Bohemia is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. Bohemia was a duchy of Great Moravia, an independent principality, a kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire, and subsequently a part of the Habsburg Monarchy, after World War I and the establishment of an independent Czechoslovak state, Bohemia became a part of Czechoslovakia. Between 1938 and 1945, border regions with sizeable German-speaking minorities of all three Czech lands were joined to Nazi Germany as the Sudetenland, in 1990, the name was changed to the Czech Republic, which become a separate state in 1993 with the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. Until 1948, Bohemia was a unit of Czechoslovakia as one of its lands. Bohemia was bordered in the south by Upper and Lower Austria, in the west by Bavaria and in the north by Saxony and Lusatia, in the northeast by Silesia, and in the east by Moravia. In the 2nd century BC, the Romans were competing for dominance in northern Italy, the Romans defeated the Boii at the Battle of Placentia and the Battle of Mutina.
After this, many of the Boii retreated north across the Alps, much Roman authors refer to the area they had once occupied as Boiohaemum. The earliest mention was by Tacitus Germania 28, and mentions of the name are in Strabo. The name appears to include the tribal name Boi- plus the Germanic element *haimaz home and this Boiohaemum was apparently isolated to the area where King Marobods kingdom was centred, within the Hercynian forest. The Czech name Čechy is derived from the name of the Slavic ethnic group, the Czechs, like neighbouring Bavaria, is named after the Boii, who were a large Celtic nation known to the Romans for their migrations and settlement in northern Italy and other places. Another part of the nation moved west with the Helvetii into southern France, to the south, over the Danube, the Romans extended their empire, and to the southeast in Hungaria, were Sarmatian peoples. In the area of modern Bohemia the Marcomanni and other Suebic groups were led by their king Marobodus and he took advantage of the natural defenses provided by its mountains and forests.
In late classical times and the early Middle Ages, two new Suebic groupings appeared to the west of Bohemia in southern Germany, the Alemanni, many Suebic tribes from the Bohemian region took part in such movements westwards, even settling as far away as Spain and Portugal. With them were tribes who had pushed from the east, such as the Vandals, other groups pushed southwards towards Pannonia. These are precursors of todays Czechs, though the amount of Slavic immigration is a subject of debate. The Slavic influx was divided into two or three waves, the first wave came from the southeast and east, when the Germanic Lombards left Bohemia. Soon after, from the 630s to 660s, the territory was taken by Samos tribal confederation and his death marked the end of the old Slavonic confederation, the second attempt to establish such a Slavonic union after Carantania in Carinthia. Other sources divide the population of Bohemia at this time into the Merehani, Beheimare, Christianity first appeared in the early 9th century, but only became dominant much later, in the 10th or 11th century
It is the original building of the National Gallery, whose holdings are now housed in several additional buildings. It is situated on Museum Island, a UNESCO-designated World Heritage Site, the first impetus to founding a national gallery came in 1815. The idea gained momentum during the 1830s, but without an actual building, in 1841 the first real plans were created. This donation formed the basis of the current collection, the collection was first known as Wagenersche und Nationalgalerie and was housed in the buildings of the Akademie der Künste. The current building, shaped like a Roman temple with an apse, was designed by Friedrich August Stüler and after his death. Friedrich August Stüler began working on a design for the building in 1863, two years and two failed plans later, his third proposal was finally accepted. Stüler died before planning was completed and Carl Busse handled the details in 1865. In 1866, by order of the king and his cabinet, ground was broken in 1867 under the supervision of Heinrich Strack.
In 1872 the structure was completed and interior work began, the opening took place on March 22,1876 in the presence of the Kaiser. Because of the modern construction using brick and iron, it was widely believed to be fireproof. The exterior and outer staircase were constructed of Triassic sandstone from Nebra, at the opening the collection was still relatively small. Next to Wageners collection, was a display of cartoons by Peter von Cornelius that had been bequeathed to the Prussian government, the initial objective of the gallery was to collect contemporary, primarily Prussian art, as Berlin did not have any repository of modern art. In 1874 Max Jordan became the first director of the National Gallery, in 1896 he was succeeded by Hugo von Tschudi, who acquired Impressionist works, risking conflict with the Kaiser because this ended the collections focus on German art. The German National Gallery thus became the most important museum for modern French Art at the turn of the century, in 1909, Ludwig Justi assumed the post of director, and added Expressionist works to the collection.
