Sangre de Cristo Mountains
The Sangre de Cristo Mountains are the southernmost subrange of the Rocky Mountains. They are located in northern New Mexico in the United States; the mountains run from Poncha Pass in South-Central Colorado, trending southeast and south, ending at Glorieta Pass, southeast of Santa Fe, New Mexico. The mountains contain a number of fourteen thousand foot peaks in the Colorado portion, as well as all the peaks in New Mexico which are over thirteen thousand feet; the name of the mountains may refer to the occasional reddish hues observed during sunrise and sunset, when alpenglow occurs when the mountains are covered with snow. Although the particular origin of the name is unclear, it has been in use since the early 19th century. Before that time the terms "La Sierra Nevada", "La Sierra Madre", "La Sierra", "The Snowies" were used. According to tradition, "sangre de Cristo" were the last words of a Catholic priest, killed by Indians. Sometimes the archaic Spanish spelling "Christo" is used. Much of the mountains are within various National Forests: the Rio Grande and San Isabel in Colorado, the Carson and Santa Fe in New Mexico.
These publicly accessible areas are popular for hunting, hiking, mountain biking, backpacking and cross-country and downhill skiing. The mountains include two large wilderness areas, the Sangre de Cristo Wilderness in Colorado and the Pecos Wilderness in New Mexico, as well as some smaller wilderness areas, such as Latir Peak Wilderness; the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve lies on the southwest side of the mountains in Colorado. The Sangre de Cristo Mountains are divided into various subranges, described here from north to south. Use of the terms "Sangre de Cristo Range" and "Sangre de Cristo Mountains" is inconsistent and either may refer to either the northernmost subrange, the southernmost subrange, or the mountains as a whole; the Sangre de Cristo Range, the largest and most northerly subrange of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, runs directly along the east side of the Rio Grande Rift, extending southeast from Poncha Pass for about 75 miles through south-central Colorado to La Veta Pass 20 miles west of Walsenburg.
They form a high ridge separating the San Luis Valley on the west from the watershed of the Arkansas River on the east. The Crestones are a group of four 14,000+ foot peaks in the Sangre de Cristo Range above Crestone, Colorado; the Spanish Peaks are a pair of mountains, West Spanish Peak, 13,626 ft, East Spanish Peak, 12,860 ft, located in southwestern Huerfano County, Colorado. The Spanish Peaks were designated a National Natural Landmark in 1976 as one of the best known examples of igneous dikes; the mountains can be seen from as far as 133 mi to the north from Colorado Springs, 50 mi to the west from Alamosa, Colorado, 65 mi to the south from Raton, New Mexico, 85 mi to the east from La Junta, Colorado. The Culebra Range runs due north and south, with its northern limit at La Veta Pass in Colorado, its southern limit at Costilla Creek, just south of Big Costilla Peak in New Mexico, its highest point is Culebra Peak at 14,047 ft, notable for being the only fourteener in Colorado, on private land.
Climbers wishing to ascend Culebra must pay a fee, the number of climbers per year is limited. It is the most southerly fourteener in the U. S. Rockies. Standing to the east of the main crest are the two prominent Spanish Peaks; these peaks were important landmarks on the mountain branch of the Santa Fe Trail. The bioregion receives little water and has an annual precipitation of seven to eight inches; this region is home to the Culebra Micro-basin which has a rich agricultural history in the state of Colorado. The Taos Mountains span the western lobe of the range from Costilla Creek in the north, to Tres Ritos in the south, they include the highest point in New Mexico, Wheeler Peak, at 13,161 feet, part of the Wheeler Peak Wilderness. Other notable peaks include Pueblo Peak, which at 12,305 feet rises above Taos Pueblo, Latir Peak, at 12,708 feet. Williams Lake is located below Wheeler Peak in the Wheeler Peak Wilderness. Taos Ski Valley lies just to the west of Wheeler Peak. Much of the central portion of the Taos Mountains are on Taos Pueblo land.
