Merry-Go-Round (1923 film)
Merry-Go-Round is a 1923 American feature film directed by Erich von Stroheim and his replacement, Rupert Julian, starring Norman Kerry and Mary Philbin, released by Universal Pictures. A copy of the film is held in a collection and it has been released on DVD. A nobleman, posing as a necktie salesman, falls in love with the daughter of a circus puppeteer though he is married to the daughter of his country's war minister; the film was the eighth most successful that year at the box office in the Canada. Merry-Go-Round on IMDb Merry-Go-Round at AllMovie
In films, an intertitle is a piece of filmed, printed text edited into the midst of the photographed action at various points. Intertitles used to convey character dialogue are referred to as "dialogue intertitles", those used to provide related descriptive/narrative material are referred to as "expository intertitles". In modern usage, the terms refer to similar text and logo material inserted at or near the start of films and television shows. In this era intertitles were always called "subtitles" and had Art Deco motifs, they were a mainstay of silent films once the films became of sufficient length and detail to necessitate dialogue and/or narration to make sense of the enacted or documented events. The British Film Catalogue credits the 1898 film Our New General Servant by Robert W. Paul as the first British film to use intertitles. Film scholar Kamilla Elliott identifies another early use of intertitles in the 1901 British film Scrooge, or, Marley's Ghost; the first Academy Awards presentation in 1929 included an award for "Best Title Writing" that went to Joseph W. Farnham for no specific film.
The award was never given again, as intertitles went out of common use due to the introduction of "talkies". In modern use, intertitles are used to supply an epigraph, such as a poem, or to distinguish various "acts" of a film or multimedia production by use as a title card. However, they are most used as part of a historical drama's epilogue to explain what happened to the depicted characters and events after the conclusion of the story proper; the development of the soundtrack eliminated their utility as a narrative device, but they are still used as an artistic device. For instance, intertitles were used as a gimmick in Frasier; the BBC's drama Threads uses them to give location and information on distant events beyond Sheffield. Law & Order and its related spinoffs used them to give not only the location, but the date of the upcoming scene. Guy Maddin is a modern filmmaker known for recreating the style of older films, uses intertitles appropriately; some locally produced shows, such as quiz bowl game shows, use animated variations of intertitles to introduce the next round.
Intertitles have had a long history in the area of amateur film as well. The efforts of home movie aficionados to intertitle their works post-production have led to the development of a number of innovative approaches to the challenge. Lacking access to high quality film dubbing and splicing equipment, amateur film makers must plan ahead when making a film to allow space for filming an intertitle over the existing film. Intertitles may be printed neatly on a piece of paper, a card, or a piece of cardboard and filmed, or they may be formed from adhesive strips and affixed to glass. In the early 1980s, digital recording technology improved to the point where intertitles could be created in born-digital format and recorded directly onto the film. Several specialty accessories from this period such as Sony's HVT-2100 Titler and cameras such as Matsushita's Quasar VK-743 and Zenith VC-1800 could be used to generate intertitles for home movies. Early 1980s video game consoles and applications catering to the demo scene were adapted for the generation and recording of intertitles for home films.
Among these were included the ColecoVision, the Magnavox Odyssey², the Bally Astrocade, the intertitle-specialized Famicom Titler. Acknowledgment Billing Character generator Closing credits Credit Digital on-screen graphic Lower third Opening credits Subtitle Supertitle Title sequence WGA screenwriting credit system
The Dolomites are a mountain range located in northeastern Italy. They form a part of the Southern Limestone Alps and extend from the River Adige in the west to the Piave Valley in the east; the northern and southern borders are defined by the Sugana Valley. The Dolomites are nearly shared between the provinces of Belluno, South Tyrol and Trentino. Other mountain groups of similar geological structure spread along the River Piave to the east – Dolomiti d'Oltrepiave. A smaller group is called Piccole Dolomiti, located between the provinces of Trentino and Vicenza; the Dolomiti Bellunesi National Park and many other regional parks are located in the Dolomites. In August 2009, the Dolomites were declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the Dolomites known as the "Pale Mountains", take their name from the carbonate rock dolomite. This was named for 18th-century French mineralogist Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu, the first to describe the mineral; the Dolomites were formed during the Permian period over 280 million years ago, when parts of Europe and Africa were merged in a supercontinent known as Pangaea.