Following the German Revolution of 1918–1919 that ended Imperial rule, he moved the art to the Kronprinzenpalais at the end of Unter den Linden. In 1933, the new Nazi authorities dismissed Justi, who was followed by Eberhard Hanfstaengl and he remained until 1937, when he too was dismissed. His successor, Paul Ortwin Rave, remained until 1950, although because of World War II the building was closed during much of that time and it was heavily damaged in Allied air raids. It was partly reopened in 1949, but reconstruction continued until 1969, between 1998 and 2001, the museum was renovated thoroughly by German architect HG Merz
Frank Gelett Burgess was an artist, art critic, poet and humorist. He was the author of the popular Goops books, and he coined the term blurb, born in Boston, Burgess was raised among staid, conservative New England gentry. He attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, graduating with a B. S. in 1887, after graduation, Burgess fled conservative Boston for the livelier bohemia of San Francisco, where he took a job working as a draftsman for the Southern Pacific Railroad. In 1891, he was hired by the University of California at Berkeley as an instructor of topographical drawing, in his right hand he holds a temperance pledge rolled up like a sausage, and the other used to contain a goblet overflowing with heavens own nectar. But wicked boys shattered the emblem of teetotalism with their pea-shooters, in response, numerous acts of minor vandalism had been inflicted upon the fountain. Four iron posts with ornate lamps at the top originally graced the corners of this example of temperance.
Beer wagons heavy laden humped into the posts, shattered the stained-glass lamps, some of the lamps are canted over like a tipsy mans hat, and the whole group presents a most convivial aspect. The toppling incident took place in the hours of January 1,1894. The newspaper noted that no one professes to have knowledge of the perpetrators of the outrage, Burgess is now held in high regard at the University of California, Berkeley as a former professor and literary talent. A selection of his works and his papers are housed in the Bancroft Library on the Berkeley campus. Burgesss departure from the University became an opportunity to reconsider his professional aspirations, with a group of like-minded associates, he founded in 1895 a humorous little magazine entitled The Lark. The Lark began as a lark, but was successful than its makers intended. Before the official date, local publisher/bookseller William Doxey, intrigued by the first number. Volume 1, number 1 of the 16-page monthly appeared on May Day, May 1,1895, I never saw a purple cow I never hope to see one, But I can tell you, anyhow, Id rather see than be one.
At first, the magazine was edited and written primarily by Burgess, for example, in volume 1, four of the other authors are Burgess writing under different names. Burgess was initially assisted by writer-artist Bruce Porter, the magazine soon attracted an eclectic group of contributors, who became known as Les jeunes. These included Porter Garnett, Carolyn Wells, Willis Polk, Yone Noguchi, local artists, including Ernest Peixotto, Florence Lundborg and Maynard Dixon, contributed illustrations and cover designs. Number 24 of The Lark was declared to be the last, by this point, Burgess had become thoroughly sick of The Purple Cow, and wrote the following Confession, and a Portrait Too, Upon a Background that I Rue in The Lark, number 24
Today, the club has a diverse membership of many local and global leaders, ranging from artists and musicians to businessmen. The Bohemian Club has two locations, the City Club and the Bohemian Grove, the clubhouse contains dining rooms, meeting rooms, a bar, a library, an art gallery, a theater, and guestrooms. In addition to that ceremony, devised by co-founder James F. Bowman in 1881, the more elaborate of the two is the Grove Play, or High Jinks, the more ribald is called Low Jinks. More often than not, the productions are original creations of the Associate members, during the war, reporters began to assume the title bohemian, and newspapermen in general took up the moniker. Bohemian became synonymous with newspaper writer, california journalist Bret Harte first wrote as The Bohemian in The Golden Era in 1861, with this persona taking part in many satirical doings. Harte described San Francisco as a sort of Bohemia of the West, mark Twain called himself and poet Charles Warren Stoddard bohemians in 1867.
