Baotou is the largest city by urban population in Inner Mongolia. Governed as a prefecture-level city, its built-up area made up of 5 urban districts is home to 2,070,801 inhabitants with a total population of over 2.65 million accounting for counties under its jurisdiction. The city's Mongolian name means "place with deer", an alternate name is "Lucheng", meaning "Deer City"; the area now known as Baotou was inhabited since ancient times by nomads, most notably the Mongols. Near the end of the Han Dynasty, Lü Bu, a noteworthy warrior, was born in today's Jiuyuan District of Baotou. Compared to the capital of Inner Mongolia, Baotou's construction as a city came late, being incorporated as a town in 1809; the city's site was chosen. The Gelaohui secret society and the Hui Muslim General Ma Fuxiang came to an agreement in 1922, in which Ma Fuxiang agreed to allow the Gelaohui to extort protection money from wool merchants in Baotou. A railway from Beijing was constructed in 1923, the city began spurring some industrial sites.
A German-Chinese joint-venture in 1934 constructed the Baotou Airport and opened a weekly route connecting Baotou with Ningxia and Lanzhou. When young Owen Lattimore visited Baotou in 1925, it was still "a little husk of a town in a great hollow shell of mud ramparts, where two busy streets made a traders' quarter", but an important railhead. Qinghai and Gansu wool and hides were brought down the Yellow River by raft and boat from Lanzhou to Baotou, shipped from Baotou by rail to the east; the river traffic was one-way only, however, as the fast current made sailing up the Yellow River impractical. To travel from Baotou back to Lanzhou or Yinchuan, one would use a camel road. There were caravan roads from Baotou to Ordos and the Alxa League. Baotou was under Japanese control from 1937 until 1945. On September 19, 1949, after the September 19 Rebellion, Baotou fell under Communist control; the People's Government was formed in February 1950. In the early Communist years Baotou served as an industrial centre, with a significant portion of its economy coming from its steel production.
The Iron and Steel Base in Baotou is one of the "156 projects", which were constructed with the help of Soviet Union to develop China's national economy in the 1950s and 1960s, it continues this reputation until this day. On the 3rd of May, 1996, at 03:32AM UTC, an earthquake of MS 6.4 occurred. Since the epicenter of the earthquake was located close to the city, Baotou was damaged by the earthquake: 26 people were killed, 453 injured and 196633 lost their homes; the electrical infrastructure of the city was damaged, soil liquefaction occurred around the swamps of the Yellow River. The earthquake, which destroyed many old houses, led to the reconstruction of Baotou. In 2002, the Baotou Municipal Government was awarded by UN-HABITAT for the improvements in shelter and the urban environments. Baotou is the largest economy of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, with a GDP value of 340.95 billion RMB in 2012, representing a 12.6% rise over the previous year, accounting for 21.3% of the province's total.
Baotou Xingsheng Economic & Technological Development Zone is an industrial zone in Baotou. The mines in Bayan Obo are the greatest source of rare-earth metals globally. In 2005, they accounted for 45% of the total production on earth; as noted, in the early Communist years Baotou served as an industrial centre, with a significant portion of its economy coming from its industry around metals steel. The Iron and Steel Base of Bautou was constructed with the help of the Soviet Union to help China in developing its economy. Ethnic groups in Baotou, 2000 census; the 39,000 capacity Baotou Olympic Sports Centre Stadium is the main sports venue in the city and is used for football matches. The largest Tibetan Buddhist monastery in Inner Mongolia, Badekar Monastery is located in Shiguai District; the Baotou Tailings Dam or Weikuang Dam is a tailings dam about 20 kilometres outside the main city of Baotou. It contains the waste from rare earth mineral refineries. In 2015, BBC journalist Tim Maughan wrote that the dam was a "toxic lake" and the area like "hell on earth."
