Market town or market right is a legal term, originating in the Middle Ages, for a European settlement that has the right to host markets, distinguishing it from a village and city. On the European continent, a town may be described as a "market town" or as having "market rights" if it no longer holds a market, provided the legal right to do so still exists. In Britain it remains in common use as a loose descriptive term for small rural towns with a hinterland of villages, it is sometimes reflected in their names, as with Market Rasen, or Market Drayton. Modern markets are in special halls, but this is a recent development; the markets were open-air, held in what is called the market square, centred on a market cross. They were and are open one or two days a week; the primary purpose of a market town is the provision of goods and services to the surrounding locality. Although market towns were known in antiquity, their number increased from the 12th century. Market towns across Europe flourished with an improved economy, a more urbanised society and the widespread introduction of a cash-based economy.
The Domesday Book of 1086 lists 50 markets in England. Some 2,000 new markets were established between 1200 and 1349; the burgeoning of market towns occurred across Europe around the same time. Market towns most grew up close to fortified places, such as castles or monasteries, not only to enjoy their protection, but because large manorial households and monasteries generated demand for goods and services. Historians term these early market towns "prescriptive market towns" in that they may not have enjoyed any official sanction such as a charter, but were accorded market town status through custom and practice if they had been in existence prior to 1199. From a early stage and administrators understood that a successful market town attracted people, generated revenue and would pay for the town's defenses. From around the 12th century and European kings began granting charters to villages allowing them to create a market on specific days. Framlingham in Suffolk is a notable example of a market situated near a fortified building.
Additionally, markets were located where transport was easiest, such as at a crossroads or close to a river. When local railway lines were first built, market towns were given priority to ease the transport of goods. For instance, in Calderdale, West Yorkshire, several market towns close together were designated to take advantage of the new trains; the designation of Halifax, Sowerby Bridge, Hebden Bridge, Todmorden is an example of this. A number of studies have pointed to the prevalence of the periodic market in medieval towns and rural areas due to the localised nature of the economy; the marketplace was the accepted location for trade, social interaction, transfer of information and gossip. A broad range of retailers congregated in market towns – peddlers, hucksters, stallholders and other types of trader; some were professional traders occupied a local shopfront such as a bakery or alehouse, while others were casual traders who set up a stall or carried their wares around in baskets on market days.
Market trade supplied for the needs of local consumers whether they were visitors or local residents. Braudel and Reynold have made a systematic study of European market towns between the 13th and 15th century, their investigation shows that in regional districts markets were held once or twice a week while daily markets were common in larger cities. Over time, permanent shops began opening daily and supplanted the periodic markets, while peddlers or itinerant sellers continued to fill in any gaps in distribution; the physical market was characterised by transactional exchange and bartering systems were commonplace. Shops had higher overhead costs, but were able to offer regular trading hours and a relationship with customers and may have offered added value services, such as credit terms to reliable customers; the economy was characterised by local trading in which goods were traded across short distances. Braudel reports. However, following the European age of discovery, goods were imported from afar – calico cloth from India, porcelain and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar and coffee from the New World.
The importance of local markets began to decline from the mid-16th century. Permanent shops which provided more stable trading hours began to supplant the periodic market. In addition, the rise of a merchant class led to the import and exports of a broad range of goods, contributing to a reduced reliance on local produce. At the centre of this new global mercantile trade was Antwerp, which by the mid-16th century, was the undisputed largest market town in Europe. A good number of local histories of individual market towns can be found. However, more general histories of the rise of market-towns across Europe are much more difficult to locate. Clark points out that while a good deal is known about the economic value of markets in local economies, the cultural role of market-towns has received scant scholarly attention. In Denmark, the concept of the market town has existed since the Iron Age, it is not known, the first Danish market town, but Hedeby and Ribe were among the first. Per 1801, there were 74 market towns in Denmark.
The last town to gain market rights was Skjern in 195
Brenderup is a town located on the island of Funen in south Denmark, in Middelfart Municipality
Saint Nicholas Church, Bogense
Saint Nicholas Church Bogense Church, is located in the harbour town of Bogense on the Danish island of Funen. It was built in 1406 on the remains of a 12th-century Romanesque church. In the mid-15th century, various additions were made including the tower which unusually is at the east end of the church; the tall spire served as a landmark for shipping. Comprehensive restoration work was completed in 2010. Artefacts include a 16th-century altar, a 13th-century baptismal font, a carved pulpit from 1604
Carl Harald Brummer
Carl Harald Brummer was a Danish architect, influential in the design of homes at the beginning of the 20th century. Brummer was born in Bogense. After attending the Danish Academy from 1888 to 1896, he worked for Ferdinand Meldahl and Hermann Baagøe Storck, he became known for Ellestuen, a designed country home, quite different from conventional houses in Denmark. He soon became one of the leading Danish architects for designing private homes between the beginning of the 20th century and the First World War including Svanemøllevej 56 and Lundevangsvej 12, both in Copenhagen, he drew on architecture from the late 18th century, for example in designing Heymans Villa in 1907 before adopting the Neoclassical style and experimenting with other approaches including simplified Functional designs which can be seen in Gurre Church and his own home. He died, aged 88, in Skovshoved. List of Danish architects
Nordfyn is a municipality in Region of Southern Denmark in Denmark. It covers an area of 451 km2 and a total population of 29,651. On 1 January 2007 Nordfyn municipality was created as the result of Kommunalreformen, consisting of the former municipalities of Bogense, Otterup and Søndersø, it was planned that the new entity should have continued the existing name of Bogense municipality but a local referendum preferred the name Nordfyn and this decision was approved by the Danish Interior Minister, Lars Løkke Rasmussen, in June 2006. Nordfyn's municipal council consists of 25 members, elected every four years; the municipal council has six political committees. Below are the municipal councils elected since the Municipal Reform of 2007; the largest towns in Nordfyns Municipality are: 1. Otterup - 4.726 inhabitants 2. Bogense - 3.424 inhabitants 3. Søndersø - 2.993 inhabitants Other towns and villages: Morud - 1.588 inhabitants Skamby - 467 inhabitants Official website Municipal statistics: NetBorger Kommunefakta, delivered from KMD a.k.a.
