A cruise ship is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages when the voyage itself, the ship's amenities, sometimes the different destinations along the way, form part of the passengers' experience. Transportation is not the only purpose of cruising on cruises that return passengers to their originating port. On "cruises to nowhere" or "nowhere voyages", cruise ships make 2-to-3 night round trips without any ports of call. In contrast, dedicated transport-oriented ocean liners do "line voyages" and transport passengers from one point to another, rather than on round trips. Traditionally, shipping lines build liners for the transoceanic trade to a higher standard than that of a typical cruise ship, including higher freeboard and stronger plating to withstand rough seas and adverse conditions encountered in the open ocean, such as the North Atlantic. Ocean liners usually have larger capacities for fuel and other stores for consumption on long voyages, compared to dedicated cruise-ships, but few ocean liners remain in existence—note the preserved liners and Queen Mary 2, which make scheduled North Atlantic voyages.
Although luxurious, ocean liners had characteristics that made them unsuitable for cruising, such as high fuel-consumption, deep draughts that prevented their entering shallow ports, enclosed weatherproof decks inappropriate for tropical weather, cabins designed to maximize passenger numbers rather than comfort. The gradual evolution of passenger-ship design from ocean liners to cruise ships has seen passenger cabins shifted from inside the hull to the superstructure and provided with private verandas. Modern cruise ships, while sacrificing some qualities of seaworthiness, have added amenities to cater to water tourists, recent vessels have been described as "balcony-laden floating condominiums"; the distinction between ocean liners and cruise ships has blurred with respect to deployment, although differences in construction remain. Larger cruise ships have engaged in longer trips, such as transoceanic voyages which may not return to the same port for months; some former ocean liners operate as cruise ships, such as Marco Polo, although this number is diminishing.
The only dedicated transatlantic ocean liner in operation as a liner as of December 2013 is Queen Mary 2 of the Cunard Line. She has the amenities of contemporary cruise ships and sees significant service on cruisesCruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, accounting for U. S.$29.4 billion, with over 19 million passengers carried worldwide as of 2011.. The industry's rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to a North American clientele added every year since 2001, as well as others servicing European clientele. Smaller markets, such as the Asia-Pacific region, are serviced by older ships; these are displaced by new ships in the high-growth areas. As of 2019 the world's largest cruise-ship was Royal Caribbean International's Symphony of the Seas along with its three sister ships Harmony of the Seas, Allure of the Seas, Oasis of the Seas which round out the top 4 largest cruise liners in the world; the birth of leisure cruising began with the formation of the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company in 1822.
The company started out as a shipping line with routes between England and the Iberian Peninsula, adopting the name Peninsular Steam Navigation Company. It won its first contract to deliver mail in 1837. In 1840, it began mail delivery to Alexandria, via Gibraltar and Malta; the company was incorporated by Royal Charter the same year, becoming the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company. P&O first introduced passenger cruising services in 1844, advertising sea tours to destinations such as Gibraltar and Athens, sailing from Southampton; the forerunner of modern cruise holidays, these voyages were the first of their kind, P&O Cruises has been recognised as the world's oldest cruise line. The company introduced round trips to destinations such as Alexandria and Constantinople, it underwent a period of rapid expansion in the latter half of the 19th century, commissioning larger and more luxurious ships to serve the expanding market. Notable ships of the era include the SS Ravenna built in 1880, which became the first ship to be built with a total steel superstructure, the SS Valetta built in 1889, the first ship to use electric lights.
Some sources mention Francesco I, flying the flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, as the first cruise ship. She was built in 1831 and sailed from Naples in early June 1833, preceded by an advertising campaign; the cruise ship was boarded by nobles and royal princes from all over Europe. In just over three months, the ship sailed to Taormina, Syracuse, Corfu, Delphi, Athens, Constantinople, delighting passengers with excursions and guided tours, card tables on the deck and parties on board. However, it was not a commercial endeavour; the cruise of the German ship Augusta Victoria in the Mediterranean and the Near East from 22 January to 22 March 1891, with 241 passengers including Albert Ballin and wife, popularized the cruise to a wider market. Christian Wilhelm Allers published an illustrated account of it as Backschisch; the first vessel built for luxury cruising, was Prinzessin Victoria Luise of Germany, designed by Albert Ballin, general manager of Hamburg-America Line. The ship was completed in 1900.