He said he was unable to tell where the refineries ended and the city began. He compared the city to images in the movie Tron, where "the side streets are filled with drunk, vomiting refinery workers that spill from bars and barbecue joints." In 2016, serious contamination of farming land in the dam's immediate vicinity was formally identified by Chinese researchers. The rare earth minerals are mined in Bayan Obo Mining District, about 120 kilometres from Baotou and are used in the manufacture of smartphones, TVs and wind turbines. Baotou is a terminus for both the Baolan Railway and the Jingbao Railway, heading for Lanzhou in the west and Beijing in the east, respectively; the city is served by two main railway stations, Baotou East Railway Station, Baotou Railway Station. Baotou Airport serves the city with regular service to Beijing and Hong Kong; the city is connected by the Hubao Expressway to Hohhot. China National Highway 210 Baotou Metro Baotou is located in the west of Inner Mongolia, located at the junction of two economic zones: the Bohai Economic Rim and the Upper Yellow River Natural Resources Enrichment Zone.
Its administrative area borders Mongolia's Dornogovi P
United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China
U. S. President Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China was an important strategic and diplomatic overture that marked the culmination of the Nixon administration's resumption of harmonious relations between the United States and China after years of diplomatic isolation; the seven-day official visit to three Chinese cities was the first time a U. S. president had visited the PRC. S. and China. Nixon visited China to gain more leverage over relations with the Soviet Union; when the communists took over in China in 1949 and the nationalists fled to the island of Taiwan, the United States allied with, recognized, the Republic of China as the sole government of China. Before his election as president in 1968, former Vice President Richard Nixon hinted at establishing a new relationship with the PRC. Early in his first term, through his National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger, sent subtle overtures hinting at warmer relations to the PRC government. After a series of these overtures by both countries, Kissinger flew on secret diplomatic missions to Beijing in 1971, where he met with Premier Zhou Enlai.
On July 15, 1971, the President shocked the world by announcing on live television that he would visit the PRC the following year. The week-long visit, from February 21 to 28, 1972, allowed the American public to view images of China for the first time in over two decades. Throughout the week the President and his senior advisers engaged in substantive discussions with the PRC leadership, including a meeting with Chairman Mao Zedong, while First Lady Pat Nixon toured schools and hospitals in the cities of Beijing and Shanghai with the large American press corps in tow. Nixon dubbed his visit "the week that changed the world", a descriptor that continues to echo in the political lexicon. Repercussions of the Nixon visit continue to this day. S.—the trip spawned China's opening to the world and economic parity with capitalist countries. The relationship between China and the U. S. is now one of the most important bilateral relationships in the world, every successive U. S. president, with the exception of Jimmy Carter, has visited China.
The trip is ranked by historians and journalists as one of the most important—if not the most important—visits by a U. S. president anywhere. In addition, a "Nixon to China" moment has since become a metaphor for an unexpected, uncharacteristic or overly impactful action by a politician. Improved relations with the Soviet Union and the PRC are cited as the most successful diplomatic achievements of Nixon's presidency. After World War II, Americans saw relations between the United States and the Soviet Union deteriorating, the Soviets consolidating communist allies over much of Eastern Europe, the potential victory of Communist forces in the Chinese Civil War; the American ruling class was concerned. In China, from the beginning of the Sino-Soviet Split in 1956, there was a perceived necessity for external allies to counterbalance the power of the USSR. While the split was motivated, in part, by Mao's view of the Soviets as too accommodating toward the US he came to view the USSR as the greater threat to China's position.
The reason for opening up China was for the U. S. to gain more leverage over relations with the Soviet Union. Resolving the Vietnam War was a important factor. National Security Council staffer Winston Lord noted: First, an opening to China would give us more flexibility on the world scene generally. We wouldn't just be dealing with Moscow. We could deal with Eastern Europe, of course, we could deal with China, because the former Communist Bloc was no longer a bloc. Kissinger wanted more flexibility, generally. Secondly, by opening relations with China we would catch Russia's attention and get more leverage on them through playing this obvious, China card; the idea would be to improve relations with Moscow, hoping to stir a little bit of its paranoia by dealing with China, never getting so engaged with China that we would turn Russia into a hostile enemy but enough to get the attention of the Russians. This effort, in fact, worked after Kissinger's secret trip to China. Thirdly and Nixon wanted to get help in resolving the Vietnam War.
