Black-and-white images combine black and white in a continuous spectrum, producing a range of shades of gray. The history of various visual media has begun with black and white, as technology improved, altered to color. However, there are exceptions to this rule, including black-and-white fine art photography, as well as many motion pictures and art films. Most early forms of motion pictures or film were white; some color film processes, including hand coloring were experimented with, in limited use, from the earliest days of motion pictures. The switch from most films being in black-and-white to most being in color was gradual, taking place from the 1930s to the 1960s; when most film studios had the capability to make color films, the technology's popularity was limited, as using the Technicolor process was expensive and cumbersome. For many years, it was not possible for films in color to render realistic hues, thus its use was restricted to historical films and cartoons until the 1950s, while many directors preferred to use black-and-white stock.
For the years 1940–1966, a separate Academy Award for Best Art Direction was given for black-and-white movies along with one for color. The earliest television broadcasts were transmitted in black-and-white, received and displayed by black-and-white only television sets. Scottish inventor John Logie Baird demonstrated the world's first color television transmission on July 3, 1928 using a mechanical process; some color broadcasts in the U. S. began in the 1950s, with color becoming common in western industrialized nations during the late 1960s. In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission settled on a color NTSC standard in 1953, the NBC network began broadcasting a limited color television schedule in January 1954. Color television became more widespread in the U. S. between 1963 and 1967, when major networks like CBS and ABC joined NBC in broadcasting full color schedules. Some TV stations in the US were still broadcasting in B&W until the late 80s to early 90s, depending on network.
Canada began airing color television in 1966 while the United Kingdom began to use an different color system from July 1967 known as PAL. The Republic of Ireland followed in 1970. Australia experimented with color television in 1967 but continued to broadcast in black-and-white until 1975, New Zealand experimented with color broadcasting in 1973 but did not convert until 1975. In China, black-and-white television sets were the norm until as late as the 1990s, color TVs not outselling them until about 1989. In 1969, Japanese electronics manufacturers standardized the first format for industrial/non-broadcast videotape recorders called EIAJ-1, which offered only black-and-white video recording and playback. While used professionally now, many consumer camcorders have the ability to record in black-and-white. Throughout the 19th century, most photography was monochrome photography: images were either black-and-white or shades of sepia. Personal and commercial photographs might be hand tinted. Colour photography was rare and expensive and again containing inaccurate hues.
Color photography became more common from the mid-20th century. However, black-and-white photography has continued to be a popular medium for art photography, as shown in the picture by the well-known photographer Ansel Adams; this can take the form of black-and-white film or digital conversion to grayscale, with optional digital image editing manipulation to enhance the results. For amateur use certain companies such as Kodak manufactured black-and-white disposable cameras until 2009. Certain films are produced today which give black-and-white images using the ubiquitous C41 color process. Printing is an ancient art, color printing has been possible in some ways from the time colored inks were produced. In the modern era, for financial and other practical reasons, black-and-white printing has been quite common through the 20th century. However, with the technology of the 21st century, home color printers, which can produce color photographs, are common and inexpensive, a technology unimaginable in the mid-20th century.
Most American newspapers were black-and-white until the early 1980s. Some claim. In the UK, color was only introduced from the mid-1980s. Today, many newspapers restrict color photographs to the front and other prominent pages since mass-producing photographs in black-and-white is less expensive than color. Daily comic strips in newspapers were traditionally black-and-white with color reserved for Sunday strips. Color printing is more expensive. Sometimes color is reserved for the cover. Magazines such as Jet magazine were either all or black-and-white until the end of the 2000s when it became all-color. Manga are published in black-and-white although now it is part of its image. Many school yearbooks are still or in black-and-white; the Wizard of Oz is in color when Dorothy is in Oz, but in black-and-white when she is in Kansas, although the latter scenes were in sepia when the film was released. In a similar manner, in Stalker, the zone, in which natural laws do not apply, is in colour, the world outside the zone in sepia.
In contrast, the British film A Matter of Life and Death depicts the other world in black-and-white (a
Hapoel Zikhron Ya'akov was an Israeli football club based in Zikhron Ya'akov. The club played two seasons in the second tier of Israeli football league system; the club was founded in 1947 and played in the lower divisions of Israeli football. Hapoel played their first football season in Liga Meuhedet, the temporary second tier in the 1949–50 season, where they finished sixth in the Samaria division, were placed in Liga Bet, the second tier of Israeli football at the time. However, Hapoel were automatically relegated to Liga Gimel; the club was dissolved in 1958 due to financial problems, reformed five years in 1963. In the 1965–66 season, Hapoel won Liga Gimel Samaria division, after Promotion play-offs, were promoted to Liga Bet. In the 1969–70, the club won Liga Bet North B division and promoted to Liga Alef, the second tier at the time. However, the club's spell in Liga Alef lasted only one season, as they finished second bottom in the North division at the 1970–71 season and relegated back to Liga Bet.
In the 1973–74 season, the club finished bottom in the North B division, after Relegation play-offs, were relegated to Liga Gimel. Prior to the 1995–96 season, the club merged with local rivals Maccabi Zikhron Ya'akov to create Ironi Zikhron Ya'akov; the merged club was dissolved at the end of the 1999–2000 season, following relegation from Liga Bet to Liga Gimel
Colin Ford is an American actor and voice actor. He is known for his roles as Josh Wheeler in Daybreak, Joe McAlister in Under the Dome, the voice of Jake on Jake and the Never Land Pirates, which earned him a Young Artist Award, young Sam Winchester in Supernatural and Dylan Mee in the family movie We Bought a Zoo. Ford was born in Tennessee, he enjoyed being in front of the camera. At age 4, he modeled for print ads for national retailers. At age 5, he made his film debut as Clinton Jr. in the feature film Sweet Home Alabama. He obtained more roles in independent films such as Moved, The Book of Jaene and Dumb and Dumberer: When Harry Met Lloyd. In 2004, Ford portrayed Matthew Steed in the movie the Glory. 2005 began with a high profile photo shoot with Angelina Jolie for W magazine. This was followed by a trip to Vancouver with Tom Welling and the cast of Smallville. Following Smallville, he reprised his role as Matthew Steed in The Work and the Glory: American Zion played a lead role, as Jackson Patch in Dog Days of Summer, along with veteran actor Will Patton.
Capping off a busy year, Ford was back in Vancouver, playing Zeph, the son of Jason Statham's and Claire Forlani's characters in the epic adventure, In the Name of the King: A Dungeon Siege Tale, released in April 2007. Ford voiced the role of Dart, the reindeer, performing with Kathy Bates, Andy Griffith, Jay Leno, Ed Asner, Shirley Jones, many others in the feature film, Christmas Is Here Again, he starred in the film We Bought a Zoo, released in December 2011. He played the young son Dylan of a three-part family, with Matt Damon as the father, along with a little sister Rosie Maggie Elizabeth Jones, he attended the same school as his We Bought a Zoo costar, Elle Fanning. He attended Oaks Christian Online High School, a college preparatory school. After filming We Bought a Zoo, Colin was cast on the TV series Under The Dome, playing Joe McAlister. In 2018, it was announced that Ford had been cast in the main role of Josh Wheeler in the Netflix comedy-drama series Daybreak; the series premiered on October 24, 2019.
Official website Colin Ford on IMDb