The practice of luxury cruising made steady inroads on the more established market for transatlantic crossings. In the competition fo
Heinkel Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturing company founded by and named after Ernst Heinkel. It is noted for producing bomber aircraft for the Luftwaffe in World War II and for important contributions to high-speed flight, with the pioneering examples of a successful liquid-fueled rocket and a turbojet-powered aircraft in aviation history, with both Heinkel designs' first flights occurring shortly before the outbreak of World War II in Europe. Following the successful career of Ernst Heinkel as the chief designer for the Hansa-Brandenburg aviation firm in World War I, Heinkel's own firm was established at Warnemünde in 1922, after the restrictions on German aviation imposed by the Treaty of Versailles were relaxed. By 1929, the firm's compressed air-powered catapults were in use on the German Norddeutscher Lloyd ocean-liners SS Bremen and Europa to launch short-range mail planes from the liners' decks; the company's first post-World War I aircraft design success was the design of the all-metal, single-engined Heinkel He 70 Blitz high-speed mail plane and airliner for Deutsche Luft Hansa in 1932, which broke a number of air speed records for its class.
It was followed by the two-engine Heinkel He 111 Doppel-Blitz, which became a mainstay of the Luftwaffe during World War II as a bomber. Heinkel's most important designers at this point were the twin Günter brothers and Walter, Heinrich Hertel; the firm's headquarters was in Rostock known as Heinkel-Nord, located in what used to be named the Rostock-Marienehe neighborhood, where the firm additionally possessed a factory airfield along the coastline in the Rostock/Schmarl neighborhood three kilometers north-northwest of the main offices, with a second Heinkel-Süd engineering and manufacturing facility in Schwechat, after the Anschluss in 1938. The Heinkel company is most associated with aircraft used by the Luftwaffe during World War II; this began with the adaptation of the He 70 and, in particular, the He 111. Heinkel provided the Luftwaffe's only operational heavy bomber, the Heinkel He 177, although this was never deployed in significant numbers; the German Luftwaffe equipped both of these bombers with the Z-Gerät, Y-Gerät, Knickebein, developed by Johannes Plendl, thus they were among the first aircraft to feature advanced night navigation devices, common in all commercial airplanes today.
Heinkel was less successful in selling fighter designs. Before the war, the Heinkel He 112 had been rejected in favour of the Messerschmitt Bf 109, Heinkel's attempt to top Messerschmitt's design with the Heinkel He 100 failed due to political interference within the Reichsluftfahrtministerium; the company provided the Luftwaffe with an outstanding night fighter, the Heinkel He 219, which suffered from politics and was produced only in limited numbers, but was the first Luftwaffe front-line aircraft to use retractable tricycle gear for its undercarriage design, the world's first front-line military aircraft to use ejection seats. By contrast, the only heavy bomber to enter service with the Luftwaffe during the war years – the Heinkel He 177 Greif – turned out to be one of the most troublesome German wartime aircraft designs, plagued with numerous engine fires from both its inadequate engine accommodation design and its general airframe design being mis-tasked, for a 30-meter class wingspan design, to be built to be able to perform moderate-angle dive bombing attacks from the moment of its approval by the RLM in early November 1937, which would not be rescinded until September 1942.
From 1941 until the end of the war, the company was merged with engine manufacturer Hirth to form Heinkel-Hirth, giving the company the capability of manufacturing its own powerplants, including its Heinkel Strahltriebwerke turbojet engine manufacturing firm. The Heinkel name was behind pioneering work in jet engine and rocket development, the German aviation firm that attempted to popularize the use of retractable tricycle landing gear, a relative rarity in early WW II German airframe design. In 1939, flown by Erich Warsitz, the Heinkel He 176 and Heinkel He 178 became the first aircraft designs to fly under liquid-fuel rocket and turbojet power respectively. Heinkel was the first to develop a jet fighter to prototype stage, the Heinkel He 280, the first Heinkel design to use and fly with retractable tricycle gear. In early 1942, the photographic interpretation unit at RAF Medmenham first saw evidence of the existence of the 280 in aerial reconnaissance photographs taken after a bombing raid on the Rostock factory.
