Bogie exchange is a system for operating railway wagons on two or more gauges to overcome difference in the track gauge. To perform a bogie exchange, a car is converted from one gauge to another by removing the bogies or trucks, installing a new bogie with differently spaced wheels, it is limited to wagons and carriages, though diesel locomotives can be exchanged if enough time is available. Bogie wagons can have their gauge changed by lifting them off one set of bogies and putting them back down again on another set of bogies; the pin that centres the bogies and the hoses and fittings for the brakes must be compatible. A generous supply of bogies of each gauge is needed to accommodate the flow of traffic; the bogies and wagons need to have standardized hooks, etc. where they may be efficiently lifted. The two wheel sets on four-wheel wagons can be changed as well if the wagon has been designed accordingly. Steam engines can be designed for more than one gauge, by having, for example, reversible wheel hubs that suit two alternative gauges.
This was done in the 1930s and beyond in Victoria for possible gauge conversion, though no engines were converted in this manner other than one heritage engine. Some 1,000 mm metre gauge Garratt locomotives of East Africa were designed for easy conversion to 3 ft 6 in gauge, though again none was. In 1944, the LMS re-gauged a pair of "Jinty" 0-6-0 tank locomotives - built to UK 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge - for use on its 5 ft 3 in gauge Northern Counties Committee lines in Northern Ireland; the re-gauging was performed by reversing the wheel centres so that the spokes dished outwards. In the southern United States, some steam locomotives built by Baldwin were designed for easy conversion from 5 ft to 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge. Diesel locomotives have bogies like wagons and carriages, only with more cables for the traction motors and take a little longer to convert. In Australia, some classes of diesel locomotives are gauge-converted to suit traffic requirements on the 1,435 mm, 1,600 mm, 1,067 mm networks.
Since the 1,067 mm networks are not all connected to each other, being separated by deserts or lines of other gauges, they are bogie-exchanged or piggybacked on road or rail vehicles when transferred between these networks. The simplest way to carry out bogie exchange is to lift the wagons off the bogies and replace them back on new bogies; this may require the wagons in a train to be uncoupled, continuous brakes disconnected. As the bogies are swung out of the way, they sway, which wastes time settling them down. Another way of carrying out bogie exchange is to lower the bogies onto a trolley in a pit, after which the trolleys are rolled out of the way and others return; this keeps continuous brakes connected. In addition, the bogies never need leave a solid surface, so they can be wheeled in and out more quickly; this method was used at Adelaide. Between 1961 and 1995, Australia had five bogie exchange centres, which opened and closed as gauge conversion work proceeded; the gauges served were 1,435 mm and 1,600 mm, though the 1,067 mm Queensland did acquire 100 bogie-exchange compatible QLX wagons just in case.
All the wagons involved had wagon codes ending in "X", such as VLX. The centres were: Dynon, Victoria Wodonga near Albury on state border. Port Pirie, South Australia Peterborough, South Australia Dry Creek, South Australia - the youngest and most modernThe busiest facility was that at Dynon, in a typical year, 24,110 wagons were bogie exchanged, an average of 66 per day; this was done by one shift of 18 men, compared with the 100 men required if the same amount of freight were transferred wagon to wagon. Brest, Belarus – between 1,520 mm gauge and 1,435 mm standard gauge at the border to Poland Bogie exchange was used between 2 ft 6 in and 1,000 mm gauge on the Ferrocarril de Antofagasta a Bolivia Railway. Between 1,435 mm standard gauge and the 3 ft 6 in of the former Newfoundland Railway at Port aux Basques A bogie exchange station exists at the Chinese border to Mongolia. Both the Moscow-Beijing passenger train and freight trains get. Mongolia has Russian gauge 1,520 mm, China has 1,435 mm. Also, a bogie exchange station was placed farther east at the Russian–Chinese border crossing at Zabaykalsk/Manzhouli.