During that time, there was a great oceanic gulf called the Tethys. The mountains have since weathered. During the First World War, the front line between the Italian and Austro-Hungarian forces ran through the Dolomites, where both sides used mines extensively. Open-air war museums are located at Mount Lagazuoi. Many people visit the Dolomites to climb the vie ferrate, protected paths through the minefields that were created during the war. A number of long-distance footpaths traverse the Dolomites, they are called alte vie, are numbered from 1 to 8. The trails take on the order of a week to walk, are served by numerous rifugi; the first and most renowned is the Alta Via 1. Radiocarbon dating has been used in the Alta Badia region to demonstrate a connection between landslide activity and climate change; the region is divided into the Western and Eastern Dolomites, separated by a line following the Val Badia – Campolongo Pass – Cordevole Valley axis. The Dolomites may be divided into the following ranges: The Dolomites are renowned for skiing in the winter months and mountain climbing, cycling, BASE jumping, as well as paragliding and hang gliding in summer and late spring/early autumn.
Free climbing has been a tradition in the Dolomites since 1887, when 17-year-old Georg Winkler soloed the first ascent of the pinnacle Die Vajolettürme. The main centres include: Rocca Pietore alongside the Marmolada Glacier, which lies on the border of Trentino and Veneto, the small towns of Alleghe, Auronzo, Cortina d'Ampezzo and the villages of Arabba, Urtijëi and San Martino di Castrozza, as well as the whole of the Fassa and Badia valleys; the Maratona dles Dolomites, an annual single-day road bicycle racing race covering seven mountain passes of the Dolomites, occurs in the first week of July. Other characteristic places are: Mount Pasubio and Strada delle 52 Gallerie Altopiano di Asiago and Calà del Sasso, with 4444 steps, the world's longest staircase open to the public. Alta Via 1 Belluno Dolomiti Bellunesi National Park Strada delle 52 Gallerie Via Ferrata White Friday This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Dolomites, The".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 8. Cambridge University Press. P. 394. Provincia di Belluno, Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano-Alto Adige Autonome Provinz Bozen-Südtirol, Provincia di Pordenone, Provincia Autonoma di Trento, Provincia di Udine, Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia, 2008. Nomination of the Dolomites for inscription on the World Natural Heritage List UNESCO. Nomination Document. 363 pp. https://web.archive.org/web/20131225070444/http://fondazionedolomitiunesco.org/documentazione-2/01_DOLOMITES_nomination_document_jan2008_1236608233_1294933181.pdf "HD Pictures of the main areas of the Dolomites". Bruno Mandolesi. "360 degree panorama Dolomites". SiMedia Srl. Retrieved 14 April 2010. Roger. "Walks and Via Ferrata in the Dolomites". CommunityWalk.com. Retrieved 14 April 2010. "Strada delle 52 Gallerie". Eclectica. "Monte Piana in the Dolomites". Eclectica. August 21, 2006. "Via Ferrata Lagazuoi Tunnels". Eclectica. August 9, 2006. "Up to the Turquoise Lake". Eclectica. August 1, 2006. Media related to Dolomites at Wikimedia Commons Franco Grisa Timelapse Italian official cartography.
Erich von Stroheim
Erich Oswald Hans Carl Maria von Stroheim was an Austrian-American director and producer, most noted as a film star and avant garde, visionary director of the silent era. His masterpiece adaptation of Frank Norris's McTeague titled Greed is considered one of the finest and most important films made. After clashes with Hollywood studio bosses over budget and workers' rights issues, von Stroheim was banned for life as a director and subsequently became a well-respected character actor in French cinema. For his early innovations as a director, von Stroheim is still celebrated as one of the first of the auteur directors, he helped introduce more sophisticated plots and noirish sexual and psychological undercurrents into cinema. He died in 1957 in France of prostate cancer at the age of 71. Beloved by Parisian neo-Surrealists known as Letterists, Letterist Maurice Lemaitre directed a 70-minute homage to von Stroheim titled Erich von Stroheim in 1979. Stroheim was born in Vienna, Austria in 1885 as Erich Oswald Stroheim, the son of Benno Stroheim, a middle-class hat-maker, Johanna Bondy, both of whom were observant Jews.
Stroheim emigrated to America aboard the SS Prinz Friedrich Willhelm on 26 November 1909. On arrival at Ellis Island, he claimed to be Count Erich Oswald Hans Carl Maria von Stroheim und Nordenwall, the son of Austrian nobility like the characters he would go on to play in his films, but he first found work as a travelling salesman – work which took him to San Francisco and Hollywood. Both Billy Wilder and Stroheim's agent Paul Kohner claimed that he spoke with a decidedly lower-class Austrian accent. Jean Renoir writes in his memoirs: “Stroheim spoke hardly any German, he had to study his lines like a schoolboy learning a foreign language.” While living in Europe, Stroheim claimed in published remarks to have "forgotten" his native tongue. In Renoir's movie La Grande Illusion, Stroheim speaks German with a strong American accent. In his French-speaking roles, von Stroheim speaks French with pronounced American accent. However, the fashion photographer Helmut Newton, whose first language was German, used a clip from a Stroheim film on which to base one of his fantasy nude photographs, he has commented that in the clip Stroheim speaks "a special kind of Prussian officer lingo - it's abrupt: it's very funny".
