Combined arms

Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different combat arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects. According to strategist William S. Lind, combined arms can be distinguished from the concept of "supporting arms" as follows: Combined arms hits the enemy with two or more arms in such a manner that the actions he must take to defend himself from one make him more vulnerable to another. In contrast, supporting arms is hitting the enemy with two or more arms in sequence, or if then in such combination that the actions the enemy must take to defend himself from one defends himself from the other. Though the lower-echelon units of a combined arms team may be of similar types, a balanced mixture of such units are combined into an effective higher-echelon unit, whether formally in a table of organization or informally in an ad hoc solution to a battlefield problem. For example, an armored division—the modern paragon of combined arms doctrine—consists of a mixture of infantry, artillery and even helicopter units, all coordinated and directed by a unified command structure.

Most modern military units can, if the situation requires it, call on yet more branches of the military, such as infantry requesting bombing or shelling by fighter or bomber aircraft or naval forces to augment their ground offensive or protect their land forces. The mixing of arms is sometimes pushed down below the level where homogeneity ordinarily prevails, for example by temporarily attaching a tank company to an infantry battalion. Combined arms operations date back to antiquity, where armies would field a screen of skirmishers to protect their spearmen during the approach to contact. In the case of the Greek hoplites, the focus of military thinking lay exclusively on the heavy infantry. In more elaborate situations armies of various nationalities fielded different combinations of light, medium, or heavy infantry, chariotry, camelry and artillery. Combined arms in this context was how to best use the cooperating units, variously armed with side-arms, spears, or missile weapons in order to coordinate an attack to disrupt and destroy the enemy.

Philip II of Macedon improved upon the limited combined arms tactics of the Greek city-states and combined the newly created Macedonian phalanx with heavy cavalry and other forces. The phalanx would hold the opposing line in place, until the heavy cavalry could smash and break the enemy line by achieving local superiority; the pre-Marian Roman Legion was consisted of five classes of troops. Equipped velites acted as skirmishers armed with light javelins; the hastati and principes formed the main attacking strength of the legion with sword and pilum, whilst the triarii formed the defensive backbone of the legion fighting as a phalanx with long spears and large shields. The fifth class were pursuit and to guard the flanks. After the Marian reforms the Legion was notionally a unit of heavy infantrymen armed with just sword and pilum, fielded with a small attached auxiliary skirmishers and missile troops, incorporated a small cavalry unit; the legion was sometimes incorporated into a higher-echelon combined arms unit — e.g. in one period it was customary for a general to command two legions plus two sized units of auxiliaries, lighter units useful as screens or for combat in rough terrain.

The army of the Han Dynasty is an example, fielding mêlée infantry and cavalry. Civilizations such as the Carthaginians and Sassanids were known to have fielded a combination of infantry supported by powerful cavalry. At the Battle of Hastings English infantry fighting from behind a shield wall were defeated by a Norman army consisting of archers and mounted knights. One of the tactics used by the Normans was to tempt the English to leave the shield wall to attack retreating Norman infantry only to destroy them in the open with cavalry. Scottish sheltrons –, developed to counter the charges by English heavy cavalry, had been used against English cavalry at the Battle of Stirling Bridge – were destroyed at the Battle of Falkirk by English archers acting in concert with mounted knights. Both Hastings and Falkirk showed how combined arms could be used to defeat enemies relying on only one arm; the English victories of Crécy, Poitiers and Agincourt were examples of a simple form of combined arms, with a combination of dismounted knights forming a foundation for formations of English longbowmen.

The protected longbowmen could down their French opponents at a distance, whilst the armoured men-at-arms could deal with any Frenchmen who made it to the English lines. This is the crux of combined arms: to allow a combination of forces to achieve what would be impossible for its constituent elements to do alone. During the Middle Ages military forces used combined arms as a method of winning battles and furthering a war leader or king's long term goals; some historians claim that during the Middle Ages there was no strategic or tactical art to military combat. Kelly DeVries uses the Merriam-Webster definition of combat "as a general military engagement". In the pursuit of a leader's goals and self-interest tactical and strategic thinking was used along with taking advantage of the terrain and weather in choosing when and where to give battle; the simplest example is the combination of different specialties such as archers, infantry

Bethel Heights, Arkansas

Bethel Heights is a city in Benton County, United States. The population was 2,372 at the 2010 census, up from 714 in 2000 census, it is part of the growing Northwest Arkansas region. Bethel Heights is located in southern Benton County at 36°13′22″N 94°7′40″W, it is bordered by Springdale to the east and west, by Lowell to the north. U. S. Route 71 runs north–south along the western side of the city, Arkansas Highway 264 runs east–west through the center of the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.4 square miles, of which 0.015 square miles, or 0.69%, is water. As of 2010 Bethel Heights had a population of 2,372; the racial and ethnic composition of the population was 49.7% non-Hispanic white, 1.9% black or African American, 1.4% Native American, 3.0% Asian, 8.3% Pacific Islander, 21.6% from some other race, 2.2% from two or more races and 34.7% Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 714 people, 251 households, 211 families residing in the town.