A bogie exchange station exists in the Port of Turku with a short stretch of 1,435 mm gauge railway. Freight cars get. SeaRail train ferries go from Sweden, they carry no passenger trains, passengers must walk by foot to Turku Harbour railway station opposite the ferry terminals. Finland has 1,524 mm broad gauge. A bogie exchange station in the port of Mukran serves train ferries that go to and from Russia and Lithuania, which have 1,520 mm broad gauge. Jolfa - c1950, between 1,435 mm and 1,520 mm Sarakhs - c1990, between 1,435 mm and 1,520 mm Zahedan - 2009, between 1,435 mm and 1,676 mm Baku - 2012, To be developed in Amirabad port, Caspian Sea, between 1,435 mm and 1,520 mm D
A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. If a locomotive is capable of carrying a payload, it is rather referred to as multiple units, motor coaches, railcars or power cars. Traditionally, locomotives pulled trains from the front. However, push-pull operation has become common, where the train may have a locomotive at the front, at the rear, or at each end; the word locomotive originates from the Latin loco – "from a place", ablative of locus "place", the Medieval Latin motivus, "causing motion", is a shortened form of the term locomotive engine, first used in 1814 to distinguish between self-propelled and stationary steam engines. Prior to locomotives, the motive force for railways had been generated by various lower-technology methods such as human power, horse power, gravity or stationary engines that drove cable systems. Few such systems are still in existence today. Locomotives may generate their power from fuel, or they may take power from an outside source of electricity.
It is common to classify locomotives by their source of energy. The common ones include: A steam locomotive is a locomotive whose primary power source is a steam engine; the most common form of steam locomotive contains a boiler to generate the steam used by the engine. The water in the boiler is heated by burning combustible material – coal, wood, or oil – to produce steam; the steam moves reciprocating pistons which are connected to the locomotive's main wheels, known as the "drivers". Both fuel and water supplies are carried with the locomotive, either on the locomotive itself or in wagons called "tenders" pulled behind; the first full-scale working railway steam locomotive was built by Richard Trevithick in 1802. It was constructed for the Coalbrookdale ironworks in Shropshire in the United Kingdom though no record of it working there has survived. On 21 February 1804, the first recorded steam-hauled railway journey took place as another of Trevithick's locomotives hauled a train from the Pen-y-darren ironworks, in Merthyr Tydfil, to Abercynon in South Wales.
Accompanied by Andrew Vivian, it ran with mixed success. The design incorporated a number of important innovations including the use of high-pressure steam which reduced the weight of the engine and increased its efficiency. In 1812, Matthew Murray's twin-cylinder rack locomotive Salamanca first ran on the edge-railed rack-and-pinion Middleton Railway. Another well-known early locomotive was Puffing Billy, built 1813–14 by engineer William Hedley for the Wylam Colliery near Newcastle upon Tyne; this locomotive is the oldest preserved, is on static display in the Science Museum, London. George Stephenson built Locomotion No. 1 for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in the north-east of England, the first public steam railway in the world. In 1829, his son Robert built The Rocket in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Rocket was entered into, won, the Rainhill Trials; this success led to the company emerging as the pre-eminent early builder of steam locomotives used on railways in the UK, US and much of Europe.
The Liverpool and Manchester Railway, built by Stephenson, opened a year making exclusive use of steam power for passenger and goods trains. The steam locomotive remained by far the most common type of locomotive until after World War II. Steam locomotives are less efficient than modern diesel and electric locomotives, a larger workforce is required to operate and service them. British Rail figures showed that the cost of crewing and fuelling a steam locomotive was about two and a half times larger than the cost of supporting an equivalent diesel locomotive, the daily mileage they could run was lower. Between about 1950 and 1970, the majority of steam locomotives were retired from commercial service and replaced with electric and diesel-electric locomotives. While North America transitioned from steam during the 1950s, continental Europe by the 1970s, in other parts of the world, the transition happened later. Steam was a familiar technology that used widely-available fuels and in low-wage economies did not suffer as wide a cost disparity.