By dealing with Russia and with China we hoped to put pressure on Hanoi to negotiate seriously. At a maximum, we tried to get Russia and China to slow down the provision of aid to North Vietnam somewhat. More realistically and at a minimum, we sought to persuade Russia and China to encourage Hanoi to make a deal with the United States and give Hanoi a sense of isolation because their two, big patrons were dealing with us. Indeed, by their willingness to engage in summit meetings with us, with Nixon going to China in February, 1972, to Moscow in May, 1972, the Russians and Chinese were beginning to place a higher priority on their bilateral relations with us than on their dealings with their friends in Hanoi. One of the main reasons Richard Nixon became the 1952 vice-presidential candidate on the Eisenhower ticket was his strong anti-communist stance. Despite this, in 1972 Nixon became the first U. S. president to visit mainland China while in office. Ulysses S. Grant visited China on a world tour after leaving office.
Herbert Hoover lived in China in 1899 before becoming President and could
Black Bat Squadron
Black Bat Squadron, formally the 34th Squadron, was a squadron of CIA reconnaissance plane pilots and crew based in Taiwan during the Cold War. Citizens of the Republic of China flew missions over mainland China controlled by the People's Republic of China to drop agents and gather military signal intelligence around military sites; the 34th Squadron was formed in 1953 and flew its last operational mission in 1967. The squadron's emblem was seven stars surrounded by a red ring; the bat & stars allude to night operations. The bat's wing piercing the "red circle" intentionally and the position of the stars representing the numbers 3 & 4 for its formal name. Unit's aircraft included the Boeing B-17G, Douglas A-26C/B-26C Invader, 7 Lockheed RB-69A, Douglas C-54, 11 Fairchild C-123B/K Provider, Lockheed C-130E Hercules, 3 "black" Lockheed P-3A Orion; the P-3As and RB-69As were armed with AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles for self-defense. 34th Squadron specialized in low level air space penetration to hug the ground in order to evade enemy radars and fighter interceptions.
When operating P-3A, its main mission was flying in international water, 40 miles outside of Mainland China, to collect signal intelligences. Overall, from 1953 to 1967, 34th Squadron flew 838 missions, 148 Black Bat crew members went down with 15 aircraft. A few were captured after being shot down and released in Hong Kong; the squadron's last operational mission was flown in May 1969. This was the epic operation Heavy Tea. After the failure of the Black Cat Squadron to plant operating sensor pods near the Lop Nur Nuclear Weapons Test Base, the CIA developed a plan to deploy two battery-powered sensor pallets near the base. To deploy the pallets, a Black Bat crew was trained in the US to fly the Lockheed C-130 Hercules; the crew of 12, led by Col Sun Pei Zhen, took off from Takhli Royal Thai Air Force Base in an unmarked US Air Force C-130E on 17 May. Flying for six and a half hours at low altitude in the dark, they arrived over the target and the sensor pallets were dropped by parachute near Anxi in Gansu province.
After another six and a half hours of low altitude flight, they arrived back at Takhli. The sensors worked and uploaded data to a US intelligence satellite for six months, before their batteries wore out; the Chinese conducted two nuclear tests, on 22 September 1969 and 29 September 1969, during the operating life of the sensor pallets. Another mission to the area was planned as operation Golden Whip, but was called off in 1970. After the 34th Squadron stopped flying over and near Mainland China, they moved to special operations over Vietnam, until 1972. 12 members of 34th SQ involved in CIA's Project Main Street in 1971 to 1972, involving tapping North Vietnam's communication link. As of 2013, The "Black Bat" squadron has been reactivated as the 134th Squadron under 6th T/EWW in Taiwan, is operating the S-2Ts that used to be under the ROCN; this is not to be confused with another top-secret squadron of the ROCAF—The Black Cat Squadron. This 35th Squadron flew U-2 high altitude reconnaissance plane provided by the CIA, losing five aircraft and three ROCAF pilots to PRC air defenses.
Their flight provided valuable intelligence deep inside mainland China China's Atomic bomb development. The Black Cat Squadron was disbanded in 1973, 2 remaining U-2R were returned to US by 1974. Director Ting Wen-chin made a documentary about them entitled The Secret Hidden in the Sky of Taiwan. On 25 March 1960, an RB-69A/P2V-7U crashed into a hill near Kunsan Air Base, South Korea, during a low level ferry flight from Hsinchu, Taiwan to stage area in Kunsan, South Korea. All 14 aircrew on board were killed. On 6 November 1961, an RB-69A/P2V-7U conducting a low level penetration flight over mainland China was shot down by ground fire over Liaodong peninsula. All 14 aircrew on board were killed in action. On 8 January 1962, a RB-69A/P2V-7U crashed into the Korea Bay while conducting ELINT and leaflet dropping missions. All 14 aircrew on board were killed in action. On 19 June 1963, a RB-69A/P2V-7U was conducting ELINT mission over mainland China, was shot down by PLAAF MiG-17PF over Linchuan, after intercepted by multiple MiG-17PFs and Tu-4Ps.