The Bohemian Club was originally formed in April 1872 by and for journalists who wished to promote a connection among men who enjoyed the arts. The boys wanted a place where they could get together after work and that was the start of the Bohemian Club, and it was not an unmixed blessing for the Chronicle because the boys would go there sometimes when they should have reported at the office. Very often when Dan OConnell sat down to a dinner there he would forget that he had a pocketful of notes for an important story. Journalists were to be members and musicians were to be honorary members. The group quickly relaxed its rules for membership to permit people to join who had little artistic talent. Eventually, the original members were in the minority and the wealthy. Club member and poet George Sterling responded to this redefinition, Any good mixer of convivial habits considers he has a right to be called a Bohemian, but that is not a valid claim. There are two elements, at least, that are essential to Bohemianism, the first is devotion or addiction to one or more of the Seven Arts, the other is poverty.
Despite his purist views, Sterling associated very closely with the Bohemian Club, oscar Wilde, upon visiting the club in 1882, is reported to have said I never saw so many well-dressed, well-fed, business-looking Bohemians in my life. A number of past membership lists are in public domain, some prominent figures have been given honorary membership, such as Richard Nixon and William Randolph Hearst. Members have included some U. S. presidents, many cabinet officials, major military contractors, oil companies, banks and national media have high-ranking officials as club members or guests. Many members are, or have been, on the board of directors of several of these corporations, artists, the clubs bylaws require ten percent of the membership be accomplished artists of all types
Walter Walt Whitman was an American poet and journalist. A humanist, he was a part of the transition between transcendentalism and realism, incorporating both views in his works, Whitman is among the most influential poets in the American canon, often called the father of free verse. His work was controversial in its time, particularly his poetry collection Leaves of Grass. Born in Huntington on Long Island, Whitman worked as a journalist, a teacher, early in his career, he produced a temperance novel, Franklin Evans. Whitmans major work, Leaves of Grass, was first published in 1855 with his own money, the work was an attempt at reaching out to the common person with an American epic. He continued expanding and revising it until his death in 1892, after a stroke towards the end of his life, he moved to Camden, New Jersey, where his health further declined. When he died at age 72, his became an public spectacle. Walter Whitman was born on May 31,1819, in West Hills, Town of Huntington, Long Island, to parents with interests in Quaker thought, the second of nine children, he was immediately nicknamed Walt to distinguish him from his father.
Walter Whitman, Sr. named three of his seven sons after American leaders, Andrew Jackson, George Washington, and Thomas Jefferson, the oldest was named Jesse and another boy died unnamed at the age of six months. The couples sixth son, the youngest, was named Edward, at age four, Whitman moved with his family from West Hills to Brooklyn, living in a series of homes, in part due to bad investments. Whitman looked back on his childhood as generally restless and unhappy, one happy moment that he recalled was when he was lifted in the air and kissed on the cheek by the Marquis de Lafayette during a celebration in Brooklyn on July 4,1825. At age eleven Whitman concluded formal schooling, Whitman learned about the printing press and typesetting. He may have written sentimental bits of material for occasional issues. Clements aroused controversy when he and two attempted to dig up the corpse of Elias Hicks to create a plaster mold of his head. Clements left the Patriot shortly afterward, possibly as a result of the controversy, the following summer Whitman worked for another printer, Erastus Worthington, in Brooklyn.
His family moved back to West Hills in the spring, but Whitman remained and took a job at the shop of Alden Spooner, at age 16 in May 1835, Whitman left the Star and Brooklyn. He moved to New York City to work as a compositor though, in years, in May 1836, he rejoined his family, now living in Hempstead, Long Island. Whitman taught intermittently at various schools until the spring of 1838, after his teaching attempts, Whitman went back to Huntington, New York to found his own newspaper, the Long Islander
Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini was an Italian opera composer who has been called the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi. Puccinis early work was rooted in traditional late-19th-century romantic Italian opera, later, he successfully developed his work in the realistic verismo style, of which he became one of the leading exponents. Puccinis most renowned works are La bohème, and Madama Butterfly, Puccini was born Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini in Lucca in Tuscany, in 1858. He was one of nine children of Michele Puccini and Albina Magi, the Puccini family was established in Lucca as a local musical dynasty by Puccinis great-great grandfather – named Giacomo. This first Giacomo Puccini was maestro di cappella of the Cattedrale di San Martino in Lucca and he was succeeded in this position by his son, Antonio Puccini, and by Antonios son Domenico, and Domenicos son Michele. Each of these men studied music at Bologna, and some additional musical studies elsewhere.
Domenico Puccini studied for a time under Giovanni Paisiello, each composed music for the church. In addition, Domenico composed several operas, and Michele composed one opera, Puccinis father Michele enjoyed a reputation throughout northern Italy, and his funeral was an occasion of public mourning, at which the then-famed composer Giovanni Pacini conducted a Requiem. However, when Michele Puccini died in 1864, his son Giacomo was only six years old, as a child, he nevertheless participated in the musical life of the Cattedrale di San Martino, as a member of the boys choir and as a substitute organist. Puccini was given an education at the seminary of San Michele in Lucca. One of Puccinis uncles, Fortunato Magi, supervised his musical education, Puccini got a diploma from the Pacini School of Music in Lucca in 1880, having studied there with his uncle Fortunato, and with Carlo Angeloni, who had instructed Alfredo Catalani. Puccini studied at the conservatory for three years, sharing a room with Pietro Mascagni, in 1880, at the age of 21, Puccini composed his Mass, which marks the culmination of his familys long association with church music in his native Lucca.
Puccini wrote a piece called the Capriccio sinfonica as a thesis composition for the Milan Conservatory. Puccinis teachers Ponchielli and Bazzini were impressed by the work, and it was performed at a student concert at the conservatory on 14 July 1883, conducted by Franco Faccio. Puccinis work was reviewed in the Milanese publication Perseveranza. After the premiere of the Capriccio sinfonica and Puccini discussed the possibility that Puccinis next work might be an opera, Ponchielli invited Puccini to stay at his villa, where Puccini was introduced to another young man named Fernando Fontana. Puccini and Fontana agreed to collaborate on an opera, for which Fontana would provide the libretto, the work, Le Villi, was entered into a competition sponsored by the Sozogno music publishing company in 1883. Although it did not win, Le Villi was staged at the Teatro Dal Verme, G. Ricordi & Co. music publishers assisted with the premier by printing the libretto without charge
The Czech Republic, known as Czechia, is a nation state in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with mostly temperate continental climate and it is a unitary parliamentary republic, has 10.5 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague, with over 1.2 million residents. The Czech Republic includes the territories of Bohemia, Moravia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire, after the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as part of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria, the Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years War.
After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, reimposed Roman Catholicism, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, and was liberated in 1945 by the armies of the Soviet Union and the United States. The Czech country lost the majority of its German-speaking inhabitants after they were expelled following the war, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections. Following the 1948 coup détat, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence, in 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed, on 6 March 1990, the Czech Socialistic Republic was renamed to the Czech Republic. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004, it is a member of the United Nations, the OECD, the OSCE, and it is a developed country with an advanced, high income economy and high living standards. The UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development, the Czech Republic ranks as the 6th most peaceful country, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance. It has the lowest unemployment rate in the European Union, the traditional English name Bohemia derives from Latin Boiohaemum, which means home of the Boii. The current name comes from the endonym Čech, spelled Cžech until the reform in 1842. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, the etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning member of the people, thus making it cognate to the Czech word člověk. The country has traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the southeast, and Czech Silesia in the northeast.
Following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia at the end of 1992, the Czech part of the former nation found itself without a common single-word geographical name in English, the name Czechia /ˈtʃɛkiə/ was recommended by the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Bohemian Grove is a 2, 700