Thereafter, the Allies began intensive aerial reconnaissance intended to learn more about the German jet aircraft programme. The He 219 night fighter design was the first German frontline combat aircraft to have retracting tricycle gear, the first operational military aircraft anywhere to use ejection seats. Heinkel's He 280, the firm's only twin-jet aircraft design to fly never reached production, since the RLM wanted Heinkel to concentrate on bomber production and instead promoted the development of the rival Messerschmitt Me 262. Late in the war, a Heinkel single-jet powered fighter took to the air as the Heinkel He 162A Spatz as the first military jet to use retractable tricycle landing gear, use a turbojet engine from its maiden flight forward, use an ejection seat from the start, but it had entered service at the time of Germany's surrender. Heinkel was a major user of Sachsenhausen concentration camp labour, using between 6,000 and 8,000 prisoners on the He 177 bomber. Following t
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense and fishing. A "ship" was a sailing vessel with at least three square-rigged masts and a full bowsprit. Ships are distinguished from boats, based on size, load capacity, tradition. Ships have been important contributors to human commerce, they have supported the spread of colonization and the slave trade, but have served scientific and humanitarian needs. After the 15th century, new crops that had come from and to the Americas via the European seafarers contributed to the world population growth. Ship transport is responsible for the largest portion of world commerce; as of 2016, there were more than 49,000 merchant ships, totaling 1.8 billion dead weight tons. Of these 28% were oil tankers, 43% were bulk carriers, 13% were container ships. Ships are larger than boats, but there is no universally accepted distinction between the two.
Ships can remain at sea for longer periods of time than boats. A legal definition of ship from Indian case law is a vessel. A common notion is, but not vice versa. A US Navy rule of thumb is that ships heel towards the outside of a sharp turn, whereas boats heel towards the inside because of the relative location of the center of mass versus the center of buoyancy. American and British 19th Century maritime law distinguished "vessels" from other craft. In the Age of Sail, a full-rigged ship was a sailing vessel with at least three square-rigged masts and a full bowsprit. A number of large vessels are referred to as boats. Submarines are a prime example. Other types of large vessel which are traditionally called boats are Great Lakes freighters and ferryboats. Though large enough to carry their own boats and heavy cargoes, these vessels are designed for operation on inland or protected coastal waters. In most maritime traditions ships have individual names, modern ships may belong to a ship class named after its first ship.
In the northern parts of Europe and America a ship is traditionally referred to with a female grammatical gender, represented in English with the pronoun "she" if named after a man. This is not universal usage and some English language journalistic style guides advise using "it" as referring to ships with female pronouns can be seen as offensive and outdated. In many documents the ship name is introduced with a ship prefix being an abbreviation of the ship class, for example "MS" or "SV", making it easier to distinguish a ship name from other individual names in a text; the first known vessels could not be described as ships. The first navigators began to use animal skins or woven fabrics as sails. Affixed to the top of a pole set upright in a boat, these sails gave early ships range; this allowed men to explore allowing for the settlement of Oceania for example. By around 3000 BC, Ancient Egyptians knew, they used woven straps to lash the planks together, reeds or grass stuffed between the planks helped to seal the seams.
The Greek historian and geographer Agatharchides had documented ship-faring among the early Egyptians: "During the prosperous period of the Old Kingdom, between the 30th and 25th centuries BC, the river-routes were kept in order, Egyptian ships sailed the Red Sea as far as the myrrh-country." Sneferu's ancient cedar wood ship Praise of the Two Lands is the first reference recorded to a ship being referred to by name. The ancient Egyptians were at ease building sailboats. A remarkable example of their shipbuilding skills was the Khufu ship, a vessel 143 feet in length entombed at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around 2500 BC and found intact in 1954, it is known that ancient Nubia/Axum traded with India, there is evidence that ships from Northeast Africa may have sailed back and forth between India/Sri Lanka and Nubia trading goods and to Persia and Rome. Aksum was known by the Greeks for having seaports for ships from Yemen. Elsewhere in Northeast Africa, the Periplus of the Red Sea reports that Somalis, through their northern ports such as Zeila and Berbera, were trading frankincense and other items with the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula well before the arrival of Islam as well as with Roman-controlled Egypt.
