Great Migration (African American)
The Great Migration was the movement of 5 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast and West that occurred between 1915 and 1960. Until 1910, more than 90 percent of the African-American population lived in the American South, in 1900, only one-fifth of African-Americans living in the South were living in urban areas. By 1970, more than 80 percent of African-Americans lived in cities, in sheer numbers it outranks the migration of any other ethnic group—Italians or Irish or Jews or Poles—to. For blacks, the migration meant leaving what had always been their economic and social base in America, some historians differentiate between a first Great Migration, which saw about 1. Since 1965, a migration has gathered strength. Dubbed the New Great Migration, it has seen many African-Americans move to the South, as early as 1975 to 1980, seven southern states were net African-American migration gainers. African-American populations have continued to drop much of the Northeast, especially the state of New York and northern New Jersey.
James Gregory calculates decade-by-decade migration volumes in his book, The Southern Diaspora, Black migration picked up from the start of the new century, with 204,000 leaving in the first decade. The pace accelerated with the outbreak of World War I and continued through the 1920s, by 1930, there were 1.3 million former southerners living in other regions. The Great Depression wiped out job opportunities in the industrial belt, especially for African Americans. A second and larger Great Migration began around 1940 as defense industries geared up for World War II. 1.4 million black southerners moved north or west in the 1940s, followed by 1.1 million in the 1950s, by the late 1970s, as deindustrialization and the Rust Belt crisis took hold, the Great Migration came to an end. African-Americans moved from the 14 states of the South, especially Alabama, Louisiana, based on the total populations in each of the four states, only Georgia showed a net decrease in its African American population in 1950 compared to 1920.
Louisiana, Texas and Mississippi showed net increases in their African American populations in 1950 compared to 1920, big cities were the principal destinations of southerners throughout the two phases of the Great Migration. In the first phase, eight major cities attracted two-thirds of the migrants, New York and Chicago, followed in order by Philadelphia, St. Louis, Detroit and Indianapolis. The Second great black migration increased the populations of cities while adding others as destinations. Cities such as Los Angeles, San Francisco, Phoenix, there were clear migratory patterns that linked particular states and cities in the South to corresponding destinations in the North. Almost half of those who migrated from Mississippi during the first Great Migration, for example, ended up in Chicago, for the most part, these patterns were related to geography, with the closest cities attracting the most migrants
Pan-Africanism is a worldwide intellectual movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all people of African descent. It is based on the belief that unity is vital to economic, the ideology asserts that the fate of all African peoples and countries are intertwined. At its core Pan-Africanism is a belief that African peoples, both on the continent and in the diaspora, share not merely a common history, but a common destiny. The African Union Commission has its seat in Addis Ababa and the Pan-African Parliament has its seat in Johannesburg, Pan-Africanism stresses the need for collective self-reliance. Pan-Africanism exists as a governmental and grassroots objective, du Bois, and others in the diaspora. Solidarity will enable self-reliance, allowing the potential to independently provide for its people to be fulfilled. Crucially, an alliance would empower African people globally. that would unsettle social and political structures. in the Americas. United, African nations will have the economic and social clout to act and compete on the stage as do other large entities, such as the European Union.
Pan-Africans or Pan-Africanists—often champion socialist principles and tend to be opposed to external political, critics accuse the ideology of homogenizing the experience of people of African descent. They point to the difficulties of reconciling current divisions within countries on the continent, as a philosophy, Pan-Africanism represents the aggregation of the historical, spiritual, artistic and philosophical legacies of Africans from past times to the present. Another important political form of a religious Pan-Africanist worldview appeared in the form of Ethiopianism, in London, the Sons of Africa was a political group addressed by Quobna Ottobah Cugoano in the 1791 edition of his book Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil of Slavery. The group addressed meetings and organised letter-writing campaigns, published campaigning material and they wrote to figures such as Granville Sharp, William Pitt and other members of the white abolition movement, as well as King George III and the Prince of Wales, the future George IV.