As viewed from Taos, they are locally called "Taos Mountain." The southern portion of the Taos Mountains, between Palo Flechado Pass and Tres Ritos, is lower and less dramatic than the northern section, with its high point being Cerro Vista, 11,939 ft. The Fernando Mountains are a small subrange lying in this section, just south of US Route 64; the Cimarron Range lies across the Moreno Valley to the east of the Taos Mountains. It is a lower range, with its highest point being Baldy Mountain at 12,441 ft; the Philmont Scout Ranch lies on the east side of the Cimarron Range. This is a minor subrange lower than the rest of the Sangre de Cristos. Rounding out the Sangre de Cristo Mountains are the Santa Fe Mountains, which include all peaks south of NM Route 518; this group lies near Santa Fe and surrounds the Pecos Wilderness, which protects the source watershed of the Pecos River. The peaks include 13,102 ft, as their highest point. Other notable peaks are Jicarita Peak; the Pecos Wilderness is crossed by many trails and is popula
In the mountaineering parlance of the Western United States, a fourteener is a mountain peak with an elevation of at least 14,000 feet. There are 96 fourteeners in all west of the Mississippi River. Colorado has the most of any single state. Many peak baggers try to climb all fourteeners in the contiguous United States, one particular state, or another region; the summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three principal ways: topographic elevation: the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level. Topographic prominence: how high the summit rises above its surroundings. Topographic isolation: how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation. Not all summits over 14,000 feet qualify as fourteeners. Summits which qualify are those considered by mountaineers to be independent. Objective standards for independence include topographic prominence and isolation, or a combination of the two. However, fourteener lists do not always use such objective rules. A rule used by mountaineers in the contiguous United States is that a peak must have at least 300 feet of prominence to qualify.
By this rule, Colorado has 53 fourteeners, California has 12, Washington has two. According to the Mountaineering Club of Alaska, it is standard in Alaska to use a 500-foot prominence rule rather than a 300-foot rule. By this rule, Alaska has at least 21 peaks over 14,000 feet and its 12 highest peaks exceed 15,000 feet; the following table lists the 96 mountain peaks of the United States with at least 14,000 feet of topographic elevation and at least 300 feet of topographic prominence. Of these 96 fourteeners, 53 rise in Colorado, 29 in Alaska, 12 in California, two in Washington; the 22 highest fourteeners all rise in Alaska. The table above includes 97 peaks; the number of peaks included. A criterion of 100 meters includes 90 peaks, 500 feet includes 77 peaks, 1000 feet includes 63 peaks, 500 meters includes 46 peaks; the following U. S. summits have 14,000 feet of elevation, but have less than 300 feet of topographic prominence: Denali, Browne Tower, 14,530, Alaska. Prominence = 25–125 feet, it is unclear.
Mount Cameron, 14,238, Colorado. Prominence = 118 feet. El Diente Peak, 14,159, Colorado. Prominence = 239 feet. On many fourteener lists. Point Success, 14,158, Washington. Prominence = 118 feet. Polemonium Peak, 14,080+, California. Prominence = 160–240 feet. Starlight Peak, 14,080, California. Prominence = 80–160 feet. North Conundrum Peak, 14,040+, Colorado. Prominence = 200–280 feet. North Eolus, 14,039, Colorado. Prominence = 159–199 feet. North Maroon Peak, 14,014, Colorado. Prominence = 234 feet. On many fourteener lists. Thunderbolt Peak, 14,003, California. Prominence = 223 feet. Sunlight Spire, 14,001, Colorado. Prominence = 195–235 feet. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Greenland List of mountain peaks of Canada List of mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains List of mountain peaks of the United States List of the highest major summits of the United States List of the major 4000-meter summits of the United States List of the major 3000-meter summits of the United States List of the most prominent summits of the United States List of the ultra-prominent summits of the United States List of the most isolated major summits of the United States List of the major 100-kilometer summits of the United States List of extreme summits of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of mountain peaks of California List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of mountain peaks of Hawaiʻi List of mountain peaks of Montana List of mountain peaks of Nevada List of mountain peaks of Utah List of mountain peaks of Washington List of mountain peaks of Wyoming List of mountain peaks of México List of mountain peaks of Central America List of mountain peaks of the Caribbean United States of America Geography of the United States Geology of the United States Category:Mountains of the United States commons:Category:Mountains of the United States Physical geography Topography Topographic elevation Topographic prominence Topographic isolation United States Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System @ USGS United States National Geodetic Survey Geodetic Glossary @ NGS NGVD 29 to NAVD 88 online elevation converter @ NGS Survey Marks and Datasheets @ NGS Bivouac.com Peakbagger.com Peaklist.org Peakware.com Summitpost.org
