The Boeing E-3 Sentry known as AWACS, is an American airborne early warning and control aircraft developed by Boeing. Derived from the Boeing 707, it provides all-weather surveillance, command and communications, is used by the United States Air Force, NATO, Royal Air Force, French Air Force, Royal Saudi Air Force; the E-3 is distinguished by the distinctive rotating radar dome above the fuselage. Production ended in 1992. In the mid-1960s, the US Air Force was seeking an aircraft to replace its piston-engined Lockheed EC-121 Warning Star, in service for over a decade. After issuing preliminary development contracts to three companies, the USAF picked Boeing to construct two airframes to test Westinghouse Electric and Hughes's competing radars. Both radars used pulse-Doppler technology, with Westinghouse's design emerging as the contract winner. Testing on the first production E-3 began in October 1975; the first USAF E-3 was delivered in March 1977, during the next seven years, a total of 34 aircraft were manufactured.
NATO, as a single identity had 18 aircraft manufactured, basing them in Germany. The E-3 was sold to the United Kingdom and France and Saudi Arabia. In 1991, when the last aircraft had been delivered, E-3s participated in Operation Desert Storm, playing a crucial role of directing coalition aircraft against the enemy. Throughout the aircraft's service life, numerous upgrades were performed to enhance its capabilities. In 1996, Westinghouse Electric's Defense & Electronic Systems division was acquired by Northrop Corporation, before being renamed Northrop Grumman Mission Systems, which supports the E-3's radar. In 1963, the USAF asked for proposals for an Airborne Warning and Control System to replace its EC-121 Warning Stars, which had served in the airborne early warning role for over a decade; the new aircraft would take advantage of improvements in radar technology and in computer aided radar data analysis and data reduction. These developments allowed airborne radars to "look down", detect the movement of low-flying aircraft, discriminate over land, target aircraft's movements—previously this had been impossible, due to the inability to discriminate an aircraft's track from ground clutter.
Contracts were issued to Boeing and Lockheed, the latter being eliminated in July 1966. In 1967, a parallel program was put into place to develop the radar, with Westinghouse Electric and Hughes Aircraft being asked to compete in producing the radar system. In 1968, it was referred to as Overland Radar Technology during development tests on the modified EC-121Q; the Westinghouse radar antenna was going to be used by whichever company won the radar competition, since Westinghouse had pioneered in the design of high-power RF phase-shifters, which are used to both focus the RF into a pencil beam, scan electronically for altitude determination. Boeing proposed a purpose-built aircraft, but tests indicated it would not outperform the already-operational 707, so the latter was chosen instead. To increase endurance, this design was to be powered by eight General Electric TF34s, it would carry its radar in a rotating dome mounted at the top of a forward-swept tail, above the fuselage. Boeing was selected ahead of McDonnell Douglas's DC-8-based proposal in July 1970.
Initial orders were placed for two aircraft, designated EC-137D as test beds to evaluate the two competing radars. As the test-beds did not need the same 14-hour endurance demanded of the production aircraft, the EC-137s retained the Pratt & Whitney JT3D commercial engines, a reduction in endurance requirement led to retaining the normal engines in production; the first EC-137 made its maiden flight on 9 February 1972, with the fly-off between the two radars taking place during March–July that year. Favorable test results led to the selection of Westinghouse's radar for the production aircraft. Hughes's radar was thought to be a certain winner because much of its design was going into the new F-15 Eagle's radar program; the Westinghouse radar used a pipelined fast Fourier transform to digitally resolve 128 Doppler frequencies, while Hughes's radars used analog filters based on the design for the F-15 fighter. Westinghouse's engineering team won this competition by using a programmable 18-bit computer whose software could be modified before each mission.
This computer was the AN/AYK-8 design from the B-57G program, designated AYK-8-EP1 for its much expanded memory. This radar multiplexed a beyond-the-horizon pulse mode that could complement the pulse-Doppler radar mode; this proved to be beneficial when the BTH mode is used to detect ships at sea when the radar beam is directed below the horizon. Approval was given on 26 January 1973 for full-scale development of the AWACS system. To allow further development of the aircraft's systems, orders were placed for three preproduction aircraft, the first of which performed its maiden flight in February 1975. To save costs, the endurance requirements were relaxed, allowing the new aircraft to retain the four JT3D engines. IBM and Hazeltine were selected to develop the mission display system; the IBM computer was designated 4PI, the software was written in JOVIAL. A Semi-Automatic Ground Environment or back-up interceptor control operator would be at home with the track displays and tabular displays, but differences in symbology would create compatibility problems in tactical ground radar systems in Iceland, mainland Europe, South Korea over Link-11.
Modifications to the Boeing
Claybourne Elder is an American actor and writer, best known for his work on television and on Broadway. Elder is from Utah, his mother is a schoolteacher and father a carpenter, he is the youngest of eight siblings. At an early age he played violin in the school orchestra. Elder studied acting at the Moscow Klasse Centre in Russia before attending Brigham Young University and the University of Utah, he earned a degree in directing from The University of Utah. He received rave reviews and was nominated for a Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Leading Actor in A Play for originating the role of "Ollie Olson" in One Arm directed by Moisés Kaufman, he was nominated for a 2015 Lucille Lortel Award for Outstanding Leading Actor in a Musical for Allegro at Classic Stage. He originated the roles of "Buck Barrow" in Bonnie & Clyde, "Hollis Bessemer" in Stephen Sondheim's Road Show and "Michael Victor" in VeniceHe played the Soldier/Alex and understudied Jake Gyllenhaal in the Broadway revival of Sunday in the Park with George, which opened in February 2017.
He played the soldier in the concert performances in October 2016 at New York City Center. He can be heard on the cast recordings of Bonnie & Clyde, Road Show and Sunday in the Park with George. Elder guest-starred as Pete O'Malley in the second season of The CW's The Carrie Diaries. Regionally he played George in Sunday in the Park with George at the Signature Theatre, Virginia, in 2014. Elder and director Eric Rosen were married on July 2012 in New York State. In 2017 they had a son through surrogacy; the Carrie Diaries as Pete Claybourne Elder at the Internet Broadway Database Claybourne Elder at Internet Off-Broadway Database Claybourne Elder on IMDb
An Election to the Edinburgh Corporation was held on 2 May 1972, alongside municipal elections across Scotland. Of the councils 69 seats, 23 were up for election. Following the election, with two by-elections pending, Edinburgh Corporation was composed of 33 Labour councillors, 21 Progressives, 9 Conservatives, 5 Liberals. Labour did well in the 1972 municipal elections across Scotland, this was the case in Edinburgh, where the party came close to gaining control of the council for the first time, controlling 33 of the councils 68 seats; the Liberals, with 5 seats, held the balance of power in the new council. Following the election Edinburgh corporation would elect its first Labour Lord Provost; the election witnessed the continuation of the decline of the Progressives, who lost 5 seats. Turnout was 42.1%