United States Rubber Company
The United States Rubber Company is an American manufacturer of tires and other synthetic rubber-related products, as well as variety of items for military use, such as ammunition and operations and maintenance activities at the government-owned contractor-operated facilities. It was founded in Naugatuck, Connecticut, in 1892, it was one of the original 12 stocks in the Dow Jones Industrial Average, became Uniroyal, Inc. as part of creating a unified brand for its products and subsidiaries in 1961. In 1990, Uniroyal was acquired by French tire maker Michelin and ceased to exist as a separate business. Today around 1,000 workers in the U. S. remain employed by Michelin to make its Uniroyal brand products. The company's long-lived advertisement slogan was "United States Tires are Good Tires."One of Uniroyal's best known tires is the Tiger Paw introduced in the 1960s and included as original equipment for that decade's muscle cars such as the Pontiac GTO, which itself was promoted as The Tiger during its early years.
Today, Uniroyal still uses the Tiger Paw brand name in its tire line. In North America and Peru, the Uniroyal brand has been owned by Michelin since 1990, outside those regions, the Uniroyal brand has been owned by Continental AG since 1979 following their acquisition of Uniroyal Europe known as Englebert. By 1892, there were many rubber manufacturing companies in Naugatuck, Connecticut, as well as elsewhere in Connecticut. Nine companies consolidated their operations in Naugatuck to become the United States Rubber Company, it should be noted that one of the nine, Goodyear's India Rubber Glove Mfg. Co. – which manufactured rubber gloves for telegraph linemen – was the only company in which Charles Goodyear, inventor of the rubber vulcanization process, is known to have owned stock. From 1892 to 1913, the rubber footwear divisions of U. S. Rubber manufactured their products under 30 different brand names, including the Wales-Goodyear Shoe Co; the company consolidated these footwear brands under one name, Keds, in 1916, were mass-marketed as the first flexible rubber-sole with canvas-top "sneakers" in 1917.
On May 26, 1896, Charles Dow created the Dow Industrial average of twelve industrial manufacturing stocks, which included among them U. S. Rubber Company; when the average expanded to a list of 20 stocks in 1916, U. S. Rubber remained, however the listing expanded to 30 stocks in 1928 and U. S. Rubber was dropped. In an effort to increase its share of the automobile tire market in 1931, U. S. Rubber Company bought a substantial portion of the Gillette Safety Tire Company; the company was founded in 1916 by Raymond B. Gillette and its primary manufacturing plant was located in Wisconsin; the Gillette plant held large contracts with the General Motors Corporation and with the addition of U. S. Rubber products, became one of the world's largest suppliers of original equipment tires. U. S. Rubber produced tires under the Gillette, Atlas, U. S. Rubber and U. S. Royal brands. In 1940, U. S. Rubber purchased the remainder of the Gillette Safety Tire Company, began to expand and modernize the Eau Claire factory increasing production.
During World War II, U. S. Rubber factories were devoted to production of war goods, produced military truck and airplane tires, as well as the canvas-top, rubber-soled Jungle boot for soldiers and marines serving in tropical and jungle environments. U. S. Rubber ranked 37th among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. In 1942, the United States government restricted the sale of scarce rubber products for civilian use and production at the plant dwindled; the company sold the Eau Claire plant to the government, which converted it for the manufacture of small caliber ammunition and renamed it the Eau Claire Ordnance plant. By December 31, 1943, the need for tires outweighed the need for ammunition. U. S. Rubber repurchased the plant from the government for more than US$1 million, converted it back to synthetic rubber tire production; the company began an expansion and modernization program at the plant that lasted through 1951. When it ended, the Eau Claire plant was the fifth largest tire facility in the United States.