Modern Pan-Africanism began around the start of the 20th century, the African Association, renamed the Pan-African Association, was established around 1897 by Henry Sylvester-Williams, who organized the First Pan-African Conference in London in 1900. With the independence of Ghana in March 1957, Kwame Nkrumah was elected as the first Prime Minister, Nkrumah emerged as a major advocate for the unity of Independent Africa. The Ghanaian President embodied a political activist approach to pan-Africanism as he championed the “quest for regional integration of the whole of the African continent”, Nkrumah’s pan-African principles, intended for a union between the Independent African states, upon a recognition their commonality, suppression under imperialism. The Conference invited delegates of political movements and major political leaders, with the exception of South Africa, all Independent States of the Continent attended, Ethiopia, Liberia, Morocco and Sudan. The Conference signified a monumental event in the movement, as it revealed a political and social union between the those considered Arabic states and the black African regions.
Further, the Conference espoused a common African Nationalist identity, among the States, of unity, frantz Fanon, freedom fighter and a member of the Algerian, FLN Party attended the conference as a delegate for Algeria
African-American history is the branch of American history that specifically discusses the African-American or Black American ethnic groups in the United States. Most African Americans are the descendants of Africans forcibly brought to, African Americans have been known by various names throughout American history, including colored and Negro, which are no longer accepted in English. Instead the most usual and accepted terms nowadays are African American and Black, the term person of color usually refers not only to African Americans, but to other non-white ethnic groups. African-American history is celebrated and highlighted annually in the United States during February, although previously marginalized, African-American history has gained ground in school and university curricula and gained wider scholarly attention since the late 20th century. The great majority of African Americans descend from Africans brought directly from Africa, originally these slaves were captured in African wars and transported via the Atlantic slave trade.
The American slaves descended from the ethnic groups from mostly western and central Africa. A smaller minority were from eastern and southeastern Africa, some of the major ethnic groups the enslaved Africans belonged to included the Hausa, Igbo, Mandé, Akan, Fon and Makua. Although these different groups varied in customs, religious theology and language, slaves from specific African ethnic groups were more sought after and more dominant in numbers than others in certain regions of what became the United States. Studies of contemporary documents reveal seven regions from which Africans were sold or taken during the Atlantic slave trade, the largest source of slaves to be shipped across the Atlantic Ocean for the New World was West Africa. Some West Africans were skilled workers and were therefore able to make tools that aided in their agricultural labor. While there were many tribes with their own customs and religions, by the tenth century, Islam had been soaked up by many of the residents.
Those villages in West Africa that were enough to be in good conditions for growth and success. They contributed their success to the slave trade and Percentages of African Americans imported into British North America and Louisiana Before the Atlantic Slave Trade there were already people of African descent in America. A few countries in Africa would buy and trade other enslaved Africans, the people of Mali and Benin are known for partaking in the event of selling their prisoners of war and other unwanted people off as slaves. In the account of Olaudah Equiano, he described the process of being transported to the colonies, on the ships, the slaves were separated from their family long before they boarded the ships. Once aboard the ships the captives were segregated by gender, under the deck, the slaves were cramped and did not have enough space to walk around freely. Male slaves were kept in the ships hold, where they experienced the worst of crowding. Due to the lack of hygiene and dehydration diseases spread wildly
Military history of African Americans
The Military history of African Americans spans from the arrival of the first black slaves during the colonial history of the United States to the present day. African-Americans as slaves and free blacks served on both sides during the war, ray Raphael notes that while thousands did join the Loyalist cause, A far larger number, free as well as slave, tried to further their interests by siding with the patriots. Black soldiers served in militias from the outset, but this was forbidden in the South. Over 100,000 slaves escaped to the British lines, although possibly as few as 1,000 served under arms, despite Dunmores promises, the majority were not given their freedom. Many Black Loyalists descendants now live in Canada and Sierra Leone, many of the Black Loyalists performed military service in the British Army, particularly as part of the only Black regiment of the war the Black Pioneers, and others served non-military roles. In response, and because of shortages, Washington lifted the ban on black enlistment in the Continental Army in January 1776.
At least 5,000 African-American soldiers fought as Revolutionaries, peter Salem and Salem Poor are the most noted of the African American Patriots during this era, and Colonel Tye was perhaps the most noteworthy Black Loyalist. Black volunteers served with various of the South Carolina guerrilla units, including that of the Swamp Fox, Francis Marion, half of whose force sometimes consisted of free Blacks. These Black troops made a difference in the fighting in the swamps. At least 12 other black men served with various American Marine units in 1776–1777, more may have been in service but not identified as blacks in the records. However, in 1798 when the United States Marine Corps was officially re-instituted, Secretary of War James McHenry specified in its rules, No Negro, Mulatto or Indian to be enlisted. Marine Commandant William Ward Burrows instructed his recruiters regarding USMC racial policy, You can make use of Blacks and Mulattoes while you recruit, the USMC maintained this policy until 1942.
