The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale called the Blackshirts or squadristi, was the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party, known as the Squadrismo, after 1923 an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy under Fascist rule, similar to the SA in Nazi Germany. Its members were distinguished by their black uniforms and their loyalty to Benito Mussolini, the Duce of Fascism, to whom they swore an oath; the founders of the paramilitary groups were nationalist intellectuals, former army officers and young landowners opposing peasants' and country labourers' unions. Their methods became harsher as Mussolini's power grew, they used violence and intimidation against Mussolini's opponents. In 1943, following the fall of the Fascist regime, the MVSN was integrated into the Royal Italian Army and disbanded; the Blackshirts were established as the Squadrismo in 1919 and consisted of many disgruntled former soldiers. It was given the task of leading fights against their bitter enemies – the Socialists.
They may have numbered 200,000 by the time of Mussolini's March on Rome from 27 to 29 October 1922. In 1922 the squadristi were reorganized into the milizia and formed numerous bandiere, on 1 February 1923 the Blackshirts became the Voluntary Militia for National Security, which lasted until the 8 September 1943 Armistice of Cassibile; the Italian Social Republic, located in the areas of northern Italy occupied by Germany, reformed the MVSN on 8 December 1943 into the National Republican Guard. Benito Mussolini was the leader, or Commandant–General and First Honorary Corporal, of the Blackshirts, but executive functions were carried out by the Chief of Staff, equivalent to an army general; the MVSN was formed in imitation of the ancient Roman army, as follows: The terms after the first are not words common to European armies. Instead, they derive from the structure of the ancient Roman army. Zona = division Legione = regiment, each legion was a militia unit consisting of a small active cadre and a large reserve of civilian volunteers.
Coorte = battalion Centuria = company Manipolo = platoon Squadra = squadThese units were organized on the triangular principle as follows: 3 squadre = 1 manipolo 3 manipoli = 1 centuria 3 centuriae = 1 coorte 3 coorti = 1 legione 3 legioni = 1 divisioni 3 or more legioni = 1 zona The MVSN original organization consisted of 15 zones controlling 133 legions of three cohorts each and one Independent Group controlling 10 legions. In 1929 it was reorganized into four raggruppamenti, but in October 1936 it was reorganized into 14 zones controlling only 133 legions with two cohorts each, one of men 21 to 36 years old and the other of men up to 55 years old. There were special units in Rome, on Ponza Island and the black uniformed Moschettieri del Duce, the Albanian Fascist Militia and Milizia Coloniale in Africa. Special militias were organized to provide security police and gendarmerie functions, these included: Forestry Militia Frontier Militia Highway Militia Port Militia Posts and Telegraph Militia Railway Militia University Militia Anti-aircraft and Coastal Artillery Militia, a combined command which controlled two militias: Anti-Aircraft Militia Coastal Artillery Militia During the 1935–36 Second Italo-Abyssinian War against Ethiopia, seven CCNN Divisions were organized: 1st CCNN Division 2nd CCNN Division 3rd CCNN Division 4th CCNN Division 5th CCNN Division 6th CCNN DivisionThe first six Divisions were sent to Ethiopia and participated in the war and in the Italian war crimes in Ethiopia.
7th CCNN Division – The 7th CCNN Division "Cirene" was never deployed overseas or fully equipped before it was disbanded. Divisional HQ 3 x Legions each with: Legion HQ 1 Legionary Machine Gun Company with 16 machine guns 2 Legionary Infantry Battalions, each with: 1 Machine Gun Company with 8x 8mm Breda machine guns and 3 Infantry Companies each with 9 light machine guns and 3x 45mm mortars 1 pack-artillery battery with 4x 65mm L17 each. 1 x Artillery Battalion with 3 batteries 1 x Engineers company 2 x Replacements Battalions 1 x Medical Section 1 x Logistics Section 1 x Pack-Mules unit 1 x Mixed Trucks unit The Blackshirts Rifle Battalions had three rifle companies but no MMG company. The rifle companies had three platoons; each Legion had a MMG company with four platoons of three weapons each. The Blackshirts replacements battalions were organized as the Blackshirts Rifle Battalions, but its platoon were overstrength and with only 1 x LMG in each platoon. Division Command 2 Black Shirt Legions - each 3 Battalions 1 81mm Mortar Company 1 Accompanying Battery 65mm/17 Mtn guns 1 Machine Gun Battalion 1 Artillery Regiment: 2 Artillery Groups 1 Artillery Group 2 AA Batteries 20mm 1 Mixed Engineering Battalion 1 Ambulance Section Sanita 3 Field Hospitals 1 Supply Section 1 Section Mixed Transport Three CCNN Divisions were sent to participate in the Spanish Civil War as part of the Corpo Truppe Volontarie.