The company again expanded the plant in 1965 to produce tires for construction machinery, for many years it was the largest private employer in Eau Claire and the second largest in neighboring Chippewa Falls before it was closed in 1991. In late 1943, U. S. Rubber engineer Dr. Louis Marick developed a propeller de-icing system in which a rubber boot was fitted onto the leading edge of a propeller; the boot contained wires that conducted electricity to heat the break-up ice. In 1958, Uniroyal entered into a partnership with the Englebert tire company of Liège, which became known as Uniroyal Englebert Deutschland AG. In 1963, the name was shortened to Uniroyal-Englebert, in 1967 it became Uniroyal along with all company divisions. Uniroyal sold this division with its four factories in Belgium, Germany and Scotland to Continental AG in 1979. Continental continues to market tires under the Uniroyal brand outside Colombia and Peru. Uniroyal operations in Canada were carried out under the name Dominion Rubber Company for a number of decades.
Dominion started operations as Brown and Bourne, established in 1854. In 1866, the company registered as the Canadian Rubber Company of Montreal Limited and became prosperous manufacturing waterproof cloth, rubber footwear and machinery belts, it began to produce auto tires in 1906 in its Montreal factory and through a series of mergers with other companies in Ontario and Quebec became the Canadian Consolidated Rubber Company Limited. After another series of mergers, the company became the Domini
Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2
The Royal Aircraft Factory B. E.2 was a British single-engine tractor two-seat biplane designed and developed at the Royal Aircraft Factory. Most production aircraft were constructed under contract by various private companies, both established aircraft manufacturers and firms that had not built aircraft. Around 3,500 were manufactured in all. Early versions of the B. E.2 entered squadron service with the Royal Flying Corps in 1912. It was used as a front-line reconnaissance aircraft and light bomber. By late 1915, the B. E.2 was proving inadequate in defending itself against German fighters such as the new Fokker Eindecker, leading to increased losses during the period known as the Fokker Scourge. Although by now obsolete, it had to remain in front-line service while suitable replacements were designed and brought into service. Following its belated withdrawal from operations, the type served in various second line capacities, seeing use as a trainer and communications aircraft, as well as performing anti-submarine coastal patrol duties.
The B. E.2 has always been a subject of controversy, both at the time and in historical assessment. From the B. E.2c variant on it had been adapted to be "inherently stable", this feature was considered helpful in its artillery observation and aerial photography duties: most of which were assigned to the pilot, able to fly without constant attention to his flight controls. In spite of a tendency to swing on take off and a reputation for spinning, the type had a low accident rate; the stability of the type was however achieved at the expense of heavy controls, making rapid manoeuvring difficult. The observer not carried because of the B. E.'s poor payload, occupied the front seat. The B. E.2 was one of the first fixed-wing aircraft to be designed at what was called the Royal Balloon Factory. The team responsible for its design came under the direction of British engineer Mervyn O'Gorman, the factory's superintendent; the B. E.2 designation was formulated in accordance with the system devised by O'Gorman, which classified aircraft by their layout: B.
E. stood for Blériot Experimental, was used for aircraft of tractor configuration. At first, the activities of the Factory were limited to the conduct of research into aerodynamics and aircraft design and the construction or design of actual aircraft was not sanctioned. O'Gorman got around this restriction by using the factory's responsibility for the repair and maintenance of aircraft belonging to the Royal Flying Corps; the first pair of B. E. aircraft were flown within two months of each other and had the same basic design, the work of Geoffrey de Havilland, at the time both the chief designer and the test pilot at the Balloon Factory. The layout of these aircraft came to be seen as conventional, but when it first appeared this was not the case. Rather, in common with the contemporary Avro 500, the B. E.2 was one of the designs which established the tractor biplane as the dominant aircraft layout for a considerable time. Following its first public appearance in early January 1912, aviation publication Flight commented that: "everything one could see of the machine was of singular interest".
This was ostensibly a rebuild of a Voisin biplane, powered by a 60 hp water-cooled Wolseley engine. E.1 used only the engine and radiator from this machine, the radiator being mounted between the front pair of cabane struts. The B. E.1 was a two-bay tractor biplane - it had parallel-chord unstaggered wings with rounded ends, using wing warping for roll control. The wings were of unequal span: upper wingspan was 36 feet 7 1⁄2 inches and lower 34 feet 11 1⁄2 inches; the fuselage was a rectangular section fabric-covered wire-braced structure, with the pilot seated aft, behind the wings and the observer in front, under the centre section. This arrangement was adopted so that the aircraft could be flown "solo" without affecting the aircraft's centre of gravity. Behind the pilot's position, a curved top decking extended aft to the tail, although the forward decking and cowling of variants was not fitted at this stage; the aircraft's tail surfaces consisted of a half-oval horizontal stabiliser with a split elevator mounted above the upper longerons and an ovoid rudder hinged to the sternpost.