All 14 aircrew on board were killed in action. On 11 June 1964, a RB-69A/P2V-7U was conducting ELINT mission over mainland China, was shot down by PLANAF MiG-15 over Shandong peninsula, after intercepted by MiG-15s and Il-28s. All 13 aircrew on board were killed in action. Black Bat Squadron Memorial Hall Black Bat Squadron Memorial Hall Hsinchu City, TAIWAN, R. O. C. Taipei Times article, 10 July, 2007 USA Today article, 4 August, 2007 NPR Audio Story, 4 April, 2008
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 is a high-subsonic fighter aircraft produced in the USSR from 1952 and operated by numerous air forces in many variants. It is an advanced development of the similar looking MiG-15 of the Korean War; the MiG-17 was license-built in China as the Shenyang J-5 and Poland as the PZL-Mielec Lim-6. MiG-17s first saw combat in 1958 in the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis and proved to be an effective threat against more modern supersonic fighters of the United States in the Vietnam War, it was briefly known as the Type 38 by U. S. Air Force designation prior to the development of NATO codes. While the MiG-15bis introduced swept wings to air combat over Korea, the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau had begun work on its replacement in 1949 in order to fix any problems found with the MiG-15 in combat; the result was one of the most successful transonic fighters introduced before the advent of true supersonic types such as the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19 and North American F-100 Super Sabre.
The design would still prove effective into the 1960s when pressed into subsonic dogfights over Vietnam against much faster planes which were not optimized for maneuvering in such slower speed, short-range engagements. While the MiG-15 used a Mach sensor to deploy airbrakes because it could not safely exceed Mach 0.92, the MiG-17 was designed to be controllable at higher Mach numbers. Early versions which retained the original Soviet copy of the Rolls-Royce Nene VK-1 engine were heavier with equal thrust. MiG-17s would be the first Soviet fighter application of an afterburner which offered increased thrust on demand by dumping fuel in the exhaust of the basic engine. Though the MiG-17 still resembles its forebear, it had an new thinner and more swept wing and tailplane for speeds approaching Mach 1. While the F-86 introduced the "all-flying" tailplane which helped controllability near the speed of sound, this would not be adopted on MiGs until the supersonic MiG-19; the wing had a "sickle sweep" compound shape with a 45° angle like the U.
S. F-100 Super Sabre near the fuselage, a 42° angle for the outboard part of the wings; the stiffer wing resisted the tendency to bend its wingtips and lose aerodynamic symmetry unexpectedly at high speeds and wing loads. Like its forebearer, the MiG-17 inherited a major design deficit which caused its fuel tanks to develop an under-pressure condition if more than half the fuel had been used which could lead to tank implosions, crushing the main fuselage of the aircraft in mid-flight with always fatal results. 30% of the fatal accidents of Soviet MiG-17 were attributed to this problem. Other visible differences to its predecessor were the addition of a third wing fence on each wing, the addition of a ventral fin and a longer and less tapered rear fuselage that added about one meter in length; the MiG-17 shared the same Klimov VK-1 engine, much of the rest of its construction such as the forward fuselage, landing gear and gun installation was carried over. The first prototype, designated I-330 "SI" by the construction bureau, was flown on the 14 January 1950, piloted by Ivan Ivashchenko.
In the midst of testing, pilot Ivan Ivashchenko was killed when his aircraft developed flutter which tore off his horizontal tail, causing a spin and crash on 17 March 1950. Lack of wing stiffness resulted in aileron reversal, discovered and fixed. Construction and tests of additional prototypes "SI-2" and experimental series aircraft "SI-02" and "SI-01" in 1951, were successful. On 1 September 1951, the aircraft was accepted for production, formally given its own MiG-17 designation after so many changes from the original MiG-15, it was estimated that with the same engine as the MiG-15's, the MiG-17's maximum speed is higher by 40–50 km/h, the fighter has greater manoeuvrability at high altitude. Serial production started in August 1951, but large quantity production was delayed in favor of producing more MiG-15s so it was never introduced in the Korean War, it did not enter service until October 1952, when the MiG-19 was ready to be flight tested. During production, the aircraft was modified several times.
