A blizzard is a severe snowstorm characterized by strong sustained winds of at least 56 km/h and lasting for a prolonged period of time—typically three hours or more. A ground blizzard is a weather condition where snow is not falling but loose snow on the ground is lifted and blown by strong winds. Blizzards can have an immense size and stretch to hundreds or thousands of kilometres. In the United States, the National Weather Service defines a blizzard as a severe snow storm characterized by strong winds causing blowing snow that results in low visibilities; the difference between a blizzard and a snowstorm is the strength of the wind, not the amount of snow. To be a blizzard, a snow storm must have sustained winds or frequent gusts that are greater than or equal to 56 km/h with blowing or drifting snow which reduces visibility to 400 m or 0.25 mi or less and must last for a prolonged period of time—typically three hours or more. While severe cold and large amounts of drifting snow may accompany blizzards, they are not required.
Blizzards can bring whiteout conditions, can paralyze regions for days at a time where snowfall is unusual or rare. A severe blizzard has winds over 72 km/h, near zero visibility, temperatures of −12 °C or lower. In Antarctica, blizzards are associated with winds spilling over the edge of the ice plateau at an average velocity of 160 km/h. Ground blizzard refers to a weather condition where loose snow or ice on the ground is lifted and blown by strong winds; the primary difference between a ground blizzard as opposed to a regular blizzard is that in a ground blizzard no precipitation is produced at the time, but rather all the precipitation is present in the form of snow or ice at the surface. The Australia Bureau of Meteorology describes a blizzard as, "Violent and cold wind, laden with snow, some part, at least, of, raised from snow covered ground." The Oxford English Dictionary concludes the term blizzard is onomatopoeic, derived from the same sense as blow, blast and bluster. It achieved its modern definition by 1859, when it was in use in the western United States.
The term became common in the press during the harsh winter of 1880–81. In the United States, storm systems powerful enough to cause blizzards form when the jet stream dips far to the south, allowing cold, dry polar air from the north to clash with warm, humid air moving up from the south; when cold, moist air from the Pacific Ocean moves eastward to the Rocky Mountains and the Great Plains, warmer, moist air moves north from the Gulf of Mexico, all, needed is a movement of cold polar air moving south to form potential blizzard conditions that may extend from the Texas Panhandle to the Great Lakes and Midwest. A blizzard may be formed when a cold front and warm front mix together and a blizzard forms at the border line. Another storm system occurs when a cold core low over the Hudson Bay area in Canada is displaced southward over southeastern Canada, the Great Lakes, New England; when the moving cold front collides with warmer air coming north from the Gulf of Mexico, strong surface winds, significant cold air advection, extensive wintry precipitation occur.
Low pressure systems moving out of the Rocky Mountains onto the Great Plains, a broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie and grassland, can cause thunderstorms and rain to the south and heavy snows and strong winds to the north. With few trees or other obstructions to reduce wind and blowing, this part of the country is vulnerable to blizzards with low temperatures and whiteout conditions. In a true whiteout there is no visible horizon. People can become lost in their own front yards, when the door is only 3 m away, they would have to feel their way back. Motorists have to stop their cars where they are, as the road is impossible to see. A nor'easter is a macro-scale storm that occurs off the New England and Atlantic Canada coastlines, it gets its name from the direction the wind is coming from. The usage of the term in North America comes from the wind associated with many different types of storms some of which can form in the North Atlantic Ocean and some of which form as far south as the Gulf of Mexico.
The term is most used in the coastal areas of New England and Atlantic Canada. This type of storm has characteristics similar to a hurricane. More it describes a low-pressure area whose center of rotation is just off the coast and whose leading winds in the left-forward quadrant rotate onto land from the northeast. High storm waves may sink ships at sea and cause coastal flooding and beach erosion. Notable nor'easters include The Great Blizzard of 1888, one of the worst blizzards in U. S. history. It dropped 100–130 cm of snow and had sustained winds of more than 45 miles per hour that produced snowdrifts in excess of 50 feet. Railroads were shut down and people were confined to their houses for up to a week, it killed 400 people in New York. The 1972 Iran Blizzard, which caused 4,000 reported deaths, was the deadliest blizzard in recorded history. Dropping as much as 26 feet of snow, it covered 200 villages. After a snowfall lasting nearly a week, an area the size of Wisconsin was buried in snow.