The main undercarriage consisted of a pair of skids each carried on an inverted V-strut at their rear and a single raked strut at the front: an axle carrying the wheels was bound to the skids by bungee cords and restrained by radius rods. A sprung tailskid was fitted, while the wings were protected by semicircular skids located beneath the lower wings; the B. E.1 represented several firsts for aviation, including being the first aeroplane to be outfitted with radio apparatus. It was first flown by de Havilland on 4 December 1911; the aircraft was not flown again until 27 December, modified by the substitution of a Claudel carburettor in place of the original Wolseley, which allowed no throttle control. Other minor modifications were made over the following weeks: the undercarriage wheels were moved back 12 in, the wings (which had no dihed
John Henry Towers
John Henry Towers was a United States Navy admiral and pioneer naval aviator. He made important contributions to the technical and organizational development of naval aviation from its beginnings serving as Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics, he commanded carrier task forces during World War II, retired in December 1947. He and Marc Mitscher were the only early Naval Aviation pioneers to survive the hazards of early flight to remain with naval aviation throughout their careers, he was the first naval aviator to achieve flag rank and was the most senior advocate for naval aviation during a time when the Navy was dominated by battleship admirals. Towers spent his last years advising the aviation industry. Towers was born on 30 January 1885 at Georgia, he graduated from the United States Naval Academy in the Class of 1906, was commissioned ensign in 1908 while serving aboard the battleship USS Kentucky. He was assigned to the battleship USS Michigan before reporting to the Curtiss Flying School in Hammondsport, New York, on June 27, 1911 for aviation training.
Under the tutelage of aviation pioneer Glenn Curtiss and Lieutenant Theodore G. Ellyson, Towers qualified as a pilot in August 1911, flying the Navy's first airplane, a Curtiss A-1 seaplane. Towers next traveled to North Island in San Diego, California where, in conjunction with the Curtiss Flying School, he took part in developing and improving naval aircraft types In October 1911, Towers achieved a distance record, flying an A-1 from Annapolis, Maryland, to Old Point Comfort, Virginia, a distance of 112 miles in 122 minutes. In the fall of 1912, Towers supervised the establishment of the Navy's first aviation unit, based at Annapolis. On October 6, 1912, he achieved an American endurance record by rigging extra gasoline tanks to a Curtiss A-2 seaplane, allowing him to remain aloft for 6 hours, ten minutes, 35 seconds. From October to December 1912, Towers conducted tests to spot submerged submarines from the air over the Chesapeake Bay, he furthered those tests into 1913 during fleet operations near Cuba.
Additionally, he investigated the potential for Navy aerial reconnaissance, bombing and communications. On 8 May 1913, Lt. Towers flew a long-distance flight of 169 miles in a Curtiss flying boat from the Washington Navy Yard down the Potomac River and up the Chesapeake Bay to the U. S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland; the flight took five minutes. Ensign Godfrey Chevalier was his passenger. On 20 June 1913, Towers was nearly killed in an aviation mishap over the Chesapeake Bay. While he was flying as a passenger in a Wright seaplane, his plane was caught in a sudden downdraft and plummeted earthward; the pilot, Ensign W. D. Billingsley, was killed. Towers was wrenched from his seat but managed to catch a wing strut and stay with the plane until it crashed into the Chesapeake. Interviewed by Glenn Curtiss soon thereafter, Towers recounted the circumstances of the tragedy. On 20 January 1914, Lieutenant Towers led 9 officers and 23 enlisted men, with 7 aircraft, portable hangars and other gear from the aviation unit at Annapolis to Pensacola, Fla to set up the first naval aviation training unit.
