A bog body is a human cadaver, mummified in a peat bog. Such bodies, sometimes known as bog people, are both geographically and chronologically widespread, having been dated to between 8000 BCE and the Second World War; the unifying factor of the bog bodies is that they have been found in peat and are preserved. Unlike most ancient human remains, bog bodies retain their skin and internal organs due to the unusual conditions of the surrounding area; these conditions include acidic water, low temperature, a lack of oxygen which combine to preserve but tan their skin. While the skin is well-preserved, the bones are not, due to the acid in the peat having dissolved the calcium phosphate of bone; the oldest known bog body is the skeleton of Koelbjerg Man from Denmark, dated to 8000 BCE, during the Mesolithic period. The oldest fleshed bog body is that of Cashel Man; the overwhelming majority of bog bodies – including examples such as Tollund Man, Grauballe Man and Lindow Man – date to the Iron Age and have been found in northwest European lands Denmark, the Netherlands, the UK and Ireland.
Such Iron Age bog bodies illustrate a number of similarities, such as violent deaths and a lack of clothing, leading archaeologists to believe that they were killed and deposited in the bogs as a part of a widespread cultural tradition of human sacrifice or the execution of criminals. The newest bog bodies are those of soldiers killed in the Russian wetlands during the Second World War; the German scientist Alfred Dieck published a catalog of more than 1,850 bog bodies that he had counted between 1939 and 1986 but most were unverified by documents or archaeological finds. The preservation of bog bodies in peat bogs is a natural phenomenon, not the result of human mummification processes, it is caused by the unique physical and biochemical composition of the bogs. Different types of bogs can affect the mummification process differently: raised bogs best preserve the corpses, whereas fens and transitional bogs tend to preserve harder tissues such as the skeleton rather than the soft tissue. A limited number of bogs have the correct conditions for preservation of mammalian tissue.
Most of these are located in colder climates near bodies of salt water. For example, in the area of Denmark where the Haraldskær Woman was recovered, salt air from the North Sea blows across the Jutland wetlands and provides an ideal environment for the growth of peat; as new peat replaces the old peat, the older material underneath rots and releases humic acid known as bog acid. The bog acids, with pH levels similar to vinegar, conserve the human bodies in the same way as fruit is preserved by pickling. In addition, peat bogs form in areas lacking drainage and hence are characterized by completely anaerobic conditions; this environment acidic and devoid of oxygen, denies the prevalent subsurface aerobic organisms any opportunity to initiate decomposition. Researchers discovered that conservation required that they place the body in the bog during the winter or early spring when the water temperature is cold—i.e. Less than 4 °C; this allows bog acids to saturate the tissues. Bacteria are unable to grow enough for decomposition at temperatures under 4 °C.
The bog chemical environment involves a saturated acidic environment, where considerable concentrations of organic acids and aldehydes are present. Layers of sphagnum and peat assist in preserving the cadavers by enveloping the tissue in a cold immobilizing matrix, impeding water circulation and any oxygenation. An additional feature of anaerobic preservation by acidic bogs is the ability to conserve hair and leather items. Modern experimenters have been able to mimic bog conditions in the laboratory and demonstrate the preservation process, albeit over shorter time frames than the 2,500 years that Haraldskær Woman's body has survived. Most of the bog bodies discovered else were not properly conserved; when such specimens are exposed to the normal atmosphere, they may begin to decompose rapidly. As a result, many specimens have been destroyed; as of 1979, the number of specimens that have been preserved following discovery was 53. The oldest bog body, identified is the Koelbjerg Man from Denmark, dated to 8000 BCE, during the Mesolithic period.
Around 3900 BCE, agriculture was introduced to Denmark, either through cultural exchange or by migrating farmers, marking the beginning of the Neolithic in the region. It was during the early part of this Neolithic period that a number of human corpses that were interred in the area's peat bogs left evidence that there had been resistance to its introduction. A disproportionate number of the Early Neolithic bodies found in Danish bogs were aged between 16 and 20 at the time of their death and deposition, suggestions have been put forward that they were either human sacrifices or criminals executed for their deviant behaviour. An example of a Bronze Age bog body is Cashel Man, from 2000 BCE; the vast majority of the bog bodies that have been discovered date from the Iron Age, a period of time when peat bogs covered a much larger area of northern Europe. Many of these Iron Age bodies bear a number of similarities, indicating a known cultural tradition of killing and depositing these people in a certain manner.
