SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Blitzkrieg

Blitzkrieg is a method of warfare where an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, powerful attacks and dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority. Through the employment of combined arms in manoeuvre warfare, blitzkrieg attempts to unbalance the enemy by making it difficult for it to respond to the continuously changing front defeat it in a decisive Vernichtungsschlacht. During the interwar period and tank technologies matured and were combined with systematic application of the traditional German tactic of Bewegungskrieg, deep penetrations and the bypassing of enemy strong points to encircle and destroy enemy forces in a Kesselschlacht. During the Invasion of Poland, Western journalists adopted the term blitzkrieg to describe this form of armoured warfare; the term had appeared in 1935, in a German military periodical Deutsche Wehr, in connection to quick or lightning warfare.

German manoeuvre operations were successful in the campaigns of 1939–1941 and by 1940 the term blitzkrieg was extensively used in Western media. Blitzkrieg operations capitalized on surprise penetrations, general enemy unreadiness and their inability to match the pace of the German attack. During the Battle of France, the French made attempts to re-form defensive lines along rivers but were frustrated when German forces arrived first and pressed on. Despite being common in German and English-language journalism during World War II, the word Blitzkrieg was never used by the Wehrmacht as an official military term, except for propaganda. According to David Reynolds, "Hitler himself called the term Blitzkrieg'A idiotic word'"; some senior officers, including Kurt Student, Franz Halder and Johann Adolf von Kielmansegg disputed the idea that it was a military concept. Kielmansegg asserted that what many regarded as blitzkrieg was nothing more than "ad hoc solutions that popped out of the prevailing situation".

Student described it as ideas that "naturally emerged from the existing circumstances" as a response to operational challenges. The Wehrmacht never adopted it as a concept or doctrine. In 2005, the historian Karl-Heinz Frieser summarized blitzkrieg as the result of German commanders using the latest technology in the most beneficial way according to traditional military principles and employing "the right units in the right place at the right time". Modern historians now understand blitzkrieg as the combination of the traditional German military principles and doctrines of the 19th century with the military technology of the interwar period. Modern historians use the term casually as a generic description for the style of manoeuvre warfare practised by Germany during the early part of World War II, rather than as an explanation. According to Frieser, in the context of the thinking of Heinz Guderian on mobile combined arms formations, blitzkrieg can be used as a synonym for modern manoeuvre warfare on the operational level.

The traditional meaning of blitzkrieg is that of German tactical and operational methodology in the first half of the Second World War, hailed as a new method of warfare. The word, meaning "lightning war" or "lightning attack" in its strategic sense describes a series of quick and decisive short battles to deliver a knockout blow to an enemy state before it could mobilize. Tactically, blitzkrieg is a coordinated military effort by tanks, motorized infantry and aircraft, to create an overwhelming local superiority in combat power, to defeat the opponent and break through its defences. Blitzkrieg as used by Germany had considerable psychological, or "terror" elements, such as the Jericho Trompete, a noise-making siren on the Junkers Ju 87 dive-bomber, to affect the morale of enemy forces; the devices were removed when the enemy became used to the noise after the Battle of France in 1940 and instead bombs sometimes had whistles attached. It is common for historians and writers to include psychological warfare by using Fifth columnists to spread rumours and lies among the civilian population in the theatre of operations.

The origin of the term blitzkrieg is obscure. It was never used in the title of a military doctrine or handbook of the German army or air force, no "coherent doctrine" or "unifying concept of blitzkrieg" existed; the term seems to have been used in the German military press before 1939 and recent research at the German Militärgeschichtliches Forschungsamt at Potsdam found it in only two military articles from the 1930s. Both used the term to mean a swift strategic knock-out, rather than a radical new military doctrine or approach to war; the first article deals with supplies of food and materiel in wartime. The term blitzkrieg is used with reference to German efforts to win a quick victory in the First World War but is not associated with the use of armoured, mechanised or air forces, it argued that Germany must develop self-sufficiency in food, because it might again prove impossible to deal a swift knock-out to its enemies, leading to a long war. In the second article, launching a swift strategic knock-out is described as an attractive idea for Germany but difficult to achieve on land under modern conditions, unless an exceptionally high degree of surprise could be achieved.

The author vaguely suggests that a ma

WGC Invitational

The WGC-FedEx St. Jude Invitational is a professional golf tournament hosted at TPC Southwind in Memphis, Tennessee from 2019 onwards, is one of the four annual World Golf Championships, it was known as the WGC-Bridgestone Invitational, the WGC-NEC Invitational when it was hosted at Firestone Country Club in Ohio. It is sanctioned and organized by the International Federation of PGA Tours and the prize money is official money on both the PGA Tour and the European Tour. Tiger Woods has the record number of wins with eight; the winner receives. The event was established in 1999 as a successor to the World Series of Golf. From 1999 through 2005, the WGC Invitational was sponsored by NEC. NEC had sponsored the World Series of Golf from 1984 to 1998; the tournament changed sponsorship with Bridgestone taking over as title sponsor. As a part of the sponsorship agreement, the event continued to be held at the South Course of Firestone Country Club in Akron, Ohio. In August 2013, the Bridgestone sponsorship was extended through 2018.

The 2018 event was the last held in Akron. In 2019, FedEx relocated the tournament to Memphis, Tennessee; the 2019 event is scheduled to be held at TPC Southwind. Prior to 2019 the event was hosted at the South Course of Firestone Country Club, with one exception; the 2002 event was played at Sahalee Country Club in Washington. Beginning in 2019, the WGC Invitational will be held at TPC Southwind; the current event has a field of about 75 players half the number for a standard professional golf event. Invitations are issued to the following: Playing members of the last named Presidents Cup or Ryder Cup teams. Players ranked among the top 50 on the Official World Golf Ranking. Tournament winners of worldwide events since the prior year's tournament with an Official World Golf Ranking Strength of Field Rating of 115 points or more; the winner of one selected tournament from each of the PGA Tour of Australasia, Sunshine Tour and Asian Tour and two selected tournaments from the Japan Golf Tour. From 1999 to 2001, only the Ryder Cup and Presidents Cup teams were eligible and the field was about 40 players.

Prior to 2011, both Ryder Cup and Presidents Cup teams were eligible. From 1976 through 1998, the PGA Tour event at Firestone Country Club was the "World Series of Golf," and was sponsored by NEC beginning in 1984, it was founded as a four-man invitational event in 1962, comprising the winners of the four major championships in a 36-hole event. The competitors played in one group for $75,000 in unofficial prize money, televised by NBC. In 1976, it became a 72-hole, $300,000 PGA Tour event and its field was expanded to twenty; the largest first prize at a major in 1976 was $45,000 at the PGA Championship. The World Series of Golf became a leading event on the tour. For many years a victory in it gave a 10-year exemption on the PGA Tour, the same as was granted for a victory in a major championship at that time, twice as long as is given for winning a major now; the field consisted of the winners of all the high status men's professional golf tournaments around the world in the previous twelve months.

This was quite different from the criteria for the WGC Invitational listed above, but produced much the same sort of global field. Official website Coverage on the European Tour's official site

Look After Lulu!

Look After Lulu! is a play by British actor and playwright Noël Coward, based on Occupe-toi d'Amélie by Georges Feydeau. It is set in Paris in 1908; the farcical story concerns an attractive prostitute, entrusted to a friend by her lover, when he goes into the army. The friend tricks her into a mock wedding; the play premiered in 1959 on Broadway and played in London the same year. Jean-Louis Barrault and his wife Madeleine Renaud had revived Feydeau's farce at the Comédie-Française, they suggested that Coward should adapt it for Vivien Leigh to play in London. Olivier was not interested, Leigh was not available. Coward therefore decided to open the play in America first, his first choice to play Lulu was Shirley MacLaine, not available. Cyril Ritchard, who directed the production, Roddy McDowall, who co-starred in it, suggested Tammy Grimes, who had not done a Broadway "book" show. After a tryout in New Haven, the play premiered on Broadway at the Henry Miller's Theatre on 3 March 1959 and closed on 4 April 1959 after 39 performances.

The play featured McDowall, Jack Gilford, Ellis Rabb, Barbara Loden and Kurt Kasznar. Time magazine commented, "Coward's dialogue for this turn-of-the-century French farce is broad more than bright, Cyril Ritchard's direction is as agitated as it is agile."The play opened in the West End on 29 July 1959, at the Royal Court Theatre, transferred to the New Theatre, where it ran until December 1959. It was directed by Tony Richardson and starred Vivien Leigh, with Robert Stephens, Anthony Quayle and Max Adrian; the Daily Mail wrote: "I came away reflecting that Noel Coward is Noel Coward, French farce is French farce, never the twain should meet." Harold Hobson in The Sunday Times concurred: "If Look After Lulu! is only half a success, the reasons are more than complimentary to everyone concerned. The trouble is that Mr Coward is too witty, Miss Leigh too beautiful. For the kind of play that Look After Lulu! is, beauty and wit are about as necessary as a peach melba at the North Pole." Hoare, Philip.

Noël Coward, A Biography. Sinclair-Stevenson 1995. ISBN 1-85619-265-2. Payn, Graham. My Life with Noël Coward, Applause Books, 1994. ISBN 1-55783-190-4 Internet Broadway Database listing cast list