Stroheim was married three times. He was married to Margaret Knox from 1913 to 1915, he was never divorced from his third wife Valerie Germonprez, though he lived with actress Denise Vernac, from 1939 until his death. Vernac starred with him in several films. Two of Stroheim's sons joined the film business: Erich Jr. as an assistant director and Josef as a sound editor. After appearing in 1950's Sunset Boulevard, Stroheim moved to France where he spent the last part of his life. There his silent film work was much admired by artists in the French film industry. In France he acted in films, wrote several novels that were published in French, worked on various unrealized film projects, he was awarded the French Legion of Honor shortly before his death. In 1956, Stroheim began to suffer severe back pain, diagnosed as prostate cancer, he became paralyzed and was carried to his drawing room to receive the Legion of Honor award from an official delegation. He died at his chateau in Maurepas near Paris on May 12, 1957 at age 71, accompanied by his longtime lover Denise Vernac.
By 1914 he was working in Hollywood. He began working in movies as a stuntman, in bit-parts and as a consultant on German culture and fashion, his first film, in 1915, was The Country Boy. His first credited role came in Old Heidelberg, he began working with D. W. Griffith, taking uncredited roles in Intolerance. Additionally, Stroheim acted as one of the many assistant directors on Intolerance, a film remembered in part for its huge cast of extras. With America's entry into World War I, he played sneering German villains in such films as Sylvia of the Secret Service and The Hun Within. In The Heart of Humanity, he tears the buttons from a nurse's uniform with his teeth, when disturbed by a crying baby, throws it out of a window. Following the end of the war, Stroheim turned to writing and directed his own script for Blind Husbands in 1919, he starred in the film. As a director, Stroheim was known to be dictatorial and demanding antagonizing his actors, he is considered one of the greatest directors of the silent era, creating films that represent cynical and romantic views of human nature.
Recurring tropes in his films include the portrayal of janitors, the depiction of characters with physical disabilities. His next directorial efforts were the lost film The Devil's Pass Key and Foolish Wives, in which he starred. Studio publicity for Foolish Wives claimed. In 1923, Stroheim began work on Merry-Go-Round, he cast the American actor Norman Kerry as Count Franz Maximilian von Hohenegg, a part written for himself, newcomer Mary Philbin in the lead actress role. However studio executive Irving Thalberg fired Stroheim during filming and replaced him with director Rupert Julian. Stroheim's best remembered work as a director is Greed, a detailed filming of the novel McTeague by Frank Norris. He
The Devil's Pass Key
The Devil's Pass Key was a 1920 silent drama film directed by Erich von Stroheim. The film was distributed under their Jewel banner; the film was von Stroheim's second directorial effort, considered one of the best screen exhibitions of August 1920, with The New York Times calling it "One of the best photodramatic productions of the year". The production was shot from September 1919 through December 1919 and premiered on 8 August 1920 at the Capitol Theatre in New York City, New York; as described in a film magazine, Grace Goodright is the beautiful but extravagant wife of Warren Goodright, an American playwright living in Paris. Grace owes her modeste Renee Malot money. Malot suggests that Grace contact a wealthy American, army officer Captain Rex Strong, who might be able to assist her financially. Rex offers Grace a loan. Grace refuses, Malot, angered at losing an opportunity for obtaining a commission for the loan, attempts to trap Grace in a blackmail scheme; the newspapers print the spicy bit of scandal without mentioning any names.
Warren uses the story as the plot for his next play and it meets success. Paris is thrown into a furor over the affair and Warren threatens the life of Captain Strong. After the convinces Warren that his wife is innocent, the matter is resolved happily. Sam de Grasse as Warren Goodright Mae Busch as La Belle Odera Maude George as Renee Malot Leo White as Amadeus Malot Jack Mathis as Count De Trouvere Al Edmundson as Alphonse Marior Una Trevelyn as Grace Goodright Clyde Fillmore as Captain Rex Strong Ruth King as Yvonne Strong Edward Reinach as Director of Theatre Français In 1941, it was discovered that the original nitrate negative had decomposed in the Universal film vaults, the film is today famous as a lost film. A story in The Hollywood Reporter, international edition, dated 12 November 1993, stated that this film would be shown at the 1994 Berlin Film Festival — a film thought to be lost; as of July 2015, the validity of this has not yet been proven. Because this film has been lost for so long, historians omit it when discussing or writing about the canon of von Stroheim's film work.
List of lost films The Devil's Pass Key on IMDb The Devil's Pass Key at the TCM Movie Database The Devil's Pass Key at American Movie Classics Lantern slide plate for the film
Queen Kelly is an American silent film produced in 1928-29 and released by United Artists. The film was directed by Erich von Stroheim, starred Gloria Swanson, in the title role, Walter Byron as her lover, Seena Owen; the film was produced by Joseph P. Kennedy, Swanson's lover at the time. In 1932, Swanson was able to release a part-talkie version in Europe and South America only, because of her contract with Stroheim; this version had an alternate ending directed by Richard Boleslawski and filmed by cinematographer Gregg Toland. Prince Wolfram is the betrothed of mad Queen Regina V of Kronberg; as punishment for partying with other women, he is sent on manoeuvres. He sees Kitty Kelly walking with other convent flirts with her, she is embarrassed when he makes a comment after seeing that her underwear is visible, so she takes it off and throws it at him, to the horror of the nuns, who punish her for her "indecency". Enthralled by her beauty, he kidnaps her that night from the convent, takes her to his room and professes his love for her.
When the Queen finds them together the next morning, she whips Kelly and throws her out of the castle. Regina puts Wolfram in prison for not wanting to marry her. Original ending: Kelly goes to German East Africa to visit her dying aunt and is forced to marry a repulsive man named Jan; the aunt dies after the wedding and Kelly refuses to live with him, instead becoming the madam of her aunt's brothel. Her extravagances and style earn her the name "Queen Kelly". Alternate ending: Kelly dies in despair after her humiliation at the hands of the Queen. Wolfram, visits her body. Gloria Swanson - Kitty Kelly, aka Queen Kelly Walter Byron - Prince Wolfram Seena Owen - Queen Regina V Sylvia Ashton - Kelly's Aunt Wilson Benge - Prince Wolfram's Valet Sidney Bracey - Prince Wolfram's Lackey Florence Gibson - Kelly's Aunt Madge Hunt - Mother Superior Tully Marshall - Jan Vryheid Madame Sul-Te-Wan - Kali Sana, Aunt's Cook Wilhelm von Brincken - Prince Wolfram's adjutant Gordon Westcott - Lackey The production of the costly film was shut down after complaints by Swanson about the direction the film was taking.
Though the European scenes were full of innuendo, featured a philandering prince and a sex-crazed queen, the scenes set in Africa were grim and, Swanson felt, distasteful. In interviews, Swanson had claimed that she had been misled by the script which referred to her character arriving in, taking over, a dance hall. Stroheim was fired from the African storyline scrapped. Swanson and Kennedy still wanted to salvage the European material, as it had been so costly and time-consuming, had potential market value. An alternate ending was, shot on November 24, 1931. In this ending, Kelly dies. Prince Wolfram is shown visiting the palace. A nun leads him to the chapel; these scenes were directed by Richard Boleslawski, photographed by Gregg Toland, edited by Viola Lawrence. This has been called the'Swanson Ending'; the film was not theatrically released in the United States, but it was shown in Europe and South America with the'Swanson ending' tacked on. This was due to a clause in Stroheim's contract. In 1933, Stroheim submitted a script called Poto Poto to MGM.
Though it was never produced, the script contained several elements recycled from the African story of Queen Kelly. A short extract of the film appears in Sunset Boulevard, representing an old silent picture Swanson's character Norma Desmond - herself a silent movie star - had made. Von Stroheim is a primary character in Sunset Boulevard, as her ex-director, ex-husband, current butler. By some accounts, Von Stroheim suggested the clip be used for its heavy irony; this was the first time viewers in the US got to see any footage of the infamous collaboration. In the 1960s, it was shown on television with the Swanson ending, along with a taped introduction and conclusion in which Swanson talked about the history of the project. By 1985, Kino International had acquired the rights to the movie and restored two versions: one that uses still photos and subtitles in an attempt to wrap up the storyline, the other the European "suicide ending" version. Kino remains the rights holder and is responsible for all distribution, including television and home video.
The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists: 2002: AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions – Nominated Sadie Thompson The Love of Sunya Queen Kelly on IMDb Queen Kelly is available for free download at the Internet Archive Queen Kelly at AllMovie Queen Kelly at Rotten Tomatoes Queen Kelly at Silent Era