These Pre-Roman Iron Age peoples lived in sedentary communities, who had built villages, whos
The Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean consist of four small coral islands, an atoll, a reef in the Indian Ocean, have constituted the 5th district of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands since February 2007, though sovereignty over some or all of the Islands is contested by Madagascar and the Comoros. None of the islands has had a permanent population. Two of the islands—Juan de Nova and Europa—and the Bassas da India atoll lie in the Mozambique Channel west of Madagascar, while a third island, lies about 450 kilometres east of Madagascar and the Glorioso Islands lies about 200 kilometres northwest of Madagascar. In the Mozambique Channel is the Banc du Geyser, a submerged reef considered part of the Glorioso Islands by France and the Comoros; the islands have been classified as nature reserves. Except for Bassas da India, they all support meteorological stations: those on the Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova, Europa Island are automated; the station on Tromelin Island, in particular, provides warning of cyclones threatening Madagascar, Réunion, or Mauritius.
Each of the islands, except Bassas da India and Banc du Geyser, has an airstrip of more than 1,000 metres. Bassas da India Ten unnamed rock islets Europa Island Île Europa Eight unnamed rock islets Glorioso Islands Grande Glorieuse Île du Lys Wreck Rock South Rock Verte Rocks Three unnamed islets Banc du Geyser Juan de Nova Island Tromelin Island Mauritius, the Comoros, Madagascar dispute France's sovereignty over the islands. Mauritius claims Tromelin and argues that the island, discovered by France in 1722, was not ceded by the treaty of Paris in 1814. Madagascar claims sovereignty over the Glorioso Islands, though the islands were never part of the Malagasy Protectorate, having been part of colony of Mayotte and dependencies a part of French Comoros that had become a separately administered colony from Madagascar in 1946; the Comoros claims the Glorioso Islands too, as a part of the disputed French region of Mayotte. Madagascar claims Juan de Nova, Europa and Bassas da India since 1972, a 1979 United Nations resolution demanded the cessation of the Islands to Madagascar.
Seychelles claimed a part of Scattered Islands too before the France–Seychelles Maritime Boundary Agreement. Since January 3, 2005, the Îles Éparses have been administered on behalf of the French state by the senior administrator of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands, based in Réunion; the Îles Éparses had been under the administration of the prefect of Réunion since the independence of Madagascar in 1960. France maintains a military garrison of around 14 troops on each of the islands in the Mozambique Channel that are claimed by Madagascar; the Glorioso Islands are claimed by the Comoros, while Mauritius claims Tromelin Island. France claims an Exclusive Economic Zone of 200 nautical miles around each of the small islands in the Îles Éparses, which together with the EEZ claims for the islands of Réunion and Mayotte totals more than one million square kilometres in the western Indian Ocean. There is considerable overlap of the EEZ with the neighbouring states. French overseas departments and territories Administrative divisions of France French Southern and Antarctic Lands List of territorial disputes
David Edward John Frith is a cricket writer and historian. Cricinfo describes him as "an author and founding editor of Wisden Cricket Monthly". David Frith was born in London, not far from Lord's, on 16 March 1937, residing in Rayners Lane and attending Roxbourne School. In 1949 he emigrated with his family to Australia, arriving in Sydney aboard the RMS Orion on 25 February 1949. After leaving Canterbury Boys' High School on 15 February 1954 he started his first job as a copy-boy for The Daily Mirror but left after two months to join the Commonwealth Bank where he was posted to the Cronulla branch, he played his early cricket for the famous St George club and Paddington before returning to England in 1964. After the death of his mother in May 1971, family commitments led Frith to move back to Sydney. Here he sought, to no avail, a full-time cricket related post but, thanks to a recommendation by Jack Fingleton, he did secure some work with the Australian News and Information Bureau; the return to Australia would prove to be short-lived and he moved back to the United Kingdom departing aboard the TSS Fairstar on 19 March 1972.
Commencing with the November 1972 issue, he succeeded Tony Pawson as deputy editor of The Cricketer before becoming editor from the March 1973 issue. He founded Wisden Cricket Monthly and edited it from June 1979 to February 1996. In 1988 Frith won the Sports Council's British Sports Journalism award as Magazine Sports Writer of the Year. Specialising in Ashes Test match history, Frith has written dozens of books on both cricket in modern times and cricket of the past, his major works include My Dear Victorious Stod, a lavishly illustrated history of England versus Australia, Silence of the Heart, The Fast Men, The Slow Men, Pageant of Cricket, Caught England, Bowled Australia, The Trailblazers, The Archie Jackson Story and Bodyline Autopsy. The catalogue of his vast collection ran to 1100 pages, he has been involved in producing cricket videos, which have been successful. Frith famously commented; when they won it in 1983 he was pleased to eat his words, with the help of some red wine, claiming that he had helped spur India to victory..