A panel found at Mohenjodaro depicted a sailing craft. Vessels were of many types; this treatise gives a technical exposition on the techniques of shipbuilding. It sets forth minute details about the various types of ships, their sizes, the materials from which they were built; the Yukti Kalpa Taru sums up in a condensed form all the available information. The Yukti Kalpa Taru gives sufficient information and dates to prove that, in ancient times, Indian shipbuilders had a good knowledge of the materials which were used in building ships. In addition to describing the qualities of the different types of wood and their suitability for shipbuilding, the Yukti Kalpa Taru gives an elaborate classification of ships based on their size; the oldest discovered sea faring hulled boat is the Late Bronze Age Uluburun shipwreck off the coast of Turkey, dating back to 1300 BC. The Phoenicians, the first to sail around
A warship or combatant ship is a naval ship, built and intended for naval warfare. They belong to the armed forces of a state; as well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand damage and are faster and more manoeuvrable than merchant ships. Unlike a merchant ship, which carries cargo, a warship carries only weapons and supplies for its crew. Warships belong to a navy, though they have been operated by individuals and corporations. In wartime, the distinction between warships and merchant ships is blurred. In war, merchant ships are armed and used as auxiliary warships, such as the Q-ships of the First World War and the armed merchant cruisers of the Second World War; until the 17th century it was common for merchant ships to be pressed into naval service and not unusual for more than half a fleet to be composed of merchant ships. Until the threat of piracy subsided in the 19th century, it was normal practice to arm larger merchant ships such as galleons. Warships have often been used as troop carriers or supply ships, such as by the French Navy in the 18th century or the Japanese Navy during the Second World War.
In the time of Mesopotamia, Ancient Persia, Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire, warships were always galleys: long, narrow vessels powered by banks of oarsmen and designed to ram and sink enemy vessels, or to engage them bow-first and follow up with boarding parties. The development of catapults in the 4th century BC and the subsequent refinement of this technology enabled the first fleets of artillery-equipped warships by the Hellenistic age. During late antiquity, ramming fell out of use and the galley tactics against other ships used during the Middle Ages until the late 16th century focused on boarding. Naval artillery was redeveloped in the 14th century, but cannon did not become common at sea until the guns were capable of being reloaded enough to be reused in the same battle; the size of a ship required to carry a large number of cannons made oar-based propulsion impossible, warships came to rely on sails. The sailing man-of-war emerged during the 16th century. By the middle of the 17th century, warships were carrying increasing numbers of cannon on their broadsides and tactics evolved to bring each ship's firepower to bear in a line of battle.
The man-of-war now evolved into the ship of the line. In the 18th century, the frigate and sloop-of-war – too small to stand in the line of battle – evolved to convoy trade, scout for enemy ships and blockade enemy coasts. During the 19th century a revolution took place in the means of marine propulsion, naval armament and construction of warships. Marine steam engines were introduced, at first as an auxiliary force, in the second quarter of the 19th century; the Crimean War gave a great stimulus to the development of guns. The introduction of explosive shells soon led to the introduction of iron, steel, armour for the sides and decks of larger warships; the first ironclad warships, the French Gloire and British Warrior, made wooden vessels obsolete. Metal soon replaced wood as the main material for warship construction. From the 1850s, the sailing ships of the line were replaced by steam-powered battleships, while the sailing frigates were replaced by steam-powered cruisers; the armament of warships changed with the invention of the rotating barbettes and turrets, which allowed the guns to be aimed independently of the direction of the ship and allowed a smaller number of larger guns to be carried.
The final innovation during the 19th century was the development of the torpedo and development of the torpedo boat. Small, fast torpedo boats seemed to offer an alternative to building expensive fleets of battleships. Another revolution in warship design began shortly after the start of the 20th century, when Britain launched the Royal Navy's all-big-gun battleship Dreadnought in 1906. Powered by steam turbines, it was bigger and more gunned than any existing battleships, which it rendered obsolete, it was followed by similar ships in other countries. The Royal Navy developed the first battlecruisers. Mounting the same heavy guns as the Dreadnoughts on an larger hull, battlecruisers sacrificed armour protection for speed. Battlecruisers were faster and more powerful than all existing cruisers, which they made obsolete, but battlecruisers proved to be much more vulnerable than contemporary battleships; the torpedo-boat destroyer was developed at the same time as the dreadnoughts. Bigger and more gunned than the torpedo boat, the destroyer evolved to protect the capital ships from the menace of the torpedo boat.