It continued to be used in many countries until the end of the 20th century. By the end of the 20th century the only steam power remaining in regular use around the world was on heritage railways. Internal combustion locomotives use an internal combustion engine, connected to the driving wheels by a transmission, they keep the engine running at a near-constant speed whether the locomotive is stationary or moving. Kerosene locomotives use kerosene as the fuel, they were the world's first oil locomotives, preceding diesel and other oil locomotives by some years. The first known kerosene locomotive was a draisine built by Daimler in 1887. A kerosene locomotive was built in 1894 by the Priestman Brothers of Kingston upon Hull for use on Hull docks; this locomotive was built using a 12 hp double-acting marine type engine, running at 300 rpm, mounted on a 4-wheel wagon chassis. It was only able to haul one loaded wagon at a time, due to its low power output, was not a great success; the first successful kerosene locomotive was "Lachesis" built by Richard Hornsby & Sons Ltd. and delivered to Woolwich Arsenal railway in 1896.
The company built a series of kerosene locomotives between 1896 and 1903, for use by the British military. Petrol locomotives use petrol as their fuel. Most petrol locomotives built were petrol-mechanical, using a mechanical transmission to deliver the power output of the engine t
A railroad car or railcar, railway wagon or railway carriage called a train car or train wagon, is a vehicle used for the carrying of cargo or passengers on a rail transport system. Such cars, when coupled together and hauled by one or more locomotives, form a train. Alternatively, some passenger cars are self-propelled in which case they may be either single railcars or make up multiple units; the term "car" is used by itself in American English when a rail context is implicit. Indian English sometimes uses "bogie" in the same manner, though the term has other meanings in other variants of English. In American English, "railcar" is a generic term for a railway vehicle. Although some cars exist for the railroad's own use – for track maintenance purposes, for example – most carry a revenue-earning load of passengers or freight, may be classified accordingly as passenger cars or coaches on the one hand or freight cars on the other. Passenger cars, or coaches, vary in their internal fittings: In standard-gauge cars, seating is configured into ranges of between three and five seats across the width of the car, with an aisle in between or at the side.
Tables may be provided between seats facing one another. Alternatively, seats facing in the same direction may have access to a fold-down ledge on the back of the seat in front. If the aisle is located between seats, seat rows may face the same direction, or be grouped, with twin rows facing each other. In some vehicles intended for commuter services, seats are positioned with their backs to the side walls, either on one side or more on both, facing each other across the aisle; this gives a wide accessway and allows room for standing passengers at peak times, as well as improving loading and unloading speeds. If the aisle is at the side, the car is divided into small compartments; these contain six seats, although sometimes in second class they contain eight, sometimes in first class they contain four. Passenger cars can take the electricity supply for heating and lighting equipment from either of two main sources: directly from a head end power generator on the locomotive via bus cables, or by an axle-powered generator which continuously charges batteries whenever the train is in motion.
Modern cars have either air-conditioning or windows that can be opened, or sometimes both. Various types of onboard train toilet facilities may be provided. Other types of passenger car exist for long journeys, such as the dining car, parlor car, disco car, in rare cases theater and movie theater car. In some cases another type of car is temporarily converted to one of these for an event. Observation cars were built for the rear of many famous trains to allow the passengers to view the scenery; these proved popular, leading to the development of dome cars multiple units of which could be placed mid-train, featured a glass-enclosed upper level extending above the normal roof to provide passengers with a better view. Sleeping cars outfitted with small bedrooms allow passengers to sleep through their night-time trips, while couchette cars provide more basic sleeping accommodation. Long-distance trains require baggage cars for the passengers' luggage. In European practice it used to be common for day coaches to be formed of compartments seating 6 or 8 passengers, with access from a side corridor.
In the UK, Corridor coaches fell into disfavor in the 1960s and 1970s because open coaches are considered more secure by women traveling alone. Another distinction is between single- and double deck train cars. An example of a double decker is the Amtrak superliner. A "trainset" is a semi-permanently arranged formation of cars, rather than one created "ad hoc" out of whatever cars are available; these are only broken up and reshuffled'on shed'. Trains are built of one or more of these'sets' coupled together as needed for the capacity of that train, but not always, passenger cars in a train are linked together with enclosed, flexible gangway connections through which passengers and crewmen can walk. Some designs incorporate semi-permanent connections between cars and may have a full-width connection making them one long, articulated'car'. In North America, passenger cars employ tightlock couplings to keep a train together in the event of a derailment or other accident. Many multiple unit trains consist of cars which are semi-permanently coupled into sets: these sets may be joined together to form larger trains, but passengers can only move around between cars within a set.