The Town of Blanca is a Statutory Town in Costilla County, United States. The town population was 385 at the 2010 census; the town, named for Blanca Peak, was founded in August 1908 from a land lottery in the San Luis Valley of south central Colorado. It was incorporated in 1909. In the mid-1990s Polish settlers set up shop at the Red Rocks General Store selling liquor, polish sausages, other eastern European goods. Blanca is the region's main supplier of bilberry syrup. Blanca is known for elk alpine trout fishing. Blanca is at 37 ° 26 ′ 26 ″ N 105 ° 30 ′ 36 ″ W in the east of northern Costilla County; the United States Census Bureau reports that the town has an area of 1.8 square miles, all of it land. The town lies along U. S. Route 160, 20 miles east of Alamosa and 52 miles west of Walsenburg; the region has a dry climate, with 107 frost-free days each year. Temperatures range from −30 °F to 85 °F. Annual rainfall is about 7 inches. In areas not irrigated, dunes carry sparse vegetation such as greasewood, rubber rabbitbrush, salt grass, sandhill muhly and sand dropseed.
The dunes are intermingled with basins of historical playas. The Blanca Wetlands, an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, lies northwest of the town; the wetlands receive groundwater for irrigation from the Closed Basin Project, which delivers groundwater to the Rio Grande. As of the census of 2000, there were 391 people, 142 households, 105 families in the town; the population density was 219.6 people per square mile. There were 183 housing units at an average density of 102.8 per square mile. The racial makeup was 53.45% White, 0.77% African American, 1.28% Native American, 2.81% Asian, 39.64% from other races, 2.05% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 67.01%. There were 142 households, of which 35.2% had children under 1, 63.4% were married couples living together, 7.7% a female householder with no husband present, 25.4% were non-families. 21.1% of households were of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size 3.26.
In the town, the population was 27.9% under 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 14.3% 65 or older. The median age was 37. For every 100 females, there were 106.9 males. For every 100 females 18 and over, there were 102.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $22,875, the median income for a family $22,411. Males had a median income of $20,125 versus $15,833 for females; the per capita income for the town was $10,200. About 19.5% of families and 21.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.1% of those under 18 and 11.3% of those 65 or over. Town of Blanca CO official website Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles State of Colorado Colorado cities and towns Colorado municipalities Colorado counties Costilla County, Colorado Blanca Peak San Luis Valley CDOT map of the Town of Blanca
Costilla County, Colorado
Costilla County is the ninth-least populous of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,524; the county seat is the oldest continuously occupied town in Colorado. Costilla County was the first area of Colorado to be settled by European-Americans. Hispanic settlers from Taos, New Mexico established San Luis on April 9, 1851. Costilla County was one of the original 17 counties created by the Territory of Colorado on November 1, 1861; the county was named for the Costilla River. Although San Miguel was designated the county seat, the county government was moved to San Luis in 1863; the county's original boundaries extended over much of south-central Colorado. Much of the northern portion became part of Saguache County in 1866, the western portions were folded into Hinsdale and Rio Grande counties in 1874. Costilla County arrived at its modern boundaries in 1913 when Alamosa County was created from its northwest portions. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,230 square miles, of which 1,227 square miles is land and 304 square miles is water.
Huerfano County - northeast Las Animas County - east Colfax County, New Mexico - southeast Taos County, New Mexico - south Conejos County - west Alamosa County - northwest San Isabel National Forest Fort Garland State History Museum Los Caminos Antiguos Scenic and Historic Byway Old Spanish National Historic Trail As of the census of 2000, there were 3,663 people, 1,503 households, 1,029 families residing in the county. The population density was 3 people per square mile. There were 2,202 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 60.91% White, 0.79% Black or African American, 2.48% Native American, 1.01% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 29.46% from other races, 5.21% from two or more races. 67.59% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,503 households out of which 28.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.60% were married couples living together, 11.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.50% were non-families.