The winter of 1880–1881 is considered the most severe winter known in parts of the United States. Many children—and their parents—learned of "The Snow Winter" through the children's book The Long Winter by Laura Ingalls Wilder, in which the author tells of her family's efforts to survive; the snow arrived in October 1880 and blizzard followed bli
The Statute Law Revision Act 1876 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. This Act was repealed on 5 November 1993 by section 1 of, Part IV of Schedule 1 to, the Statute Law Act 1993 This Act was repealed in relation to Northern Ireland by section 13 of, Schedule 2 to, the Criminal Injuries to Persons Act 1968; this Act was retained for the Republic of Ireland by section 2 of, Part 4 of Schedule 1 to, the Statute Law Revision Act 2007. Before its repeal, this section read:... Any offence under section ten of the Inclosure Act 1848 and under section ten of the Inclosure Act 1849 and under section thirty-three of the Inclosure Act 1852 shall be deemed to be an offence punishable on summary conviction under the Summary Jurisdiction... F2 Acts...: Provided... that any information in relation to any such offence as is mentioned in this section shall be heard, tried and adjudged before two justices. The words at the beginning were repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1883; the words in the second and third places were repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1894.
The words in the last place were repealed by section 46 of, Part III of Schedule 7 to, the Justices of the Peace Act 1949. The first paragraph of this section was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1883; this section was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1950. This section was repealed as to England and Ireland by section 48 of, the Schedule to, the Larceny Act 1916; the first paragraph of this section was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1883. This section was repealed by section 33 of, Part II of Schedule 3 to, the Theft Act 1968; the first paragraph of this section was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1883. This section was repealed by Part IX of the Schedule to the Statute Law Act 1971; this section was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1883. This section was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1894; the Schedule was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1894. Statute Law Revision Act. Halsbury's The Statute Law Revision Act 1876, as amended, from the National Archives.
The Statute Law Revision Act 1876, as at 1 February 1991, from the National Archives. List of amendments and repeals in the Republic of Ireland from the Irish Statute Book
Development as Freedom is a 1999 book about international development by Indian economist and philosopher Amartya Sen. The American edition of the book was published by Alfred A. Knopf. Amartya Sen was the winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Economics. Development as Freedom was published one year and argues that development entails a set of linked freedoms: political freedoms and transparency in relations between people freedom of opportunity, including freedom to access credit. Poverty is characterized by lack of at least one freedom, including a de facto lack of political rights and choice, vulnerability to coercive relations, exclusion from economic choices and protections. Based on these ethical considerations, Sen argues that development cannot be reduced to increasing basic incomes, nor to rising average per capita incomes. Rather, it requires a package of overlapping mechanisms that progressively enable the exercise of a growing range of freedoms. A central idea of the book is that freedom is a means to development.
Canadian social scientist Lars Osberg wrote about the book: "Although Development as Freedom covers immense territory, it is subtle and nuanced and its careful scholarship is manifest at every turn." Kenneth Arrow concluded "In this book, Amartya Sen develops elegantly and yet broadly the concept that economic development is in its nature an increase in freedom." Equality of autonomy Human development theory Sen, Amartya. Development as freedom. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198297581. Sen, Amartya. Development as freedom. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192893307. Tungodden, Bertil. A balanced view of development as freedom. Bergen, Norway: Chr. Michelsen Institute. ISBN 978-8290584998. Pdf version. Sandbrook, Richard. "Globalization and the limits of neoliberal development doctrine". Third World Quarterly. 21: 1071–1080. Doi:10.1080/01436590020012052