The Boeing 720 is a four-engine narrow-body short- to medium-range passenger jet airliner. Developed by Boeing in the late 1950s from the Boeing 707, the 720 first flew in November 1959 and the model entered service with launch customer United Airlines in July 1960. Two primary versions of the aircraft were built, the original 720 with Pratt & Whitney JT3C turbojet engines entered service in 1960, while the improved 720B with Pratt & Whitney JT3D turbofans entered service in 1961. Some 720s were converted to 720B specification, although only 154 were built, the Boeing 720 and 720B were profitable due to the low research and development costs of their being slightly modified versions of the 707-120. They were replaced by the Boeing 727, some 720s are on display at the Utah Aviation Museum. Boeing announced its plans to develop a new version of the 707 in July 1957 and it was developed from the 707-120 to provide for short- to medium-range flights from shorter runways. The model was originally designated 707-020 before being changed to 720 at the input of United Airlines, compared to the 707-120, it has four fewer frames in front of the wing and one fewer aft, a total length reduction of 8 feet 4 inches.
The new model was designed to a maximum takeoff weight with a modified wing. This modification increased the top speed over the -120 and it had four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 turbojet engines producing 12,500 lbf each. Because the aircraft systems were similar to the Boeing 707, no prototype Boeing 720 was built, the first 720 took its maiden flight on November 23,1959. The type certificate for the 720 was issued on June 30,1960 and it was first put into service by United Airlines on July 5,1960,65 of the original version were built. The 720B version of the 720 had JT3D turbofan engines, producing 17,000 lbf each, the JT3D engines had lower fuel consumption and higher thrust. The maximum takeoff weight for the 720B was increased to 234,000 lb, as a modification of an existing model, the 720 had minimal research and development costs, which allowed it to be successful despite few sales. The company built 154 Boeing 720s and 720Bs from 1959 to 1967, the 720s wing modification was added on the -120B and on -120s retrofitted to the B standard.
The Boeing 720 is a four-engined low-wing cantilever monoplane, the rearmost of the 707s over-wing emergency exits was deleted on each side, which reduced passenger capacity, while two over-wing exits were an option for higher-density configurations. The 720 uses a wing based on the 707 wing. The wingspan remained the same as the 707-120, for the 720, the wing was changed between the fuselage and inner engines by adding a wing root glove. This glove reduced the drag of the wing by decambering the root, the wing root glove reportedly increased the drag divergence Mach number of the wing by Mach 0.02
Southwest Airlines Co. is a major U. S. airline, the worlds largest low-cost carrier, headquartered in Dallas, Texas. The airline was established in 1967 by Herb Kelleher and adopted its current name in 1971, the airline has more than 53,000 employees as of October 2016 and operates more than 3,900 departures a day during peak travel season. As of 2014, it carried the most domestic passengers of any U. S. airline, as of December 2016, Southwest Airlines had scheduled services to 101 destinations in the United States and eight additional countries. Service to both Grand Cayman and Cincinnati begins June 4,2017, Southwest Airlines has used only Boeing 737s, except for the period from 1979 to 1987 when it leased some Boeing 727-200s from Braniff International Airways. As of January 2016, Southwest is the largest operator of the Boeing 737 worldwide, with over 700 in service, in 1966 Southwest Airlines was founded by Rollin King and Herbert Kelleher, in 1967 it was incorporated as Air Southwest Company.
It was not until 1971 that the airline began scheduled flights, the same year the organization adopted the name Southwest Airlines. The expansion of flights started in 1975, to cities throughout Texas, Service to the East and the Southeast started in the 1990s. The company has employed humor in its advertising, the airlines current slogan is Low fares. Instead of a lawsuit, the CEOs for both companies staged an arm wrestling match, a promotional video was created showing the CEOs training for the bout and distributed among the employees and as a video press release along with the video of the match itself. Herb Kelleher lost the match for Southwest, with Stevens Aviation winning the rights to the phrase, kurt Herwald, CEO of Stevens Aviation, immediately granted the use of Just Plane Smart to Southwest Airlines. The net result was both companies having use of the trademark, $15,000 going to charity and good publicity for both companies, Southwest Airlines is the official commercial airline of the Honor Flight Network.
