live music and revivals of classic films for the East Texas region, it was refurbished in 2011, began shows in September, 2011. The theatre seats 300 people. Liberty Hall was Liberty Theatre located in downtown Tyler, Texas, it opened in the 1930s. The theatre was empty for decades before it was purchased by the city of Tyler for $180,000 in 2008 and refurbished in an art deco style for a cost of $1 million, paid for via donations to the City of Tyler; the Liberty Theatre, once a hub of entertainment in downtown Tyler, now resonates with music and inspiration as this 1930s building has now been renovated to become a centerpiece for the performing arts in the heart of Tyler's new Downtown Business and Culture District. The Tyler 21 Master Plan for downtown revitalization calls for downtown Tyler to become an arts center for the city and East Texas. One of the first steps toward that goal was an effort to renovate the former Liberty Theatre into a performance hall.

Liberty Hall now hosts a variety of performing arts events such as, comedy and movies. Additionally, the East Texas Symphony Orchestra holds its Noon Notes events and smaller chamber performances at the venue, thus making it a major anchor in the Tyler 21 Downtown Business and Culture District, it is the mission of Liberty Hall to create an exciting, stimulating and entertainment experience that will integrate the arts into the downtown’s social and community fabric by providing diverse opportunities for entertainment, through film, theater and music. Liberty Hall Cinema Treasures page on Liberty Hall New Life For The Liberty