The basic MiG-17 was a general-purpose day fighter, armed with three cannons, one Nudelman N-37 37mm cannon and two 23mm with 80 rounds per gun, 160 rounds total. It could act as a fighter-bomber, but its bombload was considered light relative to other aircraft of the time, it carried additional fuel tanks instead of bombs. Although a canopy which provided clear vision to the rear necessary for dogfighting like the F-86 was designed, production MiG-17Fs got a cheaper rear-view periscope which would still appear on Soviet fighters as late as the MiG-23. By 1953, pilots got safer ejection seats with protective face curtain and leg restraints like the Martin-Baker seats in the west; the MiG-15 had suffered for its lack of a radar gunsight, but in 1951, Soviet engineers obtained a captured F-86 Sabre from Korea and they copied the optical gunsight and SRD-3 gun ranging radar to produce the ASP-4N gunsight and SRC-3 radar. The combination would prove deadly over the skies of Vietnam against aircraft such as the F-4 Phantom whose pilots lamented that guns and radar gunsights had been omitted as obsolescent.
The second prototype variant, "SP-2", was an interceptor equipped with a radar. Soon a number of MiG-17P all-weather fighters were produced with the Izumrud radar and front air intake modifications. In early 1953 the MiG-17F day fighter entered production; the "F" indicated it was fitted with the VK-1F engine with an afterburner by modifying the rear fuselage with a n
China and weapons of mass destruction
The People's Republic of China has developed and possesses weapons of mass destruction, including chemical and nuclear weapons. The first of China's nuclear weapons tests took place in 1964, its first hydrogen bomb test occurred in 1967. Tests continued until 1996. China has acceded to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention in 1984 and ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention in 1997; the number of nuclear warheads in China's arsenal is a state secret. There are varying estimates of the size of China's arsenal. China is estimated by the Federation of American Scientists to have an arsenal of about 260 total warheads as of 2015, which would make it the second smallest nuclear arsenal amongst the five nuclear weapon states acknowledged by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. According to some estimates, the country could "more than double" the "number of warheads on missiles that could threaten the United States by the mid-2020s". Early in 2011, China published a defense white paper, which repeated its nuclear policies of maintaining a minimum deterrent with a no-first-use pledge.
Yet China has yet to define what it means by a "minimum deterrent posture". This, together with the fact that "it is deploying four new nuclear-capable ballistic missiles, invites concern as to the scale and intention of China’s nuclear upgrade". China signed the Chemical Weapons Convention on January 13, 1993. China ratified the CWC on April 25, 1997. In the official declaration submitted to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, the Chinese government declared that it had possessed a small arsenal of chemical weapons in the past but that it had destroyed it before ratifying the Convention, it has declared only three former chemical production facilities that may have produced mustard gas and Lewisite. China was found to have supplied Albania with a small stockpile of chemical weapons in the 1970s during the Cold War. China is a signatory of the Biological Weapons Convention and Chinese officials have stated that China has never engaged in biological activities with offensive military applications.
However, China was reported to have had an active biological weapons program in the 1980s. Kanatjan Alibekov, former director of one of the Soviet germ-warfare programs, said that China suffered a serious accident at one of its biological weapons plants in the late 1980s. Alibekov asserted that Soviet reconnaissance satellites identified a biological weapons laboratory and plant near a site for testing nuclear warheads; the Soviets suspected that two separate epidemics of hemorrhagic fever that swept the region in the late 1980s were caused by an accident in a lab where Chinese scientists were weaponizing viral diseases. US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright expressed her concerns over possible Chinese biological weapon transfers to Iran and other nations in a letter to Senator Bob Bennett in January 1997. Albright stated that she had received reports regarding transfers of dual-use items from Chinese entities to the Iranian government which concerned her and that the United States had to encourage China to adopt comprehensive export controls to prevent assistance to Iran's alleged biological weapons program.
