The Boeing Company known as Boeing, is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells airplanes, rockets, telecommunications equipment, missiles worldwide. The company provides leasing and product support services. Boeing is among the largest global aerospace manufacturers. Boeing stock is included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average. Boeing is incorporated in Delaware. Boeing was founded by William Boeing in Seattle, Washington on July 15, 1916; the present corporation is the result of the merger of Boeing with McDonnell Douglas on August 1, 1997. Chairman and CEO of Boeing, Philip M. Condit, assumed those roles in the combined company, while Harry Stonecipher, former CEO of McDonnell Douglas, became president and COO; the Boeing Company has its corporate headquarters in Illinois. Boeing is organized into five primary divisions: Boeing Commercial Airplanes. In 2017, Boeing recorded US$93.3 billion in sales, ranked 24th on the Fortune magazine "Fortune 500" list, ranked 64th on the "Fortune Global 500" list, ranked 19th on the "World's Most Admired Companies" list.
In 2019, Boeing's global reputation, commercial business, financial rating suffered after the 737 MAX was grounded worldwide following two fatal crashes in late 2018 and early 2019. The Boeing Company was started in 1916, when American lumber industrialist William E. Boeing founded Aero Products Company in Washington. Shortly before doing so, he and Conrad Westervelt created the "B&W" seaplane. In 1917, the organization was renamed Boeing Airplane Company, with William Boeing forming Boeing Airplane & Transport Corporation in 1928. In 1929, the company was renamed United Aircraft and Transport Corporation, followed by the acquisition of several aircraft makers such as Avion, Chance Vought, Sikorsky Aviation, Stearman Aircraft, Pratt & Whitney, Hamilton Metalplane. In 1931, the group merged its four smaller airlines into United Airlines. In 1934, the manufacture of aircraft was required to be separate from air transportation. Therefore, Boeing Airplane Company became one of three organizations to arise from dissolution of United Aircraft and Transport.
In 1960, the company bought Vertol Corporation, which at the time, was the biggest independent fabricator of helicopters. During the 1960s and 1970s, the company diversified into industries such as outer space travel, marine craft, energy production and transit systems. In 1995, Boeing partnered with Russian and Anglo-Norwegian organizations to create Sea Launch, a company providing commercial launch services sending satellites to geostationary orbit from floating platforms. In 2000, Boeing acquired the satellite segment of Hughes Electronics. Corporate headquarters were moved from Seattle to Chicago in 2001. After two fatal crashes of the Boeing 737 MAX narrow-body passenger airplanes in 2018 and 2019, aviation regulators and airlines around the world grounded all 737 MAX airliners. A total of 387 aircraft were grounded. Boeing's reputation and financial rating has suffered after these groundings, questioning Boeing's strategy and focus on profits and cost efficiency; the Wall Street Journal reported on May 5, 2019 that Boeing had known of the issue with the system for "about a year" before the crash in Indonesia.
In December 2019, Boeing announced it will suspend 737 MAX production from January 2020. Soon after, on December 23 CEO Dennis Muilenburg resigned and was replaced by David Calhoun; the corporation's three main divisions are Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Boeing Defense, Space & Security, Boeing Global Services. Boeing Commercial Airplanes Boeing Defense, Space & Security Phantom Works Boeing Global Services Boeing Capital Engineering, Test & Technology Boeing Shared Services Group Boeing NeXt - explores urban air mobility In 2006, the UCLA Center for Environmental Risk Reduction released a study showing that Boeing's Santa Susana Field Laboratory, a site, a former Rocketdyne test and development site in the Simi Hills of eastern Ventura County in Southern California, had been contaminated by Rocketdyne with toxic and radioactive waste. Boeing agreed to a cleanup agreement with the EPA in 2017. Clean up studies and lawsuits are in progress; the airline industry is responsible for about 11% of greenhouse gases emitted by the U.
S. transportation sector. Aviation's share of the greenhouse gas emissions is poised to grow, as air travel increases and ground vehicles use more alternative fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Boeing estimates that biofuels could reduce flight-related greenhouse-gas emissions by 60 to 80%; the solution blends algae fuels with existing jet fuel. Boeing executives said the company was collaborating with Brazilian biofuels maker Tecbio, Aquaflow Bionomic of New Zealand and other fuel developers around the world; as of 2007, Boeing had tested six fuels from these companies, expected to test 20 fuels "by the time we're done evaluating them". Boeing joined other aviation-related members in the Algal Biomass Organization in June 2008. Air New Zealand and Boeing are researching the jatropha plant to see if it is a sustainable alternative to conventional fuel. A two-hour test flight using a 50–50 mixture of the new biofuel with Jet A-1 in a Rolls Royce RB-211 engine of a 747-400 was completed on December 30, 2008.