Honor Flights are dedicated to bringing aging and ailing veterans to visit the monuments in Washington. The Southwest Airlines headquarters is located on the grounds of Dallas Love Field in the Love Field neighborhood of Dallas, Texas, on September 17,2012, Southwest broke ground on a new Training and Operational Support building. The TOPS Building is across the street from its current headquarters building, the property includes a two-story,100, 000-square-foot operations building that can withstand an EF3 tornado. It includes a four-story,392, 000-square-foot office and training facility with two levels devoted to each function, the new facilities house 24-hour coordination and maintenance operations, customer support and services, and training. The project was completed in late 2013, with occupancy beginning in 2014, as of December 31,2016, Southwest Airlines has more than 53,000 employees. Gary C. Kelly is Chairman and CEO of Southwest Airlines, Kelly replaced former CEO Jim Parker on July 15,2004 and assumed the title of President on July 15,2008, replacing former President Colleen Barrett.
In July 2008, Herb Kelleher resigned his position as Chairman, Colleen Barrett left her post on the Board of Directors and as Corporate Secretary in May 2008 and as President in July 2008
Aviation is the practical aspect or art of aeronautics, being the design, production and use of aircraft, especially heavier than air aircraft. The word aviation was coined by French writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1863, from the verb avier, itself derived from the Latin word avis and the suffix -ation. The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21,1783, the practicality of balloons was limited because they could only travel downwind. It was immediately recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required, jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785. Rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances, the best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company. The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin and it flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929.
However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of that period, the Golden Age of the airships ended on May 6,1937 when the Hindenburg caught fire, killing 36 people. The cause of the Hindenburg accident was blamed on the use of hydrogen instead of helium as the lift gas. An internal investigation by the manufacturer revealed the coating used to protect the material over the frame was highly flammable. Changes to the coating formulation reduced the risk of further Hindenburg type accidents, although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time. In 1799 Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift, propulsion. Seven years later, on 14 October 1897, Aders Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French War ministry, the report on the trials was not publicized until 1910, as they had been a military secret. In November 1906 Ader claimed to have made a flight on 14 October 1897.
Although widely believed at the time, these claims were discredited, the most widely accepted date is December 17,1903 by the Wright brothers. The Wright brothers were the first to fly in a powered and controlled aircraft, previous flights were gliders or free flight, but the Wright brothers combined both, setting the new standard in aviation records. Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew larger, the Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger, Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14,1908. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, the war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets. Manufacturers such as Cessna and Beechcraft expanded production to provide aircraft for the new middle-class market
The Boeing 737 is an American short- to medium-range twinjet narrow-body airliner. The 737 is Boeings only narrow-body airliner in production, with the 737 Next Generation variants currently being built, production has begun on the re-engined and redesigned 737 MAX, which is set to enter service in 2017. Originally envisioned in 1964, the initial 737-100 made its first flight in April 1967, the lengthened 737-200 entered service in April 1968. In the 1980s Boeing launched the -300, -400, and -500 models, the 737 Classics added capacity and incorporated CFM56 turbofan engines along with wing improvements. In the 1990s, Boeing introduced the 737 Next Generation, with changes including a redesigned, increased span laminar flow wing, upgraded glass cockpit. The 737 Next Generation comprises the four -600, -700, -800, Boeing Business Jet versions of the 737 Next Generation are produced. The 737 series is the best-selling jet commercial airliner in history, the 737 has been continuously manufactured by Boeing since 1967 with 9,401 aircraft delivered and 4,423 orders yet to be fulfilled as of February 2017.
Assembly of the 737 is performed at the Boeing Renton Factory in Renton, many 737s serve markets previously filled by 707,727,757, DC-9, and MD-80/MD-90 airliners, and the aircraft currently competes primarily with the Airbus A320 family. As of 2006, there were an average of 1,250 Boeing 737s airborne at any given time, Boeing had been studying short-haul jet aircraft designs and wanted to produce another aircraft to supplement the 727 on short and thin routes. Preliminary design work began on May 11,1964, and Boeings intense market research yielded plans for a 50- to 60-passenger airliner for routes 50 to 1,000 mi long, consultation with Lufthansa over the previous winter resulted in an increase in capacity to 100 seats. On April 5,1965, Boeing announced an order by United Airlines for 40 737s, United wanted a slightly larger airplane than the original 737. So Boeing stretched the fuselage 91 centimeters ahead of, and 102 cm behind the wing, the longer version was designated 737-200, with the original short-body aircraft becoming the 737-100.