On April 20, 1914, Towers led the first naval aviation unit called into action with the Fleet. He and two other pilots, 12 enlisted men and three aircraft sailed from Pensacola aboard the cruiser Birmingham in response to the Tampico Affair In January 1915, the Navy decided to designate its flyers. At that time, Towers was designated as Naval Aviator No. 3, with an effective date of 1914. Lieutenant Commander Towers, while assigned to the aviation desk under CNO, is credited with the development of the Naval Aviators badge, which were designed and ordered in 1917. On January 19, 1918, distribution of the first gold Naval Aviator wings began, it is that Towers, as Senior Naval Aviator in Washington at the time, was an early, if not the earliest, recipient. In August 1914, shortly after the war began, Towers was ordered to London as assistant naval attaché—a billet he filled until he returned to the United States in the autumn of 1916; that August Lieutenant Towers accompanied the U. S. Relief Expedition aboard the USS Tennessee as part of the naval delegation led by Commander Reginald R. Belknap, with overall command by Assistant Secretary of the Army Henry S. Breckinridge.
Subsequently, Towers advocated for the First Yale Unit, which became the core of naval aviation's participation in the war. In May 1917, Lieutenant Commander Towers was ordered to the Bureau of Navigation as Supervisor of the Naval Reserve Flying Corps, a precursor to the Naval Air Reserve Force; when the Navy established the Division of Aviation, at Navy Department headquarters, Towers was appointed Assistant Director of Naval Aviation. In that position, he orchestrated the buildup from a handful of obsolete aircraft and fewer than 50 pilots to a force of thousands of aircraft and aviators. During the interwar years, Towers was the leading advocate of Naval Aviation when there was no other support within or outside of the navy, he was involved in a number of pioneering developments in Naval Aviation, including the first transatlantic crossing by aircraft. S. aircraft carrier, USS Langley. I
The Goodrich Corporation the B. F. Goodrich Company, was an American manufacturing company based in Charlotte, North Carolina. Founded in Akron, Ohio in 1870 as Goodrich, Tew & Co. by Benjamin Franklin Goodrich, the company name was changed to the "B. F. Goodrich Company" in 1880, to BFGoodrich in the 1980s, to "Goodrich Corporation" in 2001. A rubber manufacturing company known for automobile tires, the company diversified its manufacturing businesses throughout the twentieth century, sold off its tire business in 1986 to focus on its other businesses, such as aerospace and chemical manufacturing; the BF Goodrich brand name continues to be used by Michelin, who acquired the tire manufacturing business in 1988. Following acquisition by United Technologies, Goodrich became a part of UTC Aerospace Systems. In 1869 Benjamin Goodrich purchased the Hudson River Rubber Company, a small business in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York; the following year Goodrich accepted an offer of $13,600 from the citizens of Akron, Ohio, to relocate his business there.
The company grew to be one of the largest tire and rubber manufacturers in the world, helped in part by the 1986 merger with Uniroyal. This product line was sold to Michelin in 1988, the company merged with Rohr, Coltec Industries, TRW Aeronautical Systems in 2002; the sale of the specialty chemicals division and subsequent change to the current name completed the transformation. In 2006, company sales were $5.8 billion, of which 18%, 16% and 12% of total revenues were accounted for by the U. S. government and Boeing, respectively. Though BFGoodrich is a popular brand name of tires, the Goodrich Corporation exited the tire business in 1988; the tire business and use of the name was sold to Michelin. Before the sale to Michelin, Goodrich ran television and print ads showing an empty blue sky, to distinguish themselves from the similar-sounding Goodyear tire company; the tag line was, "See that blimp up in the sky? We're the other guys!" The company was sometimes confused with Mr. Goodwrench as the two last names were similar when B.