In association with the National Film and Television Archive, he presented an annual archive cricket film evening at the National Film Theatre in London for 30 years. In 2003 Frith became the first author to win the Cricket Society's Book of the Year award three times, was a finalist in the William Hill Sports Book awards for his Bodyline Autopsy; the book won Wisden's book of the year and, in January 2010, it won Cricketweb's award for "book of the decade". In his assessment, Martin Chandler wrote: "Autopsy" is a magnificent book possessing a vibrancy and objectivity that when I first read it I found quite remarkable, it is, without question, the CW "Book of the Decade" and were there any prospect of my being around to collect I would place a large wager on whoever is writing this feature in 90 years time confirming it as CW "Book of the Century". His co-written history of the Australian Cricket Board won the Australian Cricket Society book award in 2007, in 2011 Frith was given the Cricket Society's Ian Jackson Award for Distinguished Services to Cricket.
He has been honorary vice-president of the Cricket Memorabilia Society since its foundation in 1987. In 2013 he was awarded honorary life membership of the Association of Cricket Statisticians and Historians, wrote a further book, Guildford's Cricket Story, which revealed his adopted home town's unique claims to being the'cradle of cricket'. Runs in the Family. London: Stanley Paul. 1969. ISBN 0090978404.'My Dear Victorious Stod': a biography of A. E. Stoddart. New Malden: The Author. 1970. ISBN 0950183709; the Archie Jackson Story: a biography. Ashurst: The Cricketer. 1974. ISBN 0902211021; the Fast Men: a 200-year cavalcade of speed bowlers. Wokingham: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1975. ISBN 0442301502. Cricket Gallery: fifty profiles of famous players from'The Cricketer'. Guildford: Lutterworth Press. 1976. ISBN 071887000X. Great Moments in Cricket. London: Queen Anne Press. 1976. ISBN 0362002711. England versus Australia: a pictorial history of the test matches since 1877. Guildford: Lutterworth Press. 1977. ISBN 0718870123.
The Ashes'77. London: Angus & Robertson. 1977. ISBN 0207957924; the Golden Age of Cricket, 1890–1914. Guildford: Lutterworth Press. 1978. ISBN 0718870220; the Illustrated History of Test Cricket. London: Marshall Cavendish. 1979. ISBN 0856857068; the Ashes'79. London: Angus & Robertson. 1979. ISBN 0207142645. Thommo. London: Angus & Robertson. 1980. ISBN 0207140340. Rothmans Presents 100 Years England v Australia: the complete history of the Ashes. Aylesbury: Rothmans Publications. 1982. ISBN 0907574033; the Slow Men. London: Allen & Unwin. 1984. ISBN 0047960698. Cricket's Golden Summer: paintings in a garden. London: Pavilion. 1985. ISBN 090751667X. England v Australia Test match Records 1877–1985. London: Willow. 1986. ISBN 0002181983. Pageant
Hurricane Bertha was an unusual tropical cyclone in early August 2014 that attained minimal hurricane status, despite having a disheveled appearance and a high atmospheric pressure. On July 26, a tropical wave south of the Cape Verde Islands was monitored for possible tropical cyclogenesis. Over the following days, it developed and acquired gale-force winds and enough convection to be designated as Tropical Storm Bertha early on August 1. A disorganized cyclone, Bertha moved across the Lesser Antilles, clipping the northern end of Martinique that day. During its trek across the eastern Caribbean Sea, its circulation became disrupted and it may have degenerated into a tropical wave. On August 3, it traversed the Mona Passage and moved over the Southeastern Bahamas where conditions favored development. Despite an overall ragged appearance on satellite imagery, data from Hurricane Hunters indicated it intensified to a hurricane on August 4. Turning north, northeast, Bertha soon weakened as it began to merge with an approaching trough to the west.