The engine was removed to be studied to identify any di
The National Cultural Festival is Japan’s largest cultural festival which aims to provide the Japanese public with the opportunity to present various cultural activities. There is an emphasis on activities by local performers to motivate individuals to participate in cultural activities, encourage culture, inspire the development of local culture and enrich the lives of the people; these events are hosted by the Agency for Cultural Affairs and the prefectural or municipal government, cultural organizations or other related organizations. Shin Koyamada played the lead character of Makibi featured during the on-stage opening ceremony of Okayama 2010, held in Momotaro Arena on October 30, 2010. Overall festival: includes an opening festival which indicates the direction of new trends in amateur cultural activities Symposiums: keynote lectures, panel discussions, other events which explore diverse topics related to trends in Japanese culture, including amateur and regional cultural activities Genre-specific festivals: Performances and other events are presented in genres such as folk and choral music, brass-band music, literature, dance, traditional Japanese music and every-day culture.
Cooperative festivals: those complying with the objectives of the National Cultural Festival and hosted by local governments, culture-related groups and other organizations nationwide. They consist of performances, festivals, exhibitions and other events. Japanese Ministry of Education Agency for Cultural Affairs The 25th National Cultural Festival Okayama 2010 Official website of the National Cultural Festival Official website of the Agency for Cultural Affairs Official website of the 25th National Cultural Festival Okayama 2010
Geographic Information Systems has become an integral part of aquatic science and limnology. Water by its nature is dynamic. Features associated with water are thus ever-changing. To be able to keep up with these changes, technological advancements have given scientists methods to enhance all aspects of scientific investigation, from satellite tracking of wildlife to computer mapping of habitats. Agencies like the US Geological Survey, US Fish and Wildlife Service as well as other federal and state agencies are utilizing GIS to aid in their conservation efforts. GIS is being used in multiple fields of aquatic science from limnology, aquatic botany, stream ecology and marine biology. Applications include using satellite imagery to identify and mitigate habitat loss. Imagery can show the condition of inaccessible areas. Scientists can develop a strategy to locate locations of concern. GIS can be used to track invasive species, endangered species, population changes. One of the advantages of the system is the availability for the information to be shared and updated at any time through the use of web-based data collection.
In the past, GIS was not a practical source of analysis due to the difficulty in obtaining spatial data on habitats or organisms in underwater environments. With the advancement of radio telemetry, hydroacoustic telemetry and side-scan sonar biologists have been able to track fish species and create databases that can be incorporated into a GIS program to create a geographical representation. Using radio and hydroacoustic telemetry, biologists are able to locate fish and acquire relatable data for those sites, this data may include substrate samples and conductivity. Side-scan sonar allows biologists to map out a river bottom to gain a representation of possible habitats that are used; these two sets of data can be overlaid to delineate the distribution of fish and their habitats for fish. This method has been used in the study of the pallid sturgeon. Over a period of time large amounts of data are collected and can be used to track patterns of migration, spawning locations and preferred habitat.
Before, this data would be overlaid manually. Now this data can be entered into a GIS program and be layered and analyzed in a way, not possible to do in the past. Layering within a GIS program allows for the scientist to look at multiple species at once to find possible watersheds that are shared by these species, or to choose one species for further examination; the US Geological Survey in, cooperation with other agencies, were able to use GIS in helping map out habitat areas and movement patterns of pallid sturgeon. At the Columbia Environmental Research Center their effort relies on a customized ArcPad and ArcGIS, both ESRI applications, to record sturgeon movements to streamline data collection. A relational database was developed to manage tabular data for each individual sturgeon, including initial capture and reproductive physiology. Movement maps can be created for individual sturgeon; these maps help track the movements of each sturgeon through time. This allowed these researchers to prioritize and schedule field personnel efforts to track and recapture sturgeon.
Macrophytes are an important part of healthy ecosystems. They provide habitat and food for fish and other organisms. Though natural occurring species are of great interest so are the invasive species that occur alongside these in our environment. GIS is being used by agencies and their respective resource managers as a tool to model these important macrophyte species. Through the use of GIS resource managers can assess the distributions of this important aspect of aquatic environments through a spatial and temporal scale; the ability to track vegetation change through time and space to make predictions about vegetation change are some of the many possibilities of GIS. Accurate maps of the aquatic plant distribution within an aquatic ecosystem are an essential part resource management, it is possible to predict the possible occurrences of aquatic vegetation. For example, the USGS has created a model for the American wild celery by developing a statistical model that calculates the probability of submersed aquatic vegetation.
They established a web link to an Environmental Systems Research Institute ArcGIS Server website *Submersed Aquatic Vegetation Model to make their model predictions available online. These predictions for distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation can have an effect on foraging birds by creating avoidance zones by humans. If it is known where these areas are, birds can be left alone to feed undisturbed; when there are years where the aquatic vegetation is predicted to be limited in these important wildlife habitats, managers can be alerted. Invasive species have become a great conservation concern for resource managers. GIS allows managers to map out plant abundances; these maps can be used to determine the threat of these invasive plants and help the managers decide on management strategies. Surveys of these species can be conducted and downloaded into a GIS system. Coupled with this, native species can be included to determine how these communities respond with each other. By using known data of preexisting invasive species GIS models could predict future outbreaks by comparing biological factors.
The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Invasive Aquatic Species Program is using GIS to evaluate risk factors. GIS allows managers to abundance; this allows for managers to display invasive communities alongside native spec