Detailed design work continued on both variants at the same time, Boeing was far behind its competitors when the 737 was launched, as rival aircraft BAC-111, Douglas DC-9, and Fokker F28 were already into flight certification. To expedite development, Boeing used 60% of the structure and systems of the existing 727 and this fuselage permitted six-abreast seating compared to the rival BAC-111 and DC-9s five-abreast layout. Design engineers decided to mount the nacelles directly to the underside of the wings to reduce the landing gear length and kept the low to the ground for easy ramp inspection. Originally, the arrangement of the airfoil sections of the 737 wing was planned to be very similar to that of the 707 and 727. However, an improvement in drag at high Mach numbers was achieved by altering these sections near the nacelle. The engine chosen was the Pratt & Whitney JT8D-1 low-bypass ratio turbofan engine, with the wing-mounted engines, Boeing decided to mount the horizontal stabilizer on the fuselage rather than the T-tail style of the Boeing 727
The Boeing 777 is a family of long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliners developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the worlds largest twinjet and has a seating capacity of 314 to 396 passengers. Developed in consultation with eight major airlines, the 777 was designed to replace older wide-body airliners, as Boeings first fly-by-wire airliner, it has computer-mediated controls. It was the first commercial aircraft to be designed entirely with computer-aided design, the 777 is produced in two fuselage lengths as of 2017. The original 777-200 variant entered service in 1995, followed by the extended-range 777-200ER in 1997. The stretched 777-300, which is 33.25 ft longer, the initial 777-200, -200ER and -300 versions are equipped with General Electric GE90, Pratt & Whitney PW4000, or Rolls-Royce Trent 800 engines. The 777-200LR is the worlds longest-range airliner, able to fly more than halfway around the globe, the 777 first entered commercial service with United Airlines on June 7,1995.
It has received more orders than any other wide-body airliner, as of February 2017,60 customers had placed orders for 1,903 aircraft of all variants, with 1,467 delivered. The most common and successful variant is the 777-300ER with 709 delivered and 807 orders, Emirates operates the largest 777 fleet, with 157 passenger and freighter aircraft as of July 2016. The 777 has been involved in six hull losses as of October 2016, the 777 ranks as one of Boeings best-selling models. Airlines have acquired the type as a comparatively fuel-efficient alternative to other wide-body jets and have deployed the aircraft on long-haul transoceanic routes. Direct market competitors include the Airbus A330-300, newly launched Airbus A350 XWB, the 787 Dreamliner, which entered service in 2011, shares design features and a common type rating for pilots with the 777. The new 777X series is planned to service by 2020. In the early 1970s, the Boeing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10, the mid-size 757 and 767 launched to market success, due in part to 1980s extended-range twin-engine operational performance standards regulations governing transoceanic twinjet operations.
These regulations allowed twin-engine airliners to make ocean crossings at up to three hours distance from emergency diversionary airports, under ETOPS rules, airlines began operating the 767 on long-distance overseas routes that did not require the capacity of larger airliners. The trijet 777 was dropped, following marketing studies that favored the 757 and 767 variants, Boeing was left with a size and range gap in its product line between the 767-300ER and the 747-400. By the late 1980s, DC-10 and L-1011 models were approaching retirement age, McDonnell Douglas was working on the MD-11, a stretched and upgraded successor of the DC-10, while Airbus was developing its A330 and A340. The initial proposal featured a fuselage and larger wings than the existing 767
A business jet, private jet, or bizjet, or simply B. J. is a jet aircraft designed for transporting small groups of people. Business jets may be adapted for other roles, such as the evacuation of casualties or express parcel deliveries, the Lockheed JetStar, seating ten passengers and two crew, first flew on 4 September 1957. The smaller,17,760 pounds MTOW North American Sabreliner first flew on 16 September 1958, powered by two Pratt & Whitney JT12 turbojet engines Garrett TFE731, more than 800 were produced from 1959 to 1982. The 25,000 pounds MTOW British Aerospace 125 first flew on 13 August 1962 and its engine were replaced by Garrett TFE731, Pratt & Whitney Canada PW300 turbofans. Almost 1,700 aircraft were produced between 1962 and 2013 after being marketed as the Hawker 800, the 23,500 pounds MTOW IAI Westwind, developed by Aero Commander, first flew on 27 January 1963, powered by two General Electric CJ610 turbojets, Garrett TFE731. 442 were built from 1965 to 1987 and it was developed in the IAI Astra, the 29,000 pounds MOTW Dassault Falcon 20 first flew on 4 May 1963, powered by two General Electric CF700, Garrett ATF3 turbofans and Garrett TFE731.