At this time, Britain developed the use of fuel oil to produce steam to power warships, instead of coal. While reliance on coal required navies to adopt a "coal strategy" to remain viable, fuel oil produced twice the power and was easier to handle. Tests were conducted by the Royal Navy in 1904 involving the torpedo-boat destroyer Spiteful, the first warship powered by fuel oil; these proved its superiority, all warships procured for the Royal Navy from 1912 were designed to burn fuel oil. During the lead-up to the Second World War and Great Britain once again emerged as the two dominant Atlantic sea powers. Germany, under the Treaty of Versailles, had its navy limited to only a few minor surface ships, but the clever use of deceptive terminology, such as "Panzerschiffe" deceived the British and French commands. They were surprised when ships such as Admiral Graf Spee and Gneisenau raided the Allied supply lines; the greatest threat though, was the introduction of the Kriegsmarine's largest vessels and Tirpitz
The ampersand is the logogram &, representing the conjunction "and". It originated as a ligature of the letters et—Latin for "and"; the word ampersand is a corruption of the phrase "and per se &", meaning "and by itself and". Traditionally, when reciting the alphabet in English-speaking schools, any letter that could be used as a word in itself was repeated with the Latin expression per se; this habit was useful in spelling where a syllable was repeated after spelling. It was common practice to add the "&" sign at the end of the alphabet as if it were the 27th letter, pronounced as the Latin et or in English as and; as a result, the recitation of the alphabet would end in "X, Y, Z, per se and". This last phrase was slurred to "ampersand" and the term had entered common English usage by 1837. However, in contrast to the 26 letters, the ampersand does not represent a speech sound—although other characters that were dropped from the English alphabet did, such as the Old English thorn and eth. Through popular etymology, it has been falsely claimed that André-Marie Ampère used the symbol in his read publications and that people began calling the new shape "Ampère's and".
The ampersand can be traced back to the 1st century A. D. and the Old Roman cursive, in which the letters E and T were written together to form a ligature. In the and more flowing New Roman Cursive, ligatures of all kinds were common. During the development of the Latin script leading up to Carolingian minuscule the use of ligatures in general diminished; the et-ligature, continued to be used and became more stylized and less revealing of its origin. The modern italic type ampersand is a kind of "et" ligature that goes back to the cursive scripts developed during the Renaissance. After the advent of printing in Europe in 1455, printers made extensive use of both the italic and Roman ampersands. Since the ampersand's roots go back to Roman times, many languages that use a variation of the Latin alphabet make use of it; the ampersand appeared as a character at the end of the Latin alphabet, as for example in Byrhtferð's list of letters from 1011. & was regarded as the 27th letter of the English alphabet, as taught to children in the US and elsewhere.
An example may be seen in M. B. Moore's 1863 book The Dixie Primer, for the Little Folks. In her 1859 novel Adam Bede, George Eliot refers to this when she makes Jacob Storey say: "He thought it had only been put to finish off th' alphabet like; the popular Apple Pie ABC finishes with the lines "X, Y, Z, ampersand, All wished for a piece in hand". The ampersand should not be confused with the Tironian "et", which has the same meaning, but which in appearance resembles the numeral 7. Both symbols have their roots in the classical antiquity, both signs were used throughout the Middle Ages as a representation for the Latin word "et". However, while the ampersand was in origin a common ligature in everyday script, the Tironian "et" was part of a specialised stenographic shorthand; the Tironian "et" is found in old Irish language script, a Latin-based script only used for decorative purposes today, where it signifies agus in Irish. This symbol may have entered the script language by way of monastic influence in the time of the early Christian church in Ireland.
In everyday handwriting, the ampersand is sometimes simplified in design as a large lowercase epsilon or a backwards numeral 3 superimposed by a vertical line. The ampersand is often shown as a backwards 3 with a vertical line above and below it or a dot above and below it; the + sign is informally used in place of an ampersand, sometimes with an added loop and resembling ɬ. Ampersands are seen in business names formed from partnership of two or more people, such as Johnson & Johnson, Dolce & Gabbana, Marks & Spencer, A&P, Tiffany & Co. as well as some abbreviations containing the word and, such as AT&T, R&D, R&B, B&B, P&L. In film credits for stories, etc. & indicates a closer collaboration than and. The ampersand is used by the Writers Guild of America to denote two writers collaborating on a specific script, rather than one writer rewriting another's work. In screenplays, two authors joined with & collaborated on the script, while two authors joined with and worked on the script at different times and may not have consulted each other at all.