28.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.00% under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 23.30% from 25 to 44, 28.30% from 45 to 64, 16.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $19,531, the median income for a family was $25,509, the lowest for Colorado. Males had a median income of $22,390 versus $16,121 for females; the per capita income for the county was $10,748. About 21.30% of families and 26.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.40% of those under age 18 and 23.30% of those age 65 or over. Costilla County tends to favor the Democratic candidate in Presidential elections; the last Republican to carry the county was Calvin Coolidge in 1924, the last to gain an absolute majority William Howard Taft in 1912 – an era when most votes in these high valley counties were done for the voters by political machines.
In the last eleven Presidential elections the Democratic candidate has received over sixty percent of the county’s vote and four times won over seventy percent. In Colorado’s first elections as a state in 1876, Auguste Lacome ran against William H. Meyer for State Senate in Costilla County Colorado’s 18th District. Meyer would become the Lt. Governor of Colorado. Votes cast. Meyer carried the election 349-204, it is part of Colorado's 3rd congressional district, which has a Cook Partisan Voting Index of R+5 and is represented by Republican Scott Tipton. In the Colorado Senate it is represented by Larry Crowder. In the Colorado House of Representatives it is in District 62 and is represented by Democrat Donald Valdez. Blanca San Luis Fort Garland San Acacio Chama Garcia Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles National Register of Historic Places listings in Costilla County, Colorado Auguste Lacome Search Costilla County Information Costilla County Government website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society San Luis Valley Information Center
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum great-circle distance to a point of equal elevation, representing a radius of dominance in which the peak is the highest point. It can be calculated for small hills and islands as well as for major mountain peaks, can be calculated for submarine summits; the following sortable table lists the Earth's 40 most topographically isolated summits. The nearest peak to Germany's highest mountain, the 2,962-metre-high Zugspitze, that has a 2962-metre-contour is the Zwölferkogel in Austria's Stubai Alps; the distance between the Zugspitze and this contour is 25.8 km. Its isolation is thus 25.8 km. Because there are no higher mountains than Mount Everest, it has no definitive isolation. Many sources list its isolation as the circumference of the earth over the poles or – questionably, because there is no agreed definition – as half the earth's circumference. After Mount Everest, the highest mountain of the American continents, has the greatest isolation of all mountains.
There is no higher land for 16,534 kilometres when its height is first exceeded by Tirich Mir in the Hindu Kush. Mont Blanc is the highest mountain of the Alps; the geographically nearest higher mountains are all in the Caucasus. Kukurtlu, which rises near Mount Elbrus, is the reference peak for Mont Blanc. Musala is the highest peak in Rila mountain, in Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,925 m it is the 4th most topographically isolated peak in Continental Europe.. Rila is the 6th highest mountain in Europe. With a topographic prominence of 2473 m, Musala is the 6th highest peak by topographic prominence in mainland Europe. Table of the most isolated major summits of North America Table of the most isolated major summits of the United States Most isolated mountain peaks of Canada Most isolated mountain peaks of Mexico geodesy physical geography summit topographic elevation topographic prominence topography bivouac.com Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia peakbagger.com peaklist.org peakware.com World Mountain Encyclopedia summitpost.org^ ^ "Europe Ultra-Prominences".
Peaklist. Retrieved 26 February 2015
Rio Grande National Forest
Rio Grande National Forest is a 1.86 million-acre U. S. National Forest located in southwestern Colorado; the forest encompasses the San Luis Valley, the world's largest agricultural alpine valley, as well as one of the world's largest high deserts located around mountains. The Rio Grande river rises in the forest, the Continental Divide runs along most of its western border; the forest lies in parts of nine counties. In descending order of land area within the forest they are Saguache, Conejos, Rio Grande, San Juan, Alamosa and Custer counties. Forest headquarters are located in Colorado. There are local ranger district offices in Del Norte, La Jara, Saguache. There are four designated wilderness areas lying within Rio Grande National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. All of them extend into neighboring National Forests, one of these onto National Park Service land. La Garita Wilderness Sangre de Cristo Wilderness South San Juan Wilderness Weminuche Wilderness List of largest National Forests List of U.
S. National Forests Rio Grande National Forest