This "closed" arrangement keeps parties of travellers and their luggage together, hence allows the separate sets to be split to go separate ways. Some multiple-unit trainsets are designed so that corridor connections can be opened between coupled sets; these cabs or driving trailers are useful for reversing the train. Freight cars, goods wagons, or trucks exist in a wide variety of types, adapted to carry a host of goods. There were few types of cars. Freight cars or goods wagons are categorized as follows: Boxcar, covered wagon or van: enclosed car with side
A train wheel or rail wheel is a type of wheel specially designed for use on rail tracks. A rolling component is pressed onto an axle and mounted directly on a rail car or locomotive or indirectly on a bogie called a truck. Wheels are heat-treated to have a specific hardness. New wheels are trued, to a specific profile before being pressed onto an axle. All wheel profiles need to be periodically monitored to ensure proper wheel-rail interface. Improperly trued wheels increase rolling resistance, reduce energy efficiency and may create unsafe operation. A railroad wheel consists of two main parts: the wheel itself, the tire around the outside. A rail tire is made from steel, is heated and pressed onto the wheel, where it remains as it shrinks and cools. Monobloc wheels do not have encircling tires, while resilient rail wheels have a resilient material, such as rubber, between the wheel and tire. Most train wheels have a conical geometry, the primary means of keeping the train's motion aligned with the track.
Train wheels have a flange on one side to keep the wheels, hence the train, running on the rails when the limits of the geometry-based alignment are reached, e.g. due to some emergency or defect. See Hunting oscillation; some wheels have a cylindrical geometry, where flanges are essential to keep the train on the rail track. Wheels used for road-rail vehicles are smaller than those found on other types of rolling stock; this is because the wheel has to be stored clear of the ground when the vehicle is in road-going mode - Such wheels can be as small as 245 mm in diameter. In Australia, wheels for road-rail vehicles should comply with the requirements of AS7514.4, the standard for infrastructure maintenance vehicle wheels. The wheels of many rail vehicles steam locomotives and older types of rolling stock, are fitted with steel tires to provide a replaceable wearing element on a costly wheel. Replacing a whole wheel because of a worn contact surface is expensive, so older types of railway wheels were fitted with replaceable steel tires.
The tire is a hoop of steel, fitted around the steel wheel centre. The tire is machined with a shoulder on its outer face to locate it on the wheel centre, a groove on the inside diameter of the flange face; the inside diameter of the tire is machined to be less than the diameter of the wheel centre on which it is mounted, to give an interference fit. The tire is fitted by avoiding overheating; this causes the tire to expand. The wheel centre already mounted on the axle, is lowered into the tire, flange-side-up; the tire cools, the retaining ring is fitted into the groove. Hydraulically operated rolls swage the groove down onto the retaining ring; the tire is held in place by its interference fit. The shoulder on the outside and the retaining ring keep the tire in place if the interference fit is lost; this is most due to severe drag braking down a gradient, or due to an error in the machining. Removal of a worn tire is by machining out the retaining ring and heating the tire to relax the interference fit.
Some steam locomotive wheels had tires bolted through the rim, or with a second smaller shoulder machined on the inside face of the tire. This shoulder was limited in size as it had to pass over the wheel centre for assembly. Tires of different designs were fitted to various other types; the use of tires is becoming obsolete. The utilisation of traditional freight wagons was so low that tires never needed renewal, so it was cheaper to fit a one-piece wheel. Monoblock wheels offer better integrity as there is no tire to come loose. Modern flow-line repair lines are disrupted by the inspection of the wheel centre once the tire is removed generating extra rectification work, the need to make each tire fit its allocated wheel centre. Monoblock wheels are now more economical; the most usual cause of damage is drag braking on severe gradients. Because the brake blocks apply directly on the tire, it is heated up, it is not feasible to fit the tire with such a heavy interference as to eliminate this risk and the retaining ring will ensure that the tire can only rotate on the wheel center, maintaining its alignment.