This merger took place on August 6, at which time Bertha was declared extratropical well to the south of Nova Scotia. The remnant system raced eastward across the Atlantic and struck the United Kingdom on August 10. Once over the North Sea, the storm stalled for a few days before resuming its eastward track, it was last noted around the Baltic Sea on August 16. As a tropical cyclone, Bertha's impact was minor. Widespread power outages occurred along its path but no major damage or loss of life took place. Enhanced swells and rip currents associated with the hurricane resulted in three fatalities and dozens of rescues along the East Coast of the United States. After becoming an extratropical system, it had significant effects in Western Europe. Hard hit was the United Kingdom, where wind gusts reached 108 mph. Unseasonably heavy rains triggered widespread flooding which shut down roads and prompted evacuations. One fatality took place offshore. On mainland Europe, a small tornado outbreak resulted in scattered structural damage in Belgium and Germany.
On July 24, 2014, a westward moving tropical wave emerged off the west coast of Africa near the Cape Verde Islands. Following the development of convective activity —showers and thunderstorms— on July 26, National Hurricane Center began monitoring the system for potential tropical cyclogenesis. A disorganized system, development was forecast to be slow due to unfavorable environmental conditions. Organization and coverage of convection began improving by July 28, due in part to the passage of a Kelvin wave. An area of low pressure subsequently consolidated within the disturbance on July 29 and the NHC assessed the system as having imminent potential of becoming a tropical depression. Convection soon diminished over the system. Moving west-northwest around the periphery of a strong subtropical ridge, the low acquired tropical storm-force winds early on July 31 but continued to lack convection. A hurricane hunter aircraft investigated the system that afternoon and found winds of 45 mph north and northeast of the center.
In the hours following the weather reconnaissance mission, a band of deep convection blossomed near the center, prompting the NHC to designate the system as Tropical Storm Bertha at 00:00 UTC on August 1. Upon its classification, Bertha was situated 345 mi east-southeast of Barbados in the Lesser Antilles. Within hours of Bertha's designation on August 1, wind shear stemming from a trough over the central Atlantic displaced convection from the circulation center. Satellite imagery depicted a vigorous circulation. Around 21:00 UTC, Bertha clipped the northern end of Martinique with sustained winds of 50 mph. Persistent shear continued to take its toll on the cyclone as it entered the Caribbean Sea with aircraft data indicating no closed circulation at 5,000 ft elevation. Despite this, observations from Martinique and Dominica indicated that there was some semblance of a surface circulation, the NHC continued to monitor Bertha as a tropical storm. Throughout August 2, convection increased in coverage and organization though the center of Bertha remained displaced from the strongest thunderstorms to the southwest.
NEXRAD weather radar imagery from San Juan, Puerto Rico depicted a disorganized open circulation throughout the day. In light of this, NHC forecaster John Beven noted that the system could degenerate into an open wave around the time in reached Hispaniola on August 2. Continued effects of dry air entrainment and land interaction further degraded Bertha's structure and late on August 2, "the system as a tropical cyclone". Various data sources indicated no closed circulation by 21:00 UTC and it was noted that advisories could be discontinued, at least temporarily. Early on August 3, the disheveled storm moved through the Mona Passage and brushed the eastern coast of the Dominican Republic before emerging over the Atlantic Ocean; as the storm moved away from Hispaniola its movement became more northwesterly, following the edge of the subtropical ridge. Moving near the Turks and Caicos Islands, Bertha's circulation became better organized and banding features developing over its eastern periphery.
At 14:00 UTC, Bertha made landfall on Middle Caicos Island with winds of 45 mph. Subsequent strengthening of upper-level outflow, decreased shear, increased mid-level humidity, high sea surface temperatures enabled rapid intensifica
Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II is a book by American writer Douglas A. Blackmon, published by Anchor Books in 2008, it explores the forced labor, of prisoners, overwelmingly African American men, through the convict lease system used by states, local governments, white farmers, corporations after the American Civil War until World War II in the southern United States. Blackmon argues that slavery in the United States did not end with the Civil War, but instead persisted well into the 20th century, it depicts the subjugation of Convict Leasing and Peonage and tells the fate of the former but not of the latter two. Slavery by Another Name began as an article which Blackmon wrote for The Wall Street Journal detailing the use of black forced labor by U. S. Steel Corporation. Seeing the popular response to the article, he began conducting research for a more comprehensive exploration of the topic; the resulting book became a New York Times Best Seller.