Hannibal Collins, a slave and Oliver Hazard Perrys personal servant, is thought to be the oarsman in William Henry Powells Battle of Lake Erie. Collins earned his freedom as a veteran of the Revolutionary War and he accompanied Perry for the rest of Perrys naval career, and was with him at Perrys death in Trinidad in 1819. No legal restrictions regarding the enlistment of blacks were placed on the Navy because of its shortage of manpower. The law of 1792, which generally prohibited enlistment of blacks in the Army became the United States Armys official policy until 1862, Louisiana permitted the existence of separate black militia units which drew its enlistees from freed blacks. A number of African Americans in the Army during the Mexican–American War were servants of the officers who received government compensation for the services of their servants or slaves, soldiers from the Louisiana Battalion of Free Men of Color participated in this war. African Americans served on a number of vessels during the Mexican–American War, including the USS Treasure
The term black church or African-American church refers to Protestant churches that currently or historically have ministered to predominantly black congregations in the United States. Most of the first black congregations and churches formed before 1800 were founded by free blacks – for example, in Philadelphia, Petersburg and Savannah, Georgia. The oldest black Baptist church in Kentucky, and third oldest in the United States, was founded about 1790 by the slave Peter Durrett. After slavery was abolished, segregationist attitudes in both the North and the South discouraged and even prevented African Americans from worshiping in the churches as whites. Freed blacks most often established congregations and church facilities separate from their white neighbors, as a result, black churches have fostered strong community organizations and provided spiritual and political leadership, especially during the civil rights movement. Evangelical Baptist and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and they appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted.
Blacks found opportunities to have roles in new congregations, especially in the Baptist Church. As they listened to readings, slaves developed their own interpretations of the Scriptures and found inspiration in stories of deliverance, such as the Exodus out of Egypt. Nat Turner, a slave and Baptist preacher, was inspired to armed rebellion, in an uprising that killed about 50 white men and children in Virginia. Both free blacks and the numerous slaves participated in the earliest black Baptist congregations founded near Petersburg, Savannah and Lexington, Kentucky. The slaves Peter Durrett and his wife founded the First African Church in Lexington, the churchs trustees purchased its first property in 1815. The congregation numbered about 290 by the time of Durretts death in 1823, following slave revolts in the early 19th century, including Nat Turners Rebellion in 1831, Virginia passed a law requiring black congregations to meet only in the presence of a white minister. Other states similarly restricted exclusively black churches, or the assembly of blacks in large groups unsupervised by whites, the black Baptist congregations in the cities grew rapidly and their members numbered several hundred each before the Civil War.
While mostly led by blacks, most of their members were slaves. With the time, many incorporated Wesleyan Methodist hymns, gospel songs, the underground churches provided psychological refuge from the white world. The spirituals gave the members a secret way to communicate and, in some cases. Slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held meetings at their plantations
Congress of Racial Equality
The Congress of Racial Equality is an African-American civil rights organization in the United States that played a pivotal role for African Americans in the Civil Rights Movement. Founded in 1942, CORE was one of the Big Four civil rights organizations, along with the SCLC, the SNCC, and the NAACP. Its stated mission is to bring about equality for all regardless of race, sex, disability. COREs national chairman was Roy Innis, CORE was founded in Chicago in March 1942. Among the founding members were James L. Farmer, Jr. George Houser, James R. Robinson, Samuel E. Riley, Bernice Fisher, Homer Jack, and Joe Guinn. Of the 50 original members 28 were men and 22 were women, roughly one-third of them were black, bayard Rustin, while not a father of the organization, was, as Farmer and Houser said, an uncle to CORE and supported it greatly. The group had evolved out of the pacifist Fellowship of Reconciliation, the groups inspiration was Mahatma Gandhis teachings of non-violence resistance. Gandhi had, in turn, been influenced by the writings of Henry David Thoreau, the American author, poet, in the South, COREs nonviolent direct action campaigns opposed Jim Crow segregation and job discrimination, and fought for voting rights.