In the latter case, they both contributed enough significant material to the screenplay to receive credit but did not work together. In APA style, the ampersand is used. In the list of references, an ampersand precedes the last author's name when there is more than one author; the phrase et cetera written as etc. can be abbreviated &c. representing the combination et + c. The ampersand can be used to indicate that the "and" in a listed item is a part of the item's name and not a separator; the ampersand may still be used as an abbreviation for "and" in inform
The National Socialist German Workers' Party referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany, active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ideology of National Socialism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party, existed from 1919 to 1920; the Nazi Party emerged from the German nationalist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post-World War I Germany. The party was created to draw workers away into völkisch nationalism. Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business, anti-bourgeois, anti-capitalist rhetoric, although this was downplayed to gain the support of business leaders, in the 1930s the party's main focus shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes. Pseudo-scientific racist theories were central to Nazism, expressed in the idea of a "people's community"; the party aimed to unite "racially desirable" Germans as national comrades, while excluding those deemed either to be political dissidents, physically or intellectually inferior, or of a foreign race.
The Nazis sought to strengthen the Germanic people, the "Aryan master race", through racial purity and eugenics, broad social welfare programs, a collective subordination of individual rights, which could be sacrificed for the good of the state on behalf of the people. To protect the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews, Romani and most other Slavs, along with the physically and mentally handicapped, they disenfranchised and segregated homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses and political opponents. The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German state set in motion the Final Solution–an industrial system of genocide which achieved the murder of an estimated 5.5 to 6 million Jews and millions of other targeted victims, in what has become known as the Holocaust. Adolf Hitler, the party's leader since 1921, was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. Hitler established a totalitarian regime known as the Third Reich.
Following the defeat of the Third Reich at the conclusion of World War II in Europe, the party was "declared to be illegal" by the Allied powers, who carried out denazification in the years after the war. Nazi, the informal and derogatory term for a party member, abbreviates the party's name, was coined in analogy with Sozi, an abbreviation of Sozialdemokrat. Members of the party referred to themselves as Nationalsozialisten as Nazis; the term Parteigenosse was used among Nazis, with its corresponding feminine form Parteigenossin. The term was in use before the rise of the party as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backward peasant, an awkward and clumsy person, it derived from Ignaz, a shortened version of Ignatius, a common name in the Nazis' home region of Bavaria. Opponents seized on this, the long-existing Sozi, to attach a dismissive nickname to the National Socialists. In 1933, when Adolf Hitler assumed power in the German government, the usage of "Nazi" diminished in Germany, although Austrian anti-Nazis continued to use the term, the use of "Nazi Germany" and "Nazi regime" was popularised by anti-Nazis and German exiles abroad.
Thereafter, the term spread into other languages and was brought back to Germany after World War II. In English, the term is not considered slang, has such derivatives as Nazism and denazification; the party grew out of smaller political groups with a nationalist orientation that formed in the last years of World War I. In 1918, a league called the Freier Arbeiterausschuss für einen guten Frieden was created in Bremen, Germany. On 7 March 1918, Anton Drexler, an avid German nationalist, formed a branch of this league in Munich. Drexler was a local locksmith, a member of the militarist Fatherland Party during World War I and was bitterly opposed to the armistice of November 1918 and the revolutionary upheavals that followed. Drexler followed the views of militant nationalists of the day, such as opposing the Treaty of Versailles, having antisemitic, anti-monarchist and anti-Marxist views, as well as believing in the superiority of Germans whom they claimed to be part of the Aryan "master race".
However, he accused international capitalism of being a Jewish-dominated movement and denounced capitalists for war profiteering in World War I. Drexler saw the political violence and instability in Germany as the result of the Weimar Republic being out-of-touch with the masses the lower classes. Drexler emphasised the need for a synthesis of völkisch nationalism with a form of economic socialism, in order to create a popular nationalist-oriented workers' movement that could challenge the rise of Communism and internationalist politics; these were all well-known themes popular with various Weimar paramilitary groups such as the Freikorps. Drexler's movement received support from some influential figures. Supporter Dietrich Eckart, a well-to-do journalist, brought military figure Felix Graf von Bothmer, a prominent supporter of the concept of "national socialism", to address the movement. In 1918, Karl Harrer convinced Drexler and several others to form the Politischer Arbeiterzirkel; the members met perio
Dornier Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturer founded in Friedrichshafen in 1914 by Claude Dornier. Over the course of its long lifespan, the company produced many designs for both the civil and military markets. Dornier Metallbau, Dornier Flugzeugwerke took over Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen production facilities when it failed in 1923. Dornier was well known between the two world wars as a manufacturer of large, all-metal flying boats and of land based airliners; the record-breaking 1924 Wal was used on many long distance flights and the Do X set records for its immense size and weight. Dornier's successful landplane airliners, including the Komet and Merkur which were used by Lufthansa and other European carriers during the 1920s and early 30s. Dornier built its aircraft outside Germany during much of this period due to the restrictions placed on German aircraft manufacturers by the Treaty of Versailles: locations included Altenrhein, Switzerland, 12km from Zeppelin's Lindau location.