F. Goodrich tires were featured on many General Motors trucks. In 1869 Benjamin Goodrich purchased the Hudson River Rubber Company, a small business in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York; the following year Goodrich accepted an offer of $13,600 from the citizens of Akron, Ohio, to relocate his business there. In March 1912, the Diamond Rubber Company, founded by the owner of the Diamond Match Company, was bought out by and merged with the B. F. Goodrich Company; the Diamond brand name and product line were retained and a subsidiary Diamond Rubber Company created for the marketing and manufacturing of them. B. F. Goodrich sold radios from the 1930s to the 1950s, under the brand name "Mantola"; these radios were made by a variety of manufacturers for B. F. Goodrich. In 1936 the company entered the Mexican market in Goodrich-Euzkadi. Goodrich ranked 67th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts; the Troy, Ohio plant was purchased in 1946 from Waco. Since Goodrich has manufactured wheels and brakes for a variety of aircraft.
Among these are commercial, military and business programs. This successful operation lies at the core of Goodrich's business. Competitors include the aerostructures divisions of companies such as Honeywell, Messier-Bugatti, Aircraft Braking Systems, SNECMA; the Hood Rubber Company was sold before the Great Depression as a division of the B. F. Goodrich Company. By 1986 B. F. Goodrich had become an S&P 500-listed company in diverse business, including tire and rubber fabrication. B. F. Goodrich made high-performance replacement tires. In August 1986, one of its biggest competitors in the tire business, Uniroyal Inc. was taken private when it merged with the tire segment of the B. F. Goodrich Company, in a joint venture private partnership, to become the Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Company. B. F. Goodrich Company held a 50% stake in the new tire company; the new Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Company headquarters was established at the former B. F. Goodrich corporate headquarters, within its 27-building downtown complex in Akron, Ohio which contained Goodrich's original factory.
In the autumn of 1987 B. F. Goodrich Company shut down several manufacturing operations at the site, most of the complex remained vacant until February 1988, when B. F. Goodrich announced plans to sell the vacant part of the complex to the Covington Capital Corporation, a group of New York developers. In 1987, its first full year of operation, the new Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Company generated $2 billion in sales revenue, with profits of $35 million; the merger soon proved to be difficult. In June 1988 B. F. Goodrich sold its 50% stake for $225 million; the buyers were a group of investors led by Clayton & Dubilier, Inc. a private New York investment firm. At the same time, B. F. Goodrich received a warrant to purchase indirectly up to 7% of the equity in Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Company; as part of the June 1988 sale deal, the new held tire company acquired publicly held debt of $415 million. In 1988, Michelin Group, a subsidiary of the French tire company Michelin et Cie proposed to acquire the Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Company and took actions towards acquiring a stake.
By May 1990, Michelin Group had completed its buyout of Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Company from Clayton & Dubilier of New York. The deal was valued at about US$1.5 billion. B. F. Goodrich surrendered its 7% warrant to Michelin Group, received $32.5 million additional revenue from the sale. B. F. Goodrich by exited the tire business in line with its plan to build its
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
Helium is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2. It is a colorless, tasteless, non-toxic, monatomic gas, the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table, its boiling point is the lowest among all the elements. After hydrogen, helium is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable universe, being present at about 24% of the total elemental mass, more than 12 times the mass of all the heavier elements combined, its abundance is similar in Jupiter. This is due to the high nuclear binding energy of helium-4 with respect to the next three elements after helium; this helium-4 binding energy accounts for why it is a product of both nuclear fusion and radioactive decay. Most helium in the universe is helium-4, the vast majority of, formed during the Big Bang. Large amounts of new helium are being created by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars. Helium is named for the Greek Titan of the Sun, Helios, it was first detected as an unknown yellow spectral line signature in sunlight during a solar eclipse in 1868 by Georges Rayet, Captain C. T. Haig, Norman R. Pogson, Lieutenant John Herschel, was subsequently confirmed by French astronomer Jules Janssen.
