SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bodhisattva

In Buddhism, a bodhisattva is any person, on the path towards Buddhahood. In the Early Buddhist schools as well as modern Theravada Buddhism, a bodhisattva refers to anyone who has made a resolution to become a Buddha and has received a confirmation or prediction from a living Buddha that this will be so. In Mahayana Buddhism, a bodhisattva refers to anyone who has generated bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. In early Buddhism, the term bodhisatta is used in the early texts to refer to Gautama Buddha in his previous lives and as a young man in his current life in the period during which he was working towards his own liberation. During his discourses, to recount his experiences as a young aspirant he uses the phrase "When I was an unenlightened bodhisatta..." The term therefore connotes a being, "bound for enlightenment", in other words, a person whose aim is to become enlightened. In the Pāli canon, the bodhisatta is described as someone, still subject to birth, death, sorrow and delusion.

Some of the previous lives of the Buddha as a bodhisattva are featured in the Jataka tales. According to the Theravāda monk Bhikkhu Bodhi, the bodhisattva path is not taught in the earliest strata of Buddhist texts such as the Pali Nikayas which instead focus on the ideal of the Arahant; the oldest known story about how Gautama Buddha becomes a bodhisattva is the story of his encounter with the previous Buddha, Dīpankara. During this encounter, a previous incarnation of Gautama, variously named Sumedha, Megha, or Sumati offers five blue lotuses and spreads out his hair or entire body for Dīpankara to walk on, resolving to one day become a Buddha. Dīpankara confirms that they will attain Buddhahood. Early Buddhist authors saw this story as indicating that the making of a resolution in the presence of a living Buddha and his prediction/confirmation of one's future Buddhahood was necessary to become a bodhisattva. According to Drewes, "all known models of the path to Buddhahood developed from this basic understanding."The path is explained differently by the various Nikaya schools.

In the Theravāda Buddhavaṃsa, after receiving the prediction, Gautama took four asaṃkheyyas and a hundred thousand, shorter kalpas to reach Buddhahood. The Sarvāstivāda school had similar models about, they held it took him three asaṃkhyeyas and ninety one kalpas to become a Buddha after his resolution in front of a past Buddha. During the first asaṃkhyeya he is said to have encountered and served 75,000 Buddhas, 76,000 in the second, after which he received his first prediction of future Buddhahood from Dīpankara, meaning that he could no longer fall back from the path to Buddhahood. Thus, the presence of a living Buddha is necessary for Sarvāstivāda; the Mahāvibhāṣā explains that its discussion of the bodhisattva path is meant "to stop those who are in fact not bodhisattvas from giving rise to the self-conceit that they are."The Mahāvastu of the Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravādins presents four stages of the bodhisattva path without giving specific time frames: Natural, one first plants the roots of merit in front of a Buddha to attain Buddhahood.

Resolution, one makes their first resolution to attain Buddhahood in the presence of a Buddha. Continuing, one continues to practice. Irreversible, at this stage, one cannot fall back; the Sri Lankan commentator Dhammapala in his commentary on the Cariyāpiṭaka, a text which focuses on the bodhisatta path, notes that to become a bodhisatta one must make a valid resolution in front of a living Buddha, which confirms that one is irreversible from the attainment of Buddhahood. The Nidānakathā, as well as the Buddhavaṃsa and Cariyāpiṭaka commentaries makes this explicit by stating that one cannot use a substitute for the presence of a living Buddha, since only a Buddha has the knowledge for making a reliable prediction; this is the accepted view maintained in orthodox Theravada today. The idea is that any resolution to attain Buddhahood may be forgotten or abandoned during the aeons ahead; the Burmese monk Ledi Sayadaw explains that though it is easy to make vows for future Buddhahood by oneself, it is difficult to maintain the necessary conduct and views during periods when the Dharma has disappeared from the world.

One will fall back during such periods and this is why one is not a full bodhisatta until one receives recognition from a living Buddha. Because of this, it was and remains a common practice in Theravada to attempt to establish the necessary conditions to meet the future Buddha Maitreya and thus receive a prediction from him. Medieval Theravada literature and inscriptions report the aspirations of monks and ministers to meet Maitreya for this purpose. Modern figures such as Anagarika Dharmapala, U Nu both sought to receive a prediction from a Buddha in the future and believed meritorious actions done for the good of Buddhism would help in their endeavor to become bodhisattas in the future. Over time the term came to be applied to other figures besides Gautama Buddha in Theravada lands due to the influence of Mahayana; the Theravada Abhayagiri tradition of Sri Lanka practiced Mahayana Buddhism and was influential until the 12th century. Kings of Sri Lanka were described as bodhi

Dieppe (electoral district)

Dieppe is a provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick, Canada. It was created in 2006 as a result of large population growth in the City of Dieppe, it includes 4 of 5 wards of the city of Dieppe and a small portion of Moncton near Champlain Place shopping mall. The name of the district was Dieppe Centre, but the legislature changed it to Dieppe Centre-Lewisville before an election was held in the district. In the 2013 redistribution it lost those parts of Moncton in the district, gained some parts of Dieppe from the abolished district of Memramcook-Lakeville-Dieppe, while losing some of Dieppe to the new district of Shediac Bay-Dieppe. Website of the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick Map of riding as of 2018

Lü Wencheng

Lü Wencheng was a Chinese composer and musician. He composed Autumn Moon Over Calm Lake in one of the best known works of Cantonese music, he played the yangqin and was a Cantonese opera singer. His music shows a strong influence of the traditional music of the Shanghai area as a result of living thirty years there. Lü was born in 1898 in Zhongshan, Guangdong Province, but grew up in Shanghai when at the age of three his parents and him moved to Shanghai. There he developed the gaohu and performed Guangdong yinyue, made recordings. In 1932, he moved to Hong Kong, where he lived until his death in 1981. Lü is considered to have been a master of Guangdong folk music, he developed, or co-developed, the gaohu in the 1920s from the erhu by raising its pitch and using steel strings instead of silk, changing its playing position from on the thigh to between the knees. He composed Autumn Moon Over Calm Lake in the 1930s that remains to this day one of the best known works of Cantonese music. Lü composed over 100 pieces, including: bù bù gāo Higher step by step chén zuì dōng fēng 沉醉东风 Intoxicated by the easterly wind jiāo shí míng qín 蕉石鸣琴 luò huā tiān 落花天 Flowers falling from sky píng hú qiū yuè Autumn Moon Over Calm Lake qīng méi zhú mǎ 青梅竹马 Happy childhood qí shān fèng 岐山凤 Phoenix of Mount Qishan xǐng shī 醒狮 Awakening lion yín hé huì 银河会 Meeting in the Milky Way yú gē wǎn chàng 渔歌晚唱 Fisherman's song at dusk Performance of Lu Wencheng's Autumn Moon Over Calm Lake by Jiyang Chen SourcesDu, Yaxiong.

Traditional Music Composers, article in Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture p. 843, edited by Edward L Davis, Routledge 2005. China culture See China Touristy site, but mentions him Biography in Chinese