In rare instances the rotation could be so severe as to wear the retaining ring down till it breaks, which could result in derailment. Severe braking or low adhesion may stop the rotation of the wheels while the vehicle is still moving, which can cause a flat spot on the tire and localized heat damage to the tire material. Tires are reasonably thick, about 3 inches. Worn tires or tires with flats are re-profiled on a wheel lathe if there is sufficient thickness of material remaining. Adhesive weight Conical shape ISO 1005 Parts 1-9 BS 5892 Parts 1-6 AS7414.4 "APTA PR-CS-RP-003-98 Recommended Practice for Developing a Clearance Diagram for Passenger Equipment 22.214.171.124 Design tolerances". APTA.com. American Public Transportation Association. 1998-03-26. Retrieved 2015-01-17. Train wheels
Track (rail transport)
The track on a railway or railroad known as the permanent way, is the structure consisting of the rails, railroad ties and ballast, plus the underlying subgrade. It enables trains to move by providing a dependable surface for their wheels to roll upon. For clarity it is referred to as railway track or railroad track. Tracks where electric trains or electric trams run are equipped with an electrification system such as an overhead electrical power line or an additional electrified rail; the term permanent way refers to the track in addition to lineside structures such as fences. Notwithstanding modern technical developments, the overwhelmingly dominant track form worldwide consists of flat-bottom steel rails supported on timber or pre-stressed concrete sleepers, which are themselves laid on crushed stone ballast. Most railroads with heavy traffic utilize continuously welded rails supported by sleepers attached via base plates that spread the load. A plastic or rubber pad is placed between the rail and the tie plate where concrete sleepers are used.
The rail is held down to the sleeper with resilient fastenings, although cut spikes are used in North American practice. For much of the 20th century, rail track used softwood timber sleepers and jointed rails, a considerable extent of this track type remains on secondary and tertiary routes; the rails were of flat bottom section fastened to the sleepers with dog spikes through a flat tie plate in North America and Australia, of bullhead section carried in cast iron chairs in British and Irish practice. The London and Scottish Railway pioneered the conversion to flat-bottomed rail and the supposed advantage of bullhead rail - that the rail could be turned over and re-used when the top surface had become worn - turned out to be unworkable in practice because the underside was ruined by fretting from the chairs. Jointed rails were used at first. However, the intrinsic weakness in resisting vertical loading results in the ballast becoming depressed and a heavy maintenance workload is imposed to prevent unacceptable geometrical defects at the joints.
The joints needed to be lubricated, wear at the fishplate mating surfaces needed to be rectified by shimming. For this reason jointed track is not financially appropriate for operated railroads. Timber sleepers are of many available timbers, are treated with creosote, Chromated copper arsenate, or other wood preservatives. Pre-stressed concrete sleepers are used where timber is scarce and where tonnage or speeds are high. Steel is used in some applications; the track ballast is customarily crushed stone, the purpose of this is to support the sleepers and allow some adjustment of their position, while allowing free drainage. A disadvantage of traditional track structures is the heavy demand for maintenance surfacing and lining to restore the desired track geometry and smoothness of vehicle running. Weakness of the subgrade and drainage deficiencies lead to heavy maintenance costs; this can be overcome by using ballastless track. In its simplest form this consists of a continuous slab of concrete with the rails supported directly on its upper surface.
There are a number of proprietary systems, variations include a continuous reinforced concrete slab, or alternatively the use of pre-cast pre-stressed concrete units laid on a base layer. Many permutations of design have been put forward. However, ballastless track has a high initial cost, in the case of existing railroads the upgrade to such requires closure of the route for a long period, its whole-life cost can be lower because of the reduction in maintenance. Ballastless track is considered for new high speed or high loading routes, in short extensions that require additional strength, or for localised replacement where there are exceptional maintenance difficulties, for example in tunnels. Most rapid transit lines and rubber-tyred metro systems use ballastless track. Early railways experimented with continuous bearing railtrack, in which the rail was supported along its length, with examples including Brunel's baulk road on the Great Western Railway, as well as use on the Newcastle and North Shields Railway, on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway to a design by John Hawkshaw, elsewhere.
Continuous-bearing designs were promoted by other engineers. The system was trialled on the Baltimore and Ohio railway in the 1840s, but was found to be more expensive to maintain than rail with cross sleepers. Applications of continuously supported track include Balfour Beatty's'embedded slab track', which uses a rounded rectangular rail profile embedded in a slipformed concrete base. The'embedded rail structure', used in the Netherlands since 1976 used a conventional UIC 54 rail embedded in concrete, developed to use a'mushroom' shaped SA42 rail profile. Modern ladder track can be considered a development of baulk road. Ladder track utilizes sleepers aligned along the same direction as the rails with rung-like gauge restraining cross members. Both ballasted and ballastless types exist. Modern track uses hot-rolled steel with a profile of an asymmetrical rounded I-beam. Unlike some other uses of iron and steel, railway rails are subject to high stresses and have to be made of ve
Wheelset (rail transport)
A wheelset is the wheel–axle assembly of a railroad car. The frame assembly beneath each end of a car, railcar or locomotive that holds the wheelsets is called the bogie. Most North American freight cars have two bogies with two or three wheelsets, depending on the type of car. Two-axle cars operating on lines with sharp curves, such as Queensland Railways, used Grovers bogies. Rubber-tyred metros feature special wheelsets with rubber tyres outside of the special flanged steel wheels; the unusually large flanges on the steel wheels guide the bogie through standard railroad switches and in addition keep the train from derailing in case the tires deflate. Most train wheels have a semi-conical taper of about 1 in 20; the semi-conical shape helps steer the wheel set around curves, so that the wheel flanges do not come in contact with the rail sides. The rails slant inwards at the same rate as the wheel conicity; as the wheels approach a curve, they tend to continue in a straight path due to the inertia of the rail car.
This inertia makes the wheel set to shift sideways. Due to this fact, the effective diameter of the outer wheels needs to be greater than that of the inner ones. Since the wheels are joined rigidly by the axle, the outer wheels travel farther causing the train to follow the curve. For more information on this process, see Hunting oscillation. Queensland Railways, for its first hundred years, used vertical rails. With non-inclined rails and cylindrical wheels, the wheel squeal from trains taking curves on that railway was slight. After adopting coned wheels and inclined rails from the mid 1980s, the wheel squeal from trains curving at the same location and at the same speed decreased immensely; some modern systems, such as Bay Area Rapid Transit in San Francisco, use cylindrical wheels and flat-topped rails. Matthias N. Forney; the Railroad Car Builder's Dictionary. Dover Publications, Inc. White, John H.. The American Railroad Passenger Car. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801819652.
OCLC 2798188. White, John H. Jr.. The American Railroad Freight Car: From the Wood-Car Era to the Coming of Steel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4404-5. OCLC 26130632. "APTA PR-CS-RP-003-98 Recommended Practice for Developing a Clearance Diagram for Passenger Equipment 126.96.36.199 Design tolerances". APTA.com. American Public Transportation Association. 1998-03-26. Retrieved 2015-01-17. Train wheels
Boglárka Dallos-Nyers, better known as Bogi or Bogi Dallos, is a Hungarian singer, best known for participating in A Dal 2013, 2014 and 2015. On 10 January 2013, Bogi was announced as one of the thirty finalists for A Dal 2013 with her Hungarian language R&B song "Tükörkép", she competed in the first heat held on 2 February 2013, but did not receive enough jury or public votes to move on to the semi-finals and was eliminated. On 11 December 2013, Bogi was announced once again to be one of the thirty competitors in A Dal 2014, this time with an English language indie pop song "We All", she competed in the second heat on 1 February 2014, was one of the three jury qualifiers, advancing to the semi-finals. She competed in the first semi-final held on 15 February 2014, once again achieved enough jury votes to become one of the jury qualifiers and advance to the final. In the final held on 22 February 2014, Bogi performed second, it was announced she was one of the four contestants who received enough jury votes to move on to the top four, where the winner will be decided by public votes.
Bogi placed in the top four. She represented Hungary in the OGAE Second Chance Contest 2014 with "We All". On 8 December 2014, it was announced that Bogi would take part in A Dal once again with the song "World of Violence", she participated in the first heat, passed onto the semi-final courtesy of the jury vote, where she was eliminated