Janssen is jointly credited with detecting the element along with Norman Lockyer. Janssen recorded the helium spectral line during the solar eclipse of 1868 while Lockyer observed it from Britain. Lockyer was the first to propose; the formal discovery of the element was made in 1895 by two Swedish chemists, Per Teodor Cleve and Nils Abraham Langlet, who found helium emanating from the uranium ore cleveite. In 1903, large reserves of helium were found in natural gas fields in parts of the United States, by far the largest supplier of the gas today. Liquid helium is used in cryogenics in the cooling of superconducting magnets, with the main commercial application being in MRI scanners. Helium's other industrial uses—as a pressurizing and purge gas, as a protective atmosphere for arc welding and in processes such as growing crystals to make silicon wafers—account for half of the gas produced. A well-known but minor use is as a lifting gas in airships; as with any gas whose density differs from that of air, inhaling a small volume of helium temporarily changes the timbre and quality of the human voice.
In scientific research, the behavior of the two fluid phases of helium-4 is important to researchers studying quantum mechanics and to those looking at the phenomena, such as superconductivity, produced in matter near absolute zero. On Earth it is rare—5.2 ppm by volume in the atmosphere. Most terrestrial helium present today is created by the natural radioactive decay of heavy radioactive elements, as the alpha particles emitted by such decays consist of helium-4 nuclei; this radiogenic helium is trapped with natural gas in concentrations as great as 7% by volume, from which it is extracted commercially by a low-temperature separation process called fractional distillation. Terrestrial helium—a non-renewable resource, because once released into the atmosphere it escapes into space—was thought to be in short supply. However, recent studies suggest that helium produced deep in the earth by radioactive decay can collect in natural gas reserves in larger than expected quantities, in some cases having been released by volcanic activity.
The first evidence of helium was observed on August 18, 1868, as a bright yellow line with a wavelength of 587.49 nanometers in the spectrum of the chromosphere of the Sun. The line was detected by French astronomer Jules Janssen during a total solar eclipse in Guntur, India; this line was assumed to be sodium. On October 20 of the same year, English astronomer Norman Lockyer observed a yellow line in the solar spectrum, which he named the D3 because it was near the known D1 and D2 Fraunhofer line lines of sodium, he concluded. Lockyer and English chemist Edward Frankland named the element with the Greek word for the Sun, ἥλιος. In 1881, Italian physicist Luigi Palmieri detected helium on Earth for the first time through its D3 spectral line, when he analyzed a material, sublimated during a recent eruption of Mount Vesuvius. On March 26, 1895, Scottish chemist Sir William Ramsay isolated helium on Earth by treating the mineral cleveite with mineral acids. Ramsay was looking for argon but, after separating nitrogen and oxygen from the gas liberated by sulfuric acid, he noticed a bright yellow line that matched the D3 line observed in the spectrum of the Sun.
These samples were identified as helium by Lockyer and British physicist William Crookes. It was independently isolated from cleveite in the same year by chemists Per Teodor Cleve and Abraham Langlet in Uppsala, who collected enough of the gas to determine its atomic weight. Helium was isolated by the American geochemist William Francis Hillebrand prior to Ramsay's discovery when he noticed unusual spectral lines while testing a sample of the mineral uraninite. Hillebrand, attributed the lines to nitrogen, his letter of congratulations to Ramsay offers an interesting case of discovery and near-discovery in science. In 1907, Ernest Rutherford and Thomas Royds demonstrated that alpha particles are helium nuclei by allowing the particles to penetrate the thin glass wall of
Airship Industries Skyship 600
The Airship Industries Skyship 600 is a modern airship designed by British company Airship Industries, further developed by a subsidiary of Westinghouse Electric Corporation the type certificate holder is now Skyship Services of Orlando, Florida in the United States. The first Skyship 600 made its maiden flight on 6 March 1984. By August 1987 a further six had been flown; the Skyship 600 is similar in appearance to, but larger than, the Skyship 500. Airship Industries collapsed in 1990. Westinghouse Electric's defense arm had taken over the US Navy's airship programme in which Airship Industries was a partner and bought the military marketing rights and intellectual rights to the Skyship designs from the official receiver. Slingsby Aviation, the principal subcontractor to Airship Industries bought other assets, marketing rights and intellectual property for civil versions along with the type certificates. Westinghouse purchased the Skyship 600S demonstrator, Airship International -who were to market the civil design in the Americas -bought two unfinished Skyships and Skyship 600-02, took over the equipment of Airship Industries US arm.