The United States acted upon the allegations on January 16, 2002, when it imposed sanctions on three Chinese firms accused of supplying Iran with materials used in the manufacture of chemical and biological weapons. In response to this, China issued export control protocols on dual use biological technology in late 2002. Mao Zedong decided to begin a Chinese nuclear-weapons program during the First Taiwan Strait Crisis of 1954–1955 over the Quemoy and Matsu Islands. While he did not expect to be able to match the large American nuclear arsenal, Mao believed that a few bombs would increase China's diplomatic credibility. Construction of uranium-enrichment plants in Baotou and Lanzhou began in 1958, a plutonium facility in Jiuquan and the Lop Nur nuclear test site by 1960; the Soviet Union provided assistance in the early Chinese program by sending advisers to help in the facilities devoted to fissile material production, in October 1957 agreed to provide a prototype bomb and related technology.
The Chinese, who preferred to import technology and components to developing them within China, exported uranium to the Soviet Union, the Soviets sent two R-2 missiles in 1958. That year, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev told Mao that he planned to discuss arms control with the United States and Britain. China was opposed to Khrushchev's post-Stalin policy of "peaceful coexistence". Although Soviet officials assured China that it was under the Soviet nuclear umbrella, the disagreements widened the emerging Sino-Soviet split. In June 1959 the two nations formally ended their agreement on military and technology cooperation, in July 1960 all Soviet assistance with the Chinese nuclear program was abruptly terminated and all Soviet technicians were withdrawn from the program; the American government under John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson was concerned about the program and studied ways to sabotage or attack it with the aid of Taiwan or the Soviet Union, but Khrushchev was not interested; the Chinese conducted their first nuclear test, code-named 596, on 16 October 1964, acknowledged that their program would have been impossible to complete without the Soviet help.
China's last nuclear test was on July 29, 1996. According to the Australian Geological Survey Organisation in Canberra, the yield of the 1996 test was 1–5 kilotons; this was China's 22nd underground test and 45th test overall. China has made significant improvements in its miniaturization techniques since the 1980s. There have been accusations, notably by
Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution
Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution or China People's Revolution Military Museum is located in Haidian District, China. The museum displays restored military equipment from the history of the People's Liberation Army, up to and including modern-day machinery. One of the Ten Great Buildings erected in celebration of the ten-year anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, construction of the museum began in October 1958 and ended in 1960; the museum's four floors include ten halls, the largest of, the Hall of Weapons. The Hall's extensive holdings of antiquated weaponry showcase domestic and foreign weapons, including blades, small arms, tanks, armored personnel carriers, anti-air weaponry, jet fighters and rocket launchers, cruise missiles. Foreign weapons include Soviet tanks purchased or donated during the 1950s and 1960s, Japanese weaponry captured during the Second Sino-Japanese War, American weaponry captured from the Kuomintang during the Chinese Civil War and from UN forces during the Korean War.
In addition, the Hall of Weapons displays equipment from China's space program, such as satellites and a two-seat orbital capsule. With two exceptions, the other halls are historical exhibits, combining plaster sculptures, paintings, artifacts and plaques; the other nine halls include: The Hall of the Agrarian Revolutionary War: Confrontations between 1927 and 1937 of the Chinese Communist Party and the ruling Kuomintang The Hall of the War to Resist Japanese Aggression: The 1937-1947 Second Sino-Japanese War The Hall of the War of Liberation of China: The 1945-1949 period of the Chinese Civil War The Hall of Ancient Wars: Internal and external wars during the 4,000 years before the Qing Dynasty The Hall of Modern Wars: Internal and external wars between 1840 and 1949 The Hall of National Defense and Army Building: Modern military achievements and developments since 1949 The Hall of the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea: Chinese involvement in the Korean War The Hall of Presents: Gifts to the Chinese military or state by foreign militaries or states The Hall of Cheng Yunxian's Sculptural Arts: Plaster reproductions of sculptures of world leaders, historical figures, scientists by Cheng Yunxian Currently, the museum is open to free admission, though visitors must show identification and consent to any security bag checks.
The museum is accessible by Line 1 of the Beijing Subway at the Military Museum Station and city bus routes 1, 4, 21, 65, 68, 205, 308, 320, 337, 617, 728, 802. List of museums in China http://www.china.org.cn/english/kuaixun/73574.htm