Outside the South, CORE focused on discrimination in employment and housing, by 1961 CORE had 53 chapters throughout the United States. By 1963, most of the urban centers of the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic and West Coast had one or more CORE chapters. In the South, CORE had active chapters and projects in Louisiana, Florida, South Carolina, and Kentucky. The members of group were arrested and jailed several times, but they received a great deal of publicity. By the early 1960s, who had taken a hiatus from leading the group, returned as its secretary and sought to repeat the 1947 journey, coining a new name for it. On May 4,1961, participants journeyed to the deep South, the riders were met with severe violence. In Anniston, one of the buses was fire-bombed, white mobs attacked Freedom Riders in Birmingham and Montgomery. The violence garnered national attention, sparking a summer of similar rides by CORE, SNCC and other Civil Rights organizations, in 1960, the Chicago chapter of CORE began to challenge racial segregation in the Chicago Public Schools.
By the late 1950s, the Board of Educations maintenance of the school policy resulted in a pattern of racial segregation in the CPS. Many segregated schools were overcrowded, and in order to ease overcrowding, double-shifts meant that students in affected schools attended less than a full day of class
Kwanzaa is a week-long celebration held in the United States and in other nations of the Western African diaspora in the Americas. The celebration honors African heritage in African-American culture, and is observed from December 26 to January 1, culminating in a feast and it was created by Maulana Karenga and was first celebrated in 1966–67. Maulana Karenga created Kwanzaa in 1966, as the first specifically African-American holiday, according to Karenga, the name Kwanzaa derives from the Swahili phrase matunda ya kwanza, meaning first fruits of the harvest, although a more conventional translation would simply be first fruits. The cultural revolution gives identity and direction, during the early years of Kwanzaa, Karenga said that it was meant to be an oppositional alternative to Christmas. Many African Americans who celebrate Kwanzaa do so in addition to observing Christmas and these seven principles comprise *Kawaida, a Swahili word meaning common. Each of the seven days of Kwanzaa is dedicated to one of the principles, as follows, Umoja, To strive for and to maintain unity in the family, nation.
Kujichagulia, To define and name ourselves, as well as to create, ujima, To build and maintain our community together and make our brothers and sisters problems our problems and to solve them together. Ujamaa, To build and maintain our own stores, nia, To make our collective vocation the building and developing of our community in order to restore our people to their traditional greatness. Kuumba, To do always as much as we can, in the way we can, in order to leave our community more beautiful and beneficial than we inherited it. Imani, To believe with all our hearts in our people, our parents, our teachers, our leaders, corn is the primary symbol for both decoration and celebratory dining. It is customary to include children in Kwanzaa ceremonies and to give respect, libations are shared, generally with a common chalice, Kikombe cha Umoja, passed around to all celebrants. The holiday greeting is Joyous Kwanzaa, the greeting for each day of Kwanzaa is Habari Gani. which is Swahili for How are you.
Today, many African American families celebrate Kwanzaa along with Christmas, both Christmas trees and kinaras, the traditional candle holder symbolic of African American roots, share space in Kwanzaa-celebrating households. For people who celebrate both holidays, Kwanzaa is an opportunity to incorporate elements of their ethnic heritage into holiday observances. Cultural exhibitions include the Spirit of Kwanzaa, a celebration held at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts featuring interpretive dance, African dance, song. The holiday has spread to Canada, and is celebrated by Black Canadians in a similar fashion as in the United States. In 2004, BIG Research conducted a survey in the United States for the National Retail Foundation. If generalized to the US population as a whole, this would imply that around 4.7 million people planned to celebrate Kwanzaa in that year, in a 2006 speech, Maulana Karenga asserted that 28 million people celebrate Kwanzaa
Azusa Street Revival
The Azusa Street Revival was a historic Pentecostal revival meeting that took place in Los Angeles, California and is the origin of the Pentecostal movement. It was led by William J. Seymour, an African American preacher and it began with a meeting on April 9,1906, and continued until now. The revival was characterized by ecstatic spiritual experiences accompanied by amazing physical healing miracles, dramatic worship services, speaking in tongues, the participants were criticized by the secular media and Christian theologians for behaviors considered to be outrageous and unorthodox, especially at the time. Today, the revival is considered by historians to be the primary catalyst for the spread of Pentecostalism in the 20th century. Neely Terry, an African American woman who attended a small holiness church pastored by Julia Hutchins in Los Angeles, once home in California, Terry suggested that Seymour be invited to speak at the local church. Seymour received and accepted the invitation in February 1906, and he received financial help, Seymour arrived in Los Angeles on February 22,1906, and within two days was preaching at Julia Hutchins church at the corner of Ninth Street and Santa Fe Avenue.
During his first sermon, he preached that speaking in tongues was the first biblical evidence of the inevitable infilling in the Holy Ghost, on the following Sunday, March 4, he returned to the church and found that Hutchins had padlocked the door. Elders of the church rejected Seymours teaching, primarily because he had not yet experienced the blessing about which he was preaching, condemnation of his message came from the Holiness Church Association of Southern California with which the church had affiliation. However, not all members of Hutchins church rejected Seymours preaching and he was invited to stay in the home of congregation member Edward S. Lee, and he began to hold Bible studies and prayer meetings there. Seymour and his group of new followers soon relocated to the home of Richard. White families from local churches began to attend as well. The group would get together regularly and pray to receive the baptism of the Holy Spirit. On April 9,1906, after five weeks of Seymours preaching and prayer, a few days later, on April 12, Seymour spoke in tongues for the first time after praying all night long.
News of the events at North Bonnie Brae St, members of the audience included people from a broad spectrum of income levels and religious backgrounds. Hutchins eventually spoke in tongues as her whole congregation began to attend the meetings, soon the crowds became very large and were full of people speaking in tongues, shouting and moaning. Finally, the front porch collapsed, forcing the group to begin looking for a new meeting place, a resident of the neighborhood described the happenings at 216 North Bonnie Brae with the following words, They shouted three days and three nights. By the next morning there was no way of getting near the house, as people came in they would fall under Gods power, and the whole city was stirred. They shouted until the foundation of the gave way
African-American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. It begins with the works of such late 18th-century writers as Phillis Wheatley, before the high point of slave narratives, African-American literature was dominated by autobiographical spiritual narratives. African-American literature reached early high points with slave narratives of the 19th century, the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s was a time of flowering of literature and the arts. Writers of African-American literature have been recognized by the highest awards, among the themes and issues explored in this literature are the role of African Americans within the larger American society, African-American culture, racism and social equality. African-American writing has tended to incorporate oral forms, such as spirituals, gospel music, blues, as African Americans place in American society has changed over the centuries, so has the focus of African-American literature. There was a distinction between the literature of freed slaves and the literature of free blacks who had been born in the North.
Free blacks had to express their oppression in a different narrative form, free blacks in the North often spoke out against slavery and racial injustices using the spiritual narrative. The spiritual addressed many of the themes of slave narratives. At the turn of the 20th century, non-fiction works by such as W. E. B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington debated how to confront racist attitudes in the United States, during the Civil Rights Movement, authors such as Richard Wright and Gwendolyn Brooks wrote about issues of racial segregation and black nationalism. In broad terms, African-American literature can be defined as writings by people of African descent living in the United States, African-American literature has generally focused on the role of African Americans within the larger American society and what it means to be an American. As Princeton University professor Albert J. Raboteau has said, all African-American study speaks to the meaning of the African-American presence in this nation.
This presence has always been a test case of the claims to freedom, equality. African-American literature presents the African-American experience from an African-American point of view, in the early Republic, African-American literature represented a way for free blacks to negotiate their new identity in an individualized republic. They often tried to exercise their political and social autonomy in the face of resistance from the white public, thus, an early theme of African-American literature was, like other American writings, what it meant to be a citizen in post-Revolutionary America. African-American literature has both influenced by the great African diasporic heritage and shaped it in many countries. African-American oral culture is rich in poetry, including spirituals, gospel music and this oral poetry appears in the African-American tradition of Christian sermons, which make use of deliberate repetition and alliteration. African-American literature—especially written poetry, but prose—has a strong tradition of incorporating all of these forms of oral poetry and these characteristics do not occur in all works by African-American writers
Timeline of African-American history
This is a timeline of the history of Africans and their descendants in what is now the United States, from 1565 to the present. 1565 The Spanish colony of St. Augustine in Florida became the first permanent European settlement in what would become the US centuries later, it included an unknown number of African slaves. 1619 The first record of Africans in English colonial America when men were brought to the Jamestown colony who had taken as prizes from a Spanish ship. They were treated as indentured servants, and at least one was recorded as owning land in the colony. 1640 John Punch, an indentured servant, ran away with two white indentured servants, James Gregory and Victor. After the three were captured, Punch was sentenced to serve Virginia planter Hugh Gwyn for life and this made John Punch the first legally documented slave in Virginia. 1654 John Casor, a man who claimed to have completed his term of indenture. The court ruled with his master who said he had an indefinite servitude for life and this was contrary to English common law for English subjects, which held that children took their fathers social status.
1672 Royal African Company is founded in England, allowing slaves to be shipped from Africa to the colonies in North America,1676 Both free and enslaved African Americans fought in Bacons Rebellion along with English colonists. 1712 April 6 – The New York Slave Revolt of 1712,1739 September 9 – In the Stono Rebellion, South Carolina slaves gather at the Stono River to plan an armed march for freedom. 1753 Benjamin Banneker designed and built the first clock in the British American colonies and he created a series of almanacs. He corresponded with Thomas Jefferson and wrote that blacks were equal to whites. Banneker worked with Pierre LEnfant to survey and design a street and urban plan for Washington, D. C.1760 Jupiter Hammon has a poem printed, 1765–1767 Non-Importation Agreements – The First Continental Congress creates a multi-colony agreement to forbid importation of anything from British merchants. This implicitly includes slaves, and stops the slave trade in Philadelphia, the second similar act explicitly stops the slave trade.
1770 March 5 – Crispus Attucks is killed by British soldiers in the Boston Massacre,1773 Phillis Wheatley has her book Poems on Various Subjects and Moral published. 1774 The first black Baptist congregations are organized in the South, Silver Bluff Baptist Church in South Carolina,1775 April 14 – The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully held in Bondage holds four meetings. It was re-formed in 1784 as the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, 1776–1783 American Revolution Thousands of enslaved African Americans in the South escape to British lines, as they were promised freedom to fight with the British. In South Carolina,25,000 enslaved African Americans, one-quarter of those held, still others go to Jamaica and the West Indies
Religion in Black America
Religion in Black America refers to the religious and spiritual practices of blacks and people of African descent in the United States. Historians generally agree that the life of Black Americans forms the foundation of their community life. Before 1775 there was scattered evidence of organized religion among blacks in the American colonies, the Methodist and Baptist churches became much more active in the 1780s, and growth was quite rapid for the next 150 years until they covered a majority of the people. After Emancipation in 1863, Freedmen organized their own churches, chiefly Baptist, other Protestant denominations, and Catholics, played smaller roles. By 1900 the Pentecostal and Holiness movements were important, and the Jehovah Witnesses, the Nation of Islam added a Muslim factor in the 20th century. Powerful pastors often played prominent roles in politics, as typified by Martin Luther King Jr. the leader of the Civil Rights Movement, the population is mostly Christian, with 83% of black Americans identifying as Christian, including 45% who identify as baptist.
Catholics account for 5% of the population, about 12% of African American people do not have a religion and identify as atheist or agnostic, slightly lower than the figure for the whole of the USA. In the 1770s, no more than 1% of the blacks in the United States were connected to organized churches, the numbers grew rapidly after 1789. The Anglican Church had made an effort to proselytize, especially in Virginia, and spread information about Christianity. Some slaves brought traditional practices, especially regarding magic, with them from Africa, no organized African religious practices are known to have taken place in the Thirteen Colonies, but there was a surreptitious or underground practice of magic. In the mid-20th century scholars debated whether there were distinctive African elements embedded in black American religious practices, as in music, scholars no longer look for such cultural transfers regarding religion. Black religious music is distinct from traditional European religious music, it dances and ring shouts.
Many white clergy within evangelical Protestantism actively promoted the idea that all Christians were equal in the sight of God, slaves were welcome at the Baptist services and a few Baptist congregations contained as many as 25% slaves. Central to the growth of community among blacks was the Black church, starting around 1800 with the African Methodist Episcopal Church, African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church and other churches, the Black church grew to be the focal point of the Black community. The Black church- was both an expression of community and unique African-American spirituality, and a reaction to discrimination, the church served as neighborhood centers where free black people could celebrate their African heritage without intrusion by white detractors. The church the center of education, since the church was part of the community and wanted to provide education, they educated the freed and enslaved Blacks. Seeking autonomy, some blacks like Richard Allen founded separate Black denominations, the Second Great Awakening has been called the central and defining event in the development of Afro-Christianity.
Free blacks established Black churches in the South before 1860, after the Great Awakening, many blacks joined the Baptist Church, which allowed for their participation, including roles as elders and preachers