From 1963 to 1988,508 were built and it is the basis of the Dassault Falcon family, the first light jet first flew on 7 October 1963, the Learjet 23. Powered by two 2,850 pounds-force General Electric CJ610, its 12,500 pounds MTOW complies with FAR Part 23 regulations,104 were built between 1962 and 1966 and it is the first member of the Learjet Family. On 2 October 1966 the first large business jet first flew, from 1967 to the late 70s,258 were built and it led to the ongoing Gulfstream Aerospace long range family. The 11,850 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation I first flew on 15 September 1969, produced between 1969 and 1985 at 689 samples, it is the first of the Cessna Citation family. The trijet Dassault Falcon 50 made its first flight the 7 November 1976, the 40,000 pounds MTOW airplane is powered by three 3,700 pounds-force TFE731. With the cross-section of the Falcon 20, it is the basis of the larger Falcon 900, on 8 November 1978, the prototype Canadair Challenger took off. The 43, 000–48,000 pounds MTOW craft, usually powered by two 9,200 pounds-force General Electric CF34, the basis of the long range Global Express family, the 1000th Challenger has entered service in 2015.
On May 30,1979 took off the clean-sheet 22,000 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation III powered by two 3,650 pounds-force TFE731, basis of the larger Citation X, the Mitsubishi MU-300 Diamond made its first flight on 29 August 1978. The 16,100 pounds MTOW jet was powered by two 2,900 pounds-force JT15D,950 has been produced, it was renamed Beechjet 400 Hawker 400. The 1980s only saw the introduction of derivatives and no new design. The clean-sheet Learjet 45 took off on 7 October 1995, the 21,500 pounds is powered by two 3,500 pounds-force TFE731. Powered by two 2,300 pounds-force Williams FJ44, the 12,500 pounds Beechcraft Premier I light jet made its first flight on December 22,1998, nearly 300 has been made before the production stopped in 2013
Charleston International Airport
Charleston International Airport is a joint civil-military airport located in North Charleston, South Carolina. The airport is operated by the Charleston County Aviation Authority under an agreement with Joint Base Charleston. It is South Carolinas largest and busiest airport, in 2016 the airport served over 3.7 million passengers in its busiest year on record, the airport is located in North Charleston and is approximately 12 miles northwest of downtown Charleston. The airport is home to the Boeing facility that assembles the 787 Dreamliner. In 1928, the Charleston Airport Corporation was founded and purchased 700 acres of land belonging to a mining company. Although privately developed at first, the City of Charleston floated bonds in 1931 to acquire a portion of the site for passenger service, within ten years, three runways were paved and outfitted with lighting for nighttime operations. In World War II, control of the passed to the United States Army though civilian service was allowed to continue to use the airfield.
After the war, the airfield reverted to use for a short time. In 1949, a new terminal was built. In 1979, the portions of the airport were transferred from the City of Charleston to the Charleston County Aviation Authority. The current terminal on the end of the airport was built in the 1980s on land acquired by Georgia Pacific. In October 2009, Boeing announced that it would build a plant on 265 acres at the airport as a second final assembly site for its 787 Dreamliner commercial aircraft. The facility began limited operations in July 2011 and rolled out its first completed aircraft in April 2012, additional facilities to complement aircraft assembly have since been announced by the company. Throughout its history, all three legacy carriers and their predecessor companies or affiliates have served Charleston International Airport. Aside from the carriers, Charleston has seen periods of additional air service from other carriers, but prior to 2010. The airport has had periods of international service.
In 2001, Air Canada briefly served the airport from Toronto, porter Airlines briefly served Charleston with flights to Toronto in 2015. Since 2010, the airport has seen an 83 percent increase in passenger figures, new service from Southwest Airlines, JetBlue Airways, and Alaska Airlines along with increased services from the three legacy carriers have contributed to this growth
The Boeing 777X is a new series of the Boeing 777 family under development. The 777X will have two variants, the 777-8 and the 777-9, the 777X will feature new engines, new composite wings with folding wingtips, and technologies from the Boeing 787. It is intended to compete with the Airbus A350, deliveries are expected to begin in 2020. In September 2011, Boeing released more details on proposed new 777 versions, tentatively designated 777-8X and 777-9X, preliminary estimates placed entry into service for the first 777X variants at around 2019. In August 2012, a report in the Seattle Times stated that Boeing had slowed 777X development, in May 2013, Boeings board of directors gave formal permission for its Commercial Airplanes division to start offering the 777X to customers. On September 18,2013, Lufthansas supervisory board gave approval to order 34 Boeing 777-9X aircraft to replace its 747-400s, at the time, Boeing was reportedly planning to launch the 777X series in 2013. The 777-9X would feature extended horizontal stabilizers compared to the -300ER, the 777-9Xs planned length exceeds the 250 ft 2 in length of the Boeing 747-8, currently the worlds longest airliner.
Wingspan was expected to increase from the current 212 ft 7 in to 234 ft, in addition, gross weight was tentatively slated to decrease slightly from the current 775,000 lb to approximately 759,000 lb for the -9X model. Boeing was studying an ultra long-range replacement for the 777-200LR, conceptually dubbed the 777-8LX and its range will be 9,480 nmi compared to 9,395 nmi for the −200LR. The 777-8LXs fuselage length would match that of the proposed −8X at 228.17 ft, in February 2012, General Electric disclosed studies on a slightly smaller engine, dubbed the General Electric GE9X, to power the 777X. The engine was to use the fan diameter from the GE90-115B and have a decreased thrust rating per engine of 99,500 lbf for the -9X and -8XL. In March 2013, the GE9X was selected as the engine to power the 777X. GE subsequently updated the GE9X specifications to reflect growing concerns that the 777X would be underpowered. Design changes included an increase of thrust to 102,000 lbf, the decision to offer the aircraft with only one engine type is somewhat controversial.
Some airlines bemoan the loss of competition among makers, Steven Udvar-Hazy. Airbus has pointed out that equipping a commercial aircraft to more than one type of engine adds millions of dollars to the purchase price. A Pratt & Whitney executive told the Wall Street Journal, Engines are no longer commodities. the optimization of the engine, Boeing officially launched the 777X at the 2013 Dubai Airshow in November 2013, announcing a total of 259 orders and commitments worth more than US$95 billion. According to Boeing, this was the largest product launch by dollar value in the history of commercial aviation
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet. Its distinctive hump upper deck along the part of the aircraft makes it among the worlds most recognizable aircraft. First flown commercially in 1970, the 747 held the passenger capacity record for 37 years, as of January 2017, the 747 has been involved in 60 hull losses, resulting in 3722 fatalities. The four-engine 747 uses a configuration for part of its length. It is available in passenger and other versions, the 747 was expected to become obsolete after 400 were sold, but it exceeded critics expectations with production passing the 1,000 mark in 1993. By February 2017,1,528 aircraft had been built, the 747-400, the most common passenger version in service, has a high-subsonic cruise speed of Mach 0. 85–0.855 with an intercontinental range of 7,260 nautical miles. The newest version of the aircraft, the 747-8, is in production, deliveries of the 747-8F freighter version began in October 2011, deliveries of the 747-8I passenger version began in May 2012.
In 1963, the United States Air Force started a series of projects on a very large strategic transport aircraft. The payload bay had to be 17 feet wide by 13.5 feet high and 100 feet long with access doors at the front. Featuring only four engines, the design required new engine designs with greatly increased power and better fuel economy. After a downselect, Boeing and Lockheed were given study contracts for the airframe, along with General Electric. All three of the airframe proposals shared a number of features, as the CX-HLS needed to be able to be loaded from the front, a door had to be included where the cockpit usually was. In 1965 Lockheeds aircraft design and General Electrics engine design were selected for the new C-5 Galaxy transport, the nose door and raised cockpit concepts would be carried over to the design of the 747. The 747 was conceived while air travel was increasing in the 1960s, the era of commercial jet transportation, led by the enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, had revolutionized long-distance travel.
In 1965, Joe Sutter was transferred from Boeings 737 development team to manage the design studies for a new airliner, Sutter initiated a design study with Pan Am and other airlines, to better understand their requirements. At the time, it was thought that the 747 would eventually be superseded by supersonic transport aircraft. Boeing responded by designing the 747 so that it could be adapted easily to carry freight, in the freighter role, the clear need was to support the containerized shipping methodologies that were being widely introduced at about the same time. Standard containers are 8 ft square at the front and available in 20 and 40 ft lengths and this meant that it would be possible to support a 2-wide 2-high stack of containers two or three ranks deep with a fuselage size similar to the earlier CX-HLS project
Aircraft design process
The aircraft design process is the engineering design process by which aircraft are designed. These depend on factors such as customer and manufacturer demand, safety protocols, physical. For some types of aircraft the design process is regulated by national airworthiness authorities and this article deals with powered aircraft such as airplanes and helicopter designs. Aircraft design is a compromise between competing factors and constraints and accounts for existing designs and market requirements to produce the best aircraft. The design process starts with the intended purpose. The purpose may be to fit a specific requirement, e. g, another important factor that influences the design of the aircraft are the regulations put forth by national aviation airworthiness authorities. Airports may impose limits on aircraft, for instance, the maximum allowed for a conventional aircraft is 80 m to prevent collisions between aircraft while taxiing. Budget limitations, market requirements and competition set constraints on the design process, competition leads to companies striving for better efficiency in the design without compromising performance and incorporating new techniques and technology.
An increase in the number of aircraft means greater carbon emissions, environmental scientists have voiced concern over the main kinds of pollution associated with aircraft, mainly noise and emissions. Noise arises from the airframe, where the directions are changed. Improved noise regulations have forced designers to create engines and airframes. Emissions from aircraft include particulates, carbon dioxide, Sulfur dioxide, Carbon monoxide, various oxides of nitrates, to combat the pollution, ICAO set recommendations in 1981 to control aircraft emissions. Newer, environmentally friendly fuels have been developed and the use of materials in manufacturing have helped reduce the ecological impact due to aircraft. Environmental limitations affect airfield compatibility, airports around the world have been built to suit the topography of the particular region. Space limitations, pavement design, runway end safety areas and the location of airport are some of the airport factors that influence aircraft design.
The high speeds, fuel tanks, atmospheric conditions at altitudes, natural hazards. Airworthiness is the standard by which aircraft are determined fit to fly, the responsibility for airworthiness lies with national aviation regulatory bodies, manufacturers, as well as owners and operators. Every country has its own body such as the Federal Aviation Authority in USA, DGCA in India
The Boeing 767 is a mid- to large-size, long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was Boeings first wide-body twinjet and its first airliner with a glass cockpit. The aircraft has two engines, a conventional tail, for reduced aerodynamic drag, a supercritical wing design. Development of the 767 occurred in tandem with a narrow-body twinjet, the 767 is produced in three fuselage lengths. The original 767-200 entered service in 1982, followed by the 767-300 in 1986 and the 767-400ER, the extended-range 767-200ER and 767-300ER models entered service in 1984 and 1988, while a production freighter version, the 767-300F, debuted in 1995. Engines featured on the 767 include the General Electric CF6, Pratt & Whitney JT9D and PW4000, United Airlines first placed the 767 in commercial service in 1982. The aircraft was flown on domestic and transcontinental routes, during which it demonstrated the reliability of its twinjet design. In 1985, the 767 became the first twin-engined airliner to receive approval for extended overseas flights.
The aircraft was used to expand non-stop service on medium- to long-haul intercontinental routes. In 1986, Boeing initiated studies for a higher-capacity 767, ultimately leading to the development of the 777, in the 1990s, the 767 became the most frequently used airliner for transatlantic flights between North America and Europe. The 767 is the first twinjet wide-body type to reach 1,000 aircraft delivered, as of February 2017, Boeing has received 1,204 orders for the 767 from 74 customers,1,097 have been delivered. A total of 742 of these aircraft were in service in July 2016, competitors have included the Airbus A300, A310, and A330-200, while a successor, the 787 Dreamliner, entered service in October 2011. Despite this, the 767 still remains in production, in 1970, Boeings 747 became the first wide-body jetliner to enter service. The 747 was the first passenger jet that was enough to feature a twin-aisle cabin. Two years later, the manufacturer began a development study, code-named 7X7, for a new wide-body aircraft intended to replace the 707 and other early generation narrow-body jets.
The aircraft would provide twin-aisle seating, but in a smaller fuselage than the existing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and this marked the manufacturers first major international joint venture, and both Aeritalia and the CTDC received supply contracts in return for their early participation. At this stage the aircraft featured two or three engines, with possible configurations including over-wing engines and a T-tail. By 1976, a layout, similar to the one which had debuted on the Airbus A300