Kommunedata Municipal mergers and neighbors: Eniro new municipalities map Population information Danmarks Statistisk Politics http://www.nordfynskommune.dk/Politik/Kommunalbestyrelsen
Eric VI of Denmark
Eric VI Menved was King of Denmark. A son of Eric V of Denmark and Agnes of Brandenburg, he became king in 1286 at age 12, when his father was murdered on 22 November by unknown assailants. On account of his age, his mother ruled for him until 1294. Eric Menved’s rule was a central period during the “Age of Decay" in Denmark 1241–1340, his early reign – during which he was led by his mother and her German relatives – was affected by the unrest and wars that followed the murder of his father. The first act of the new government was to settle the case of the former king’s murder at a court convened at Nyborg at Whitsun 1287. 27 honorable men were appointed to decide the case. Chief among the accused were Marshal Stig Andersen Hvide and Jacob Nielsen, Count of Halland and seven others were accused. After a one-day trial, the jury found; the properties and incomes of the condemned were declared forfeit and they were exiled from Denmark on pain of death. The pope became involved when he excommunicated those, judged guilty.
The verdict was questionable on several counts. None of the accused could be proven to be in the immediate vicinity when the king was stabbed to death; the accused were not allowed to swear their innocence before the court or have other honorable men swear as to their innocence, a right granted to them by law. Despite the unclear circumstances surrounding Eric V’s death, the jury only took one day to arrive at a guilty verdict; the accused had all belonged to Erik V's inner circle. For these reasons historians Erik Arup and Hugo Yrwing labelled the verdict as a miscarriage of justice, they consider the murder a result of a power struggle between two noble factions, one led by Marsk Stig and one led by Valdemar, Duke of South Jutland. Duke Valdemar had fallen from grace in 1283, but rose in influence after 1288, they suggest that Valdemar and his allies conspired to kill the king and to cast suspicion on their rivals at court. Another historian, Kai Hørby pointed out that the murder might well have its origin in the dynastic struggle for the throne of Denmark.
There were others who thought they had equal or better claim to the throne than Eric V, such as Norway's king, Eirik Magnusson and his brother and successor Haakon V who were grandsons of Eric IV of Denmark. Andersen and the others fled to Norway where they were welcomed by King Eirik who gladly supported enemies of the Danish king, he gave Andersen the fortress of Kongshelle near the border with Denmark. Andersen became a pirate; the exiles managed to build forts on Samsø, Sprogø, Helgenæs. No ship was safe and no coastal town immune from Stig Andersen Hvide; the high point of his depredations occurred in 1289 when he landed with a small Norwegian army at Stubbekøbing on Falster. Wizlau II of Rűgen, Denmark's regent, used his Wendish fleet to drive Andersen back to Norway. Andersen's activities sparked four decades of warfare between the Nordic kingdoms. At the same time an ecclesiastical conflict appeared because of the ambitious new Archbishop of Lund Jens Grand who supported the outlaws, his kinsmen, despite his oath to support the king.
Once his selection was confirmed by the pope, Bishop Jens reneged on his oath of allegiance. "It doesn't matter to me whether Duke Valdemar, a Jew, a Turk, a pagan, or the devil himself is King of Denmark so long as it is neither Erik nor his brother Christopher," he said. " Bishop Jens went further, he gave a piece of church land at Hundehals to the exiles to build a fortress and entertained them at his table in public. The king could not tolerate this and ordered Bishop Jens' arrest in 1294; the archbishop was sent to Duke Christopher in chains to be close confined in Søborg's "dark tower". After some months in terrible conditions, the king sent a messenger to Bishop Jens to see if he would swear allegiance again and promise to seek no revenge for his captivity. "Rather than bend to his will, I would rather that the king sliced me apart joint by joint than submit to his commands," the bishop replied. After two years in awful conditions, Bishop Jens managed to escape with the help of a kitchen servant.
Bishop Jens fled directly to Rome to lay his case before the Holy See. The pope excommunicated the king and put all of Denmark under interdict until the kingdom paid Archbishop Jens Grand 49,000 silver marks. Denmark would not raise such a sum and languished under interdict for four years. In 1302 King Erik wrote to the pope asking for mercy for himself and the kingdom, without any of the sacraments for years. Promising to do whatever the pope said, King Erik humbled himself in public. Pope Boniface VIII – negotiated by Martin of Dacia – agreed to reduce the fine by 80%, interdict and excommunication were lifted and Archbishop Jens accepted another papal assignment which kept him out of King Erik's hair. Erik had a great love of tournaments, money poured out of the treasury for his entertainments. At one knightly tournament at Rostock, wine and beer "flowed" for an entire month for any who wished to drink; the king paid for the upkeep of all the horses and livestock at the tournament including a mountain of oats for any and all.
He crafted unusual taxes to squeeze peasants and nobles alike. When the tax money didn't cover his expenses, the king borrowed money from various German nobles, going so far as to mortgage pieces of Denmark to them. Erik sent several expeditions to Germany to win new territories in an attempt to recover Denmark's position as a Scandinavian great power. Through alliances with German princes