The population density was 109.4/km². There were 261 housing units at an average density of 40.0/km². The racial makeup of the town was 92.16% White, 1.54% Native American, 2.52% Asian, 1.82% from other races, 1.96% from two or more races. 3.36 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 251 households out of which 42.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 78.1% were married couples living together, 3.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.9% were non-families. 13.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average family size was 3.10. In the town the population was spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 31.0% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.2 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $48,750, the median income for a family was $51,172. Males had a median income of $33,438 versus $26,625 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,001. About 1.9% of families and 4.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.8% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over. Bethel Heights is part of the Springdale Public Schools. There are twenty-one schools in the district, including thirteen elementary schools, three middle schools, three junior high schools and two high schools; the City provides wastewater service via a STEP system, installed in 2003. Bethel Heights has struggled to maintain compliance with Arkansas Department of Health and Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality regulations; the system was out of compliance from August 2013 to January 2017, with sewage surfacing in neighbors' fields, livestock poisonings, multiple violations and fines resulting in a consent administrative order.

Violations have continued in 2018 and 2019. Potable water service is provided by Springdale Water Utilities. Following the sewer system violations, a moratorium on new water system connections was established in June 2019. American Electric Power and Carroll Electric Cooperative provide electric power in Bethel Heights. Franchise utilities serving the community include AT&T, Black Hills Energy, Cox Communications. City of Bethel Heights official website


A damb is a type of archaeological mound found in the Baluchistan region of Iran. Those of Makran are little stonebuilt structures; such hills are called Damba Koh by the people and are not infrequently attributed to Bahman. Excavations conducted by Major Mockler led to the discovery of buildings at Sutkagen Dor, a place about 40 miles to the north-west of Gwadar, which he considered to be the remains of temples or water works; the houses were built with baked bricks or stone, a large earthen pot was unearthed in one corner, while fragments of pottery, pieces of lime, flint knives were common everywhere. At Jiwnri and at a place called Gati, 6 miles from Gwadar, Major Mockler discovered numerous little houses, oval or square in shape, built of stone obtained from the surface of the hills. Better specimens, than those at Jiwnri were seen at Damba Koh south-east of Dashtian in Persian Makran, in them were found different kinds of earthenware vessels and stone beads, grinding stones, stones for sharpening knives, a shell ring, pieces of rope pattern pottery, a lump of oxide of iron and a coin.

The latter appeared to be of Bactrian origin. In the eleven mounds opened at Jiwnri, vessels containing bones, scraps of iron, stones for sharpening knives, copper bracelets and shell ornaments were discovered and similar finds were made at Gati; the conclusion at which Major Mockler arrived was that the places had been used for purposes of interment, the bones of the deceased being placed in an earthen pot, but more on the floor of the dumb. Pots containing food and sometimes a lamp, were the accompaniments of the corpse, exposed previous to burial. In Sir Thomas Holdich's opinion the structures are relics of the Dravidian races, which dispersed eastward on being ousted by the Semites from Chaldaea; the old mound, 2 miles west of Turbat, to which the name of Bahmani has been given by the people, from Bahman, the son of Asfandiar, the hero of the Shahnama, is of the same type as that at Sutkagen Dor. It is covered with pottery, but shallow excavations made in 1903 failed to disclose anything of interest.

Names from the Shahnama are again to be met within the ancient karezes in Kech called Kausi and Khusrawi after kings Kaus and Kai Khusrau. The latter is interesting in the light of the evidence afforded by the Shahnama which mentions Kai Khusrau as effecting great improvements in the agricultural conditions of the country; the Khusrawi kares is known as Uzzai. Both are still running and their length is unknown, but while cleaning the bed of the Khusrawi karez, the local cultivators state that they have followed the channel up to the bed of the Dokurm torrent under which it passes, found that it was roofed with slabs of flat stones supported on pillars which rested in their turn on an arch over the runningwater. Another karez of interest is one at Kalatuk called Sad-o-bad, a name, said to be a corruption of Saadabad. According to local accounts it was excavated by one of the Arab generals Saad-bin-Ali Wiqas in the time of the Caliph Omar. Nausherwani tombs