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Bodleian Library

The Bodleian Library is the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe. With over 12 million items, it is the second-largest library in Britain after the British Library. Under the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003 it is one of six legal deposit libraries for works published in the United Kingdom, under Irish law it is entitled to request a copy of each book published in the Republic of Ireland. Known to Oxford scholars as "Bodley" or "the Bod", it operates principally as a reference library and, in general, documents may not be removed from the reading rooms. In 2000, a number of libraries within the University of Oxford were brought together for administrative purposes under the aegis of what was known as Oxford University Library Services, since 2010 as the Bodleian Libraries, of which the Bodleian Library is the largest component. All colleges of the University of Oxford have their own libraries, which in a number of cases were established well before the foundation of the Bodleian, all of which remain independent of the Bodleian.

They do, participate in OLIS, the Bodleian Libraries' online union catalogue. Much of the library's archives were digitized and put online for public access in 2015; the Bodleian Library occupies a group of five buildings near Broad Street: the 15th-century Duke Humfrey's Library, the 17th-century Schools Quadrangle, the 18th-century Clarendon Building and Radcliffe Camera, the 20th- and 21st-century Weston Library. Since the 19th century a number of underground stores have been built, while the principal off-site storage area is located at South Marston on the edge of Swindon. Before being granted access to the library, new readers are required to agree to a formal declaration; this declaration was traditionally an oral oath, but is now made by signing a letter to a similar effect. Ceremonies in which readers recite the declaration are still performed for those who wish to take them. External readers are still required to recite the declaration orally prior to admission; the Bodleian Admissions Office has amassed a large collection of translations of the declaration – covering over one hundred different languages as of spring 2017 – allowing those who are not native English speakers to recite it in their first language.

The English text of the declaration is as follows: I hereby undertake not to remove from the Library, nor to mark, deface, or injure in any way, any volume, document or other object belonging to it or in its custody. This is a translation of the traditional Latin oath: Do fidem me nullum librum vel instrumentum aliamve quam rem ad bibliothecam pertinentem, vel ibi custodiae causa depositam, aut e bibliotheca sublaturum esse, aut foedaturum deformaturum aliove quo modo laesurum. Whilst the Bodleian Library, in its current incarnation, has a continuous history dating back to 1602, its roots date back further; the first purpose-built library known to have existed in Oxford was founded in the 14th century under the will of Thomas Cobham, Bishop of Worcester. This small collection of chained books was situated above the north side of the University Church of St Mary the Virgin on the High Street; this collection continued to grow but when Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester donated a great collection of manuscripts between 1435 and 1437, the space was deemed insufficient and a larger building was required.

A suitable room was built above the Divinity School, completed in 1488. This room continues to be known as Duke Humfrey's Library. After 1488, the university stopped spending money on the library's upkeep and acquisitions, manuscripts began to go unreturned to the library; the library went through a period of decline in the late 16th century: the library’s furniture was sold, only three of the original books belonging to Duke Humphrey remained in the collection. During the reign of Edward VI, there was a purge of "superstitious" manuscripts, it was not until 1598 that the library began to thrive once more, when Thomas Bodley wrote to the Vice Chancellor of the University offering to support the development of the library: "where there hath bin hertofore a publike library in Oxford: which you know is apparent by the rome it self remayning, by your statute records I will take the charge and cost upon me, to reduce it again to his former use." Six of the Oxford University dons were tasked with helping Bodley in refitting the library in March 1598.

Duke Humfrey’s Library was refitted, Bodley donated a number of his own books to furnish it. The library was formally re-opened on 8 November 1602 under the name "Bodleian Library". There were around two thousand books in the library at this time, with an ornate Benefactor's Register displayed prominently, to encourage donations. Early benefactors were motivated by the recent memory of the Reformation to donate books in the hopes that they would be kept safe. Bodley’s collecting interests were varied.

List of rural localities in Vladimir Oblast

This is a list of rural localities in Vladimir Oblast. Vladimir Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, its administrative center is the city of Vladimir, located 190 kilometers east of Moscow. As of the 2010 Census, the oblast's population was 1,443,693. Rural localities in Alexandrovsky District: Rural localities in Gorokhovetsky District: Rural localities in Gus-Khrustalny urban okrug: Rural localities in Gus-Khrustalny District: Rural localities in Kameshkovsky District: Rural localities in Kirzhachsky District: Rural localities in Kolchuginsky District: Rural localities in Kovrovsky District: Rural localities in Melenkovsky District: Rural localities in Murom urban okrug: Rural localities in Muromsky District: Rural localities in Petushinsky District: Rural localities in Selivanovsky District: Rural localities in Sobinsky District: Rural localities in Sudogodsky District: Rural localities in Suzdalsky District: Rural localities in Sysertsky District: Rural localities in Vladimir urban okrug: Rural localities in Vyaznikovsky District: Rural localities in Yuryev-Polsky District: Russia portal Lists of rural localities in Russia

Governor's Bridge (Patuxent River)

Governor's Bridge is an historic single-lane bridge over the Patuxent River near Bowie, Maryland. The river marks the boundary between Anne Arundel counties. A bridge has been located on this site since the mid-18th century. Although a common bridge type, the current Governor's Bridge is one of only two surviving truss bridges in Prince George's County. Three bridges have stood on this site; the first bridge was constructed by Governor Samuel Ogle to travel between his mansion in Collington and the state capital in Annapolis. By 1817, the first bridge had been damaged beyond repair or destroyed and a ford was being used to traverse the river at the site. On February 4, 1817, the State of Maryland commissioned Joseph N. Stockett and James Sanders of Anne Arundel County to build a new Governor's Bridge; the current truss bridge was constructed in 1912. The bridge was repaired in 2014 after structural deficiencies were discovered during a routine inspection, it was closed in May 2013, underwent major repairs starting in January 2014, reopened in March 2014.

The bridge closed March 30, 2015, after contractors inspected the bridge and determined it required emergency repairs. It is scheduled to reopen in 2019. List of bridges documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in Maryland Historic American Engineering Record No. MD-85, "Governor's Bridge, Governor's Bridge Road spanning Patuxent River, Prince George's County, MD", 1 photo, 1 data page, 1 photo caption page