The Blackshirt (Cami
Robert Eric Guglielmone is an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church serving as the thirteenth and current Bishop of Charleston, South Carolina. In August 2019, he was revealed to be a defendant in a lawsuit alleging that he committed acts of sex abuse during the time he served as a priest in Nassau County, New York in the late 1970s. Robert Guglielmone was born in New York City to Caroline Guglielmone. One of three children, he has two brothers and Tito, he was raised on Long Island and attended St. John's University in Queens, from where he obtained a Bachelor's degree in Education, he taught at Patchogue-Medford High School for five years while doing his graduate work at New York University. Guglielmone, feeling a call to the priesthood, entered Immaculate Conception Seminary in Huntington and earned a Master's in Divinity before being ordained on April 8, 1978, he served as assistant pastor at St. Martin of Tours Church in Amityville and at St. James Church in Setauket. In 1986, he was named director of pastoral formation and dean of seminarians at Immaculate Conception Seminary.
He became pastor of St. Frances de Chantal Church in Wantagh in 1993, was raised to the rank of Monsignor in 1996. In 2003, after a grand jury report on the handling of sexual abuse cases in the Diocese of Rockville Centre sparked public outrage, Bishop William Murphy named Guglielmone to be the diocesan Director of Clergy Personnel, he was made rector of St. Agnes Cathedral in 2007. Guglielmone is known for his substantial involvement in Scouting, he started his Scouting career as camp chaplain at Onteora Scout Reservation in Livingston Manor, during his time as a seminarian. As a priest, he served as Scout chaplain for the Diocese of Rockville Centre for New York State and as chaplain for the National Catholic Committee on Scouting. Guglielmone served an eight-year term as chaplain of the International Catholic Conference on Scouting and the Holy See's global liaison to scouting programs, he received the Silver Beaver Award from Suffolk County Council. Guglielmone is the Boy Scouts of America's honor society.
There, he was inducted as a "Vigil Honor" member, the third and final degree of membership, in 1985. "Vigil Honor" members traditionally receive a name in the Unami language, referred to in the Order as "Lenni Lenape." Guglielmone's "Vigil Name" is "Nekama Auwen Allohumasin Lilenowag An Unt,", interpreted as "He Who Exemplifies God's Law." He received the Silver Antelope Award from the Boy Scouts of America in 2004. The National Catholic Committee on Scouting recognized Guglielmone with its "Brother Barnabas Founders Award" and in its first class of "Silver Saint George Emblem" recipients in 1998. In 2012, he received the Silver Buffalo Award, the highest award given by the National Council, Boy Scouts of America for distinguished service to youth. On January 24, 2009, Guglielmone was appointed the thirteenth Bishop of Charleston, South Carolina, by Pope Benedict XVI, he received his episcopal consecration on the following March 25 from Cardinal Edward Egan, with Bishops Murphy and Robert Joseph Baker serving as co-consecrators, at the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist.
As bishop of the diocese he has the role of shepherding the State's 195,000 Catholics. The appointment fills the vacancy left by Bishop Robert Baker, transferred to the diocese of Birmingham in August 2007; the state's registered Catholic population more than doubled since 1990 due to massive Hispanic immigration. In August 2019, it was revealed that. Guglielmone was being sued in the state of New York for sex abuse he committed while serving in Nassau County, New York, whose Catholic property is supervised by the Diocese of Rockville Centre; the acts of abuse were reported to have taken place in the years 1978 and 1979 at St. Martin of Tours Catholic Church in Amityville, New York, where Guglielmone was at this time serving as a priest. Roman Catholic Diocese of Charleston Official Site
Kimball is a city in Stearns County, United States. The population was 762 at the 2010 census, it is part of the St. Cloud Metropolitan Statistical Area. A post office called Kimball has been in operation since 1887; the city was named for an early settler. Kimball contains one property listed on the National Register of Historic Places: the 1908 Kimball City Hall. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.51 square miles, all of it land. Minnesota State Highways 15, 24, 55 are the main routes in the community; as of the census of 2010, there were 762 people, 310 households, 191 families living in the city. The population density was 504.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 336 housing units at an average density of 222.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.9% White, 0.5% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 310 households of which 34.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.4% were non-families.
30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.04. The median age in the city was 32.2 years. 25.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.6 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 635 people, 262 households, 165 families living in the city; the population density was 459.0 people per square mile. There were 280 housing units at an average density of 202.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.64% White, 0.16% African American, 0.63% Native American, 0.94% Asian, 0.63% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.57% of the population. 53.5% were of German, 9.0% Irish, 7.6% Swedish and 6.1% Norwegian ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 262 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.0% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.0% were non-families.
31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.01 In the city, the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,219, the median income for a family was $40,455. Males had a median income of $28,125 versus $21,875 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,971. About 5.9% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 14.4% of those age 65 or over. City website