Foreign factories licence-building Dornier products included CMASA and Piaggio in Italy, CASA in Spain, Kawasaki in Japan, Aviolanda in the Netherlands. Once the Nazi government came to power and abandoned the treaty's restrictions, Dornier resumed production in Germany; the success of the Wal family encouraged the development of derivatives, of more advanced successors, such as the Do 18, Do 24 which saw service in several armed forces, including German, into World War II. Dornier's most important World War II military aircraft design was the Do 17, nicknamed The Flying Pencil, it first flew in 1934 as a mailplane for Lufthansa but due to its narrow fuselage it was not commercially viable and was passed over. Dornier developed it further as a military aircraft, with a prototype bomber flying in 1935, in 1937 it was used in by the German Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War. Production continued in Germany and it was developed to fill multiple roles for the Luftwaffe; as a medium bomber it saw service during the early part of World War II during the Battle of Britain.
It was developed into a nightfighter to counter the RAF bomber offensive. Dornier developed the similar looking Do 217 from the Do 17 but it was a larger and new design. Dornier developed the fastest piston-engined fighter of the war, the twin-engined Do 335, too late to see service. After WWII aircraft production was again forbidden in Germany, Dornier relocated to Spain and to Switzerland where the firm provided aeronautical consultancy services until returning to Germany in 1954. Post-war, Dornier re-established itself with successful small STOL Do 28 transports. In 1974 it joined in a joint venture with French aircraft manufacturers Dassault-Breguet to develop the Alpha Jet; the plane was ordered as the new standard NATO trainer during the 80s. In 1983, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited bought a production licence for the Dornier Do 228 and manufactured the aircraft for the Asian market sphere. By 2013 a total of 117 Dornier DO-228 aircraft had been produced by HAL with plans to build 20 more during 2013-14.
In 1985, Dornier became a member of the Daimler-Benz group integrating its aeronautic assets with the parent company. As part of this transaction, Lindauer Dornier GmbH was spun off, creating a separate, family-owned firm, concentrating on textile machinery design and manufacturing; the rest of the company was split into several subsidiaries for defence, satellites and aircraft. In 1996, the majority of Dornier Aircraft was acquired by Fairchild Aircraft, forming Fairchild Dornier; this company became insolvent in early 2002. Production of its 328 Jet was acquired by US company Avcraft. Asian groups continued to show interest in its 728 version in August 2004, but production had not restarted; the other subsidiaries became part of the EADS. Dornier Medtech manufactures medical equipment, such as the Dornier S lithotriptor, HM3, Compact Delta to treat kidney stones. Dornier MedTech manufactures laser devices for a wide range of applications; the Dornier family have project, the Dornier Seastar. It is a turboprop-powered amphibious aircraft built of composite materials.
This was developed by Claudius Dornier Jr. Dornier Gs Precursor to Wal destroyed by Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control Dornier Do A Libelle Dornier Spatz Landplane version of Do A Dornier Do B Merkur Development of Do C Dornier Do C Komet Dornier Do C 2, 3, 4 Fighter unrelated to earlier Do C, redesignated Do 10 Dornier Do D Dornier Do E Dornier Do F Dornier Do G Grief Dornier Do H Falke Dornier Do I Dornier Do J Wal Dornier Do K Dornier Do L Delphin Dornier Do N Design for Japanese as Kawasaki Ka 87 Dornier Do O Wal Custom built version of Do J Dornier Do P Dornier Do R.2 and R.4 Superwal Dornier Do S Dornier Do T Dornier Do U Dornier Do X Dornier Do Y Additional unbuilt projects include 3 different Schneider Trophy racers from 1924, 1928 and 1931 and a large multi-engine seaplane similar to the Do X