SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bohemia

Bohemia is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. In a broader meaning, Bohemia sometimes refers to the entire Czech territory, including Moravia and Czech Silesia in a historical context, such as the Lands of the Bohemian Crown ruled by Bohemian kings. Bohemia was a duchy of Great Moravia an independent principality, a kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire, subsequently a part of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Austrian Empire. After World War I and the establishment of an independent Czechoslovak state, the total of Bohemia became a part of Czechoslovakia, defying claims of the German speaking inhabitants that regions with German speaking majority should be included in the Republic of German-Austria. Between 1938 and 1945, these border regions were joined to Nazi Germany as the Sudetenland; the remainder of Czech territory became the Second Czechoslovak Republic and was subsequently occupied as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. In 1969, the Czech lands were given autonomy within Czechoslovakia as the Czech Socialist Republic.

In 1990, the name was changed to the Czech Republic, which became a separate state in 1993 with the breakup of Czechoslovakia. Until 1948, Bohemia was an administrative unit of Czechoslovakia as one of its "lands". Since administrative reforms have replaced self-governing lands with a modified system of "regions" which do not follow the borders of the historical Czech lands. However, the three lands are mentioned in the preamble of the Constitution of the Czech Republic: "We, citizens of the Czech Republic in Bohemia and Silesia…"Bohemia had an area of 52,065 km2 and today is home to 6.5 million of the Czech Republic's 10.5 million inhabitants. Bohemia was bordered in the south by Upper and Lower Austria, in the west by Bavaria and in the north by Saxony and Lusatia, in the northeast by Silesia, in the east by Moravia. Bohemia's borders were marked by mountain ranges such as the Bohemian Forest, the Ore Mountains, the Krkonoše, a part of the Sudetes range. In the 2nd century BC, the Romans were competing for dominance in northern Italy with various peoples including the Gauls-Celtic tribe Boii.

The Romans defeated the Boii at the Battle of Mutina. Afterward, many of the Boii retreated north across the Alps. Much Roman authors refer to the area they had once occupied as Boiohaemum; the earliest mention was by Tacitus' Germania 28, mentions of the same name are in Strabo and Velleius Paterculus. The name appears to include the tribal name Boi- plus the Germanic element *haimaz "home", indicating a Proto-Germanic *Bajōhaimaz. Boiohaemum was isolated to the area where King Marobod's kingdom was centred, within the Hercynian forest. Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII in his 10th century work De Administrando Imperio mentioned the region as Boïki; the Czech name "Čechy" is derived from the name of the Slavic ethnic group, the Czechs, who settled in the area during the 6th or 7th century AD. Bohemia, like neighbouring Bavaria, is named after the Boii, a large Celtic nation known to the Romans for their migrations and settlement in northern Italy and other places. Another part of the nation moved west with the Helvetii into southern France, one of the events leading to the interventions of Julius Caesar's Gaulish campaign of 58 BC.

The emigration of the Helvetii and Boii left southern Germany and Bohemia a inhabited "desert" into which Suebic peoples arrived, speaking Germanic languages, became dominant over remaining Celtic groups. To the south, over the Danube, the Romans extended their empire, to the southeast, in present-day Hungary, were Dacian peoples. In the area of modern Bohemia the Marcomanni and other Suebic groups were led by their king, after they had suffered defeat to Roman forces in Germany, he took advantage of the natural defenses provided by its forests. They were able to maintain a strong alliance with neighbouring tribes including the Lugii, Hermunduri and Buri, sometimes controlled by the Roman Empire and sometimes in conflict with it. In late classical times and the early Middle Ages, two new Suebic groupings appeared to the west of Bohemia in southern Germany, the Alemanni, the Bavarians. Many Suebic tribes from the Bohemian region took part in such movements westwards settling as far away as Spain and Portugal.

With them were tribes who had pushed from the east, such as the Vandals, Alans. Other groups pushed southwards towards Pannonia; the last known mention of the kingdom of the Marcomanni, concerning a queen named Fritigil, is from the 4th century, she was thought to have lived in or near Pannonia. The Suebian Langobardi, who moved over many generations from the Baltic Sea, via the Elbe and Pannonia to Italy, recorded in a tribal history a time spent in "Bainaib". After the Migration Period, Bohemia was repopulated around the 6th century, Slavic tribes arrived from the east, their language began to replace the older Germanic and Sarmatian ones; these are

Augustus Caesar Dodge House

The Augustus Caesar Dodge House is a historic building located in Burlington, United States. Augustus C. Dodge came to Burlington as Registrar of the Land Office, a political appointment of President Martin Van Buren; as a Democrat, he went on to serve as the Iowa Territory's Delegate to the U. S. House of Representatives, one of Iowa's first two U. S. Senators, Minister to Spain under Presidents Franklin Pierce and James Buchanan, Mayor of Burlington; the two-story, brick house follows an L-shaped plan and was built sometime around in the mid-to-late 1860s. It is representative of Burlington's mid-19th century architecture; the house is not defined by any particular architectural style, but the bracketed eaves allow it to be classified as a vernacular form of the Italianate style. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980

Intelligent Network

The Intelligent Network is the standard network architecture specified in the ITU-T Q.1200 series recommendations. It is intended for fixed as well as mobile telecom networks, it allows operators to differentiate themselves by providing value-added services in addition to the standard telecom services such as PSTN, ISDN on fixed networks, GSM services on mobile phones or other mobile devices. The intelligence is provided by network nodes on the service layer, distinct from the switching layer of the core network, as opposed to solutions based on intelligence in the core switches or equipment; the IN nodes are owned by telecommunications service providers such as a telephone company or mobile phone operator. IN is supported by the Signaling System #7 protocol between network switching centers and other network nodes owned by network operators. Televoting Call screening Local number portability Toll-free calls/Freephone Prepaid calling Account card calling Virtual private networks Centrex service Private-number plans Universal Personal Telecommunications service Mass-calling service Prefix free dialing from cellphones abroad Seamless MMS message access from abroad Reverse charging Home Area Discount Premium Rate calls Call distribution based on various criteria associated with the call Location-based routing Time-based routing Proportional call distribution Call queueing Call transfer The IN concepts and protocols were developed as standards by the ITU-T, the standardization committee of the International Telecommunication Union.

The primary aim of the IN was to enhance the core telephony services offered by traditional telecommunications networks, which amounted to making and receiving voice calls, sometimes with call divert. This core would provide a basis upon which operators could build services in addition to those present on a standard telephone exchange. A complete description of the IN emerged in a set of ITU-T standards named Q.1210 to Q.1219, or Capability Set One as they became known. The standards defined a complete architecture including the architectural view, state machines, physical implementation and protocols, they were universally embraced by telecom suppliers and operators, although many variants were derived for use in different parts of the world. Following the success of CS-1, further enhancements followed in the form of CS-2. Although the standards were completed, they were not as implemented as CS-1 because of the increasing power of the variants, but partly because they addressed issues which pushed traditional telephone exchanges to their limits.

The major driver behind the development of the IN was the need for a more flexible way of adding sophisticated services to the existing network. Before the IN was developed, all new features and/or services had to be implemented directly in the core switch systems; this made for long release cycles as the software testing had to be extensive and thorough to prevent the network from failing. With the advent of the IN, most of these services were moved out of the core switch systems and into self-contained nodes, creating a modular and more secure network that allowed the service providers themselves to develop variations and value-added services to their networks without submitting a request to the core switch manufacturer and waiting for the long development process; the initial use of IN technology was for number translation services, e.g. when translating toll-free numbers to regular PSTN numbers. The main concepts surrounding IN services or architecture are connected with SS7 architecture: Service Switching Function or Service Switching Point is co-located with the telephone exchange, acts as the trigger point for further services to be invoked during a call.

The SSP implements the Basic Call State Machine, a Finite state machine that represents an abstract view of a call from beginning to end. As each state is traversed, the exchange encounters Detection Points at which the SSP may invoke a query to the SCP to wait for further instructions on how to proceed; this query is called a trigger. Trigger criteria are defined by the operator and might include the subscriber calling number or the dialed number; the SSF is responsible for controlling calls requiring value added services. Service Control Function or Service Control Point is a separate set of platforms that receive queries from the SSP; the SCP contains service logic which implements the behaviour desired by the operator, i.e. the services. During service logic processing, additional data required to process the call may be obtained from the SDF; the logic on the SCP is created using the SCE. Service Data Function or Service Data Point is a database that contains additional subscriber data, or other data required to process a call.

For example, the subscriber's remaining prepaid credit may be stored in the SDF to be queried in real-time during the call. The SDF may be a separate platform or co-located with the SCP. Service Management Function or Service Management Point is a platform or cluster of platforms that operators use to monitor and manage the IN services, it contains the management d