The type certificates for the Skyship 600 series was purchased from Westinghouse Airships in 1994 by American company Global Skyship Industries, transferred to Skycruiser Corporation in 2004 and changed hands again in 2012 to Skyship Services. Most Skyship 600s have been used for advertising purposes, like 600-05 which flew in 2006-7 as "Spirit of Dubai". A purpose built Skyship was used to promote the Division Bell tour by Pink Floyd in 1994 until the ship's destruction. Pieces of the craft used by Pink Floyd became souvenirs. In December 2007, a Skyship 600 was leased by supporters of US presidential candidate Ron Paul to fly with the banner "Who is Ron Paul? Google Ron Paul". Others have been used including during the 2004 Summer Olympics; the first Skyship, No 600-01 registered G-SKSC, was used for trials with the French Navy. The 2.2 tonne-payload fifth built was sold to a Canadian mining company for aerial survey work. The envelope is fabricated from polyester cloth, coated inside with saran film for gas retention and outside with polyurethane loaded with titanium dioxide for durability.
The gondola is a kevlar-reinforced moulding, suspended from the top of the envelope by kevlar cables. The pilot controls elevators and rudders on the tail surfaces by fore-aft and lateral movement of a yoke, via a manual, cable-operated system. In response to Airship Industries intent to enter the military market, Marconi did start on a system using fibre optics to carry the control signals to electrical actuators; this could reduce pilot workload, make control response more precise but be resistant to electrical interference. Skyships are equipped with a pair of ballonets, one forward and one aft comprising a maximum of 27% of the envelope's gross volume. Ballonets are air-filled compartments within an airship that compensate for the expansion and contraction of the helium, thereby maintaining envelope pressure, they can be filled, or filled, with air. Emptying of air is done through four valves under the envelope; the valves open automatically. During descent, air from the propeller ducts, and/or electric fans is used to inflate the ballonets, keep the envelope from collapsing.
The ballonets can be independently filled by using shut-off dampers in the air supply trunking. Through differential inflation a measure of pitch trim can be obtained. Earlier models were propelled by two Porsche 930 turbocharged piston engines, but some have been modified with Textron Lycoming IO-540 engines. One important feature of this series is thrust-vector control; the ducted propellers can be swivelled in the vertical plane upwards and downwards, providing vertical thrust for use in takeoff and hovering. Spirit of Dubai – The Palm was one of three Skyship 600 aircraft operated by Airship Management Services of Greenwich, CT, USA; these ships are now the world's largest operating non-rigid airships. The airship, N605SK was built by Airship Industries in Cardington, UK and first flew as G-SKSJ in November 1986, it is owned and operated by Skycruise Switzerland AG. Airship Industries went into administration in 1990 and it was divided up between Slingsby and Westinghouse Corporation. In November 2006, the ship was leased and decorated with new artwork and flown under the name Spirit of Dubai.
It was planned to make a publicity tour from London to United Arab Emirates. The journey was being undertaken to promote The Palm Jumeirah in Dubai; the journey was planned to take in landmarks including Big Ben, the London Eye and Tower Bridge in London and the White Cliffs of Dover in England, the Eiffel Tower and Palace of Versailles in Paris, the Leaning Tower of Pisa in Pisa and the Colosseum in Rome, the Parthenon in Athens, the Great Pyramids in Egypt. The airship made it to the island of Crete; the next leg of the journey was planned to go through Egypt. However, for reasons unexplained, the Egyptian authorities refused to grant permission for the airship to make the trip. In the spring of 2007 the ship returned to Europe for use in sightseeing. Prior to its departure from London, the aircraft was used for sightseeing tours in Switzerland under its owner/operator company name Skycruise Switzerland. Ten Skyship 600s have been built and a successor, the Skyship 600B, has been planned. Although ATG received two orders for the Skyship 600B, a higher-performance version of the 600, in its early years, it sold the type certificate for the 600 to Julian Benscher of Global Skyship.
Data from Jane's All the World's Airc