In 2009, it was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction. In 2012, it was adapted as a documentary film for PBS titled Slavery by Another Name. Douglas Blackmon is a Wall Street Journal reporter, he grew up in Washington County, where as a seventh grader he was encouraged by his teacher and his mother to research a local racist incident, despite the opposition of some citizens. The experience began a lifelong interest in the history of American race relations. In 2003, Blackmon wrote a story on the use of black convict labor in the coal mines of U. S. Steel; the story generated a large response, was anthologized in Best Business Stories. Blackmon began to research the subject more visiting various southern county courthouses to obtain records on arrest and sentences, he stated:...as I began to research I, as someone, paying attention to some of these sorts of things for a long time and was open to alternative explanations I was astonished when I put it together by going county by county and finding the criminal arrest records and the jail records in county after county after county from this period of time and seeing that if there had been crime waves, there had to have been records of crimes and people being arrested for crimes.
And in reality, it's just not there."There's no evidence that that happened. In fact, it's the opposite; the crime waves that occurred by and large were the aftermath of the war and whites coming back from fighting in the Civil War and settling scores with people and all sorts of renegade activity that didn't involve black people at all, but they were blamed for it, and, used as a kind of ruse for why these brutal new legal measures began to be put in place. The resulting book, Slavery by Another Name, was published by Anchor Books in 2008. In the introduction to Slavery by Another Name, Blackmon describes his experience as a reporter for the Wall Street Journal "asking a provocative question: What would be revealed if American corporations were examined through the same sharp lens of historical confrontation as the one being trained on German corporations that relied on Jewish slave labor during World War II and the Swiss banks that robbed victims of the Holocaust of their fortunes?" His story describing corporate use of black forced labor in the post-Civil War South generated more response than any other piece he had written, inspired him to pursue a book-length study of the subject.
Blackmon structures his narrative around a young African-American man named Green Cottenham. Cottenham, born in the 1880s to two former slaves, was arrested in 1908 for vagrancy, a common pretext to detain blacks who did not have a white patron; the state of Alabama rented Cottenham as a laborer to a coal mine owned by U. S. Steel Corporation, where he died; as context, Blackmon describes the beginnings of "industrial slavery", in which convict laborers were put to work in factories or mines rather than cotton fields. Though slaves were formally emancipated by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution following the Civil War, after Reconstruction, white-dominated Southern state legislatures passed Black Codes, "an array of interlocking laws intended to criminalize black life", to restrict the economic independence of blacks and provide pretexts for jail terms. Blacks were unable to pay small fees and were sentenced to labor as a result. Joseph E. Brown, former governor of Georgia, amassed great wealth based on his use of convict labor in his Dade Coal Company mines and other enterprises, from 1874 to 1894.
In the early 20th century, federal prosecutors such as Eugene Reese attempted to prosecute responsible parties under federal laws against debt bondage. But such efforts received little support nationally and none in the South, which had disenfranchised most blacks to exclude them from the political system. Northern attention was focused on immigration and World War I; the convict lease system ended with the advent of World War II. National and presidential attention was focused on racial issues because of the need for national unity and mobilization of the military. In the book's epilogue, Blackmon argues for the importance of acknowledging this history of forced labor: he evidence moldering in county courthouses and the National Archives compels us to confront this extinguished past, to recognize the terrible contours of the record, to teach our children the truth of a te
"Our Velocity" is the first single from Our Earthly Pleasures, the second album from the band, Maxïmo Park. The single was released two weeks prior to the release of the album, on 19 March 2007; the music was written by the lyrics by Paul Smith of the band. The video of the song features the band being multiplied in a white room while playing the song, it was directed by Nima Nourizadeh. The song has been regarded and in VH1's "50 Greatest Songs of 2007 So Far" it placed at number 1; the song became the band's first UK Top 10 single, reaching #9 on 25 March 2007 on the UK Singles Chart and #1 on the UK indie chart within a week of its physical release. In August 2007, a segment of the song was used as the title music for the BBC coverage of the Reading and Leeds Festival. Teletext's music page Planet Sound named "Our Velocity" as the best single of 2007; the song features in the 2007 video game Project Gotham Racing 4. The song was featured on Hollyoaks in 2007, it is featured in the 2009 music video game Guitar Hero: On Tour Modern Hits CD:"Our Velocity" "Distance Makes" "Mary O'Brien"7" #1:"Our Velocity" "Pride Before A Fall"7" #2:"Our Velocity" "Robert Altman"1st Week Only Download:"Our Velocity" "Our Velocity" "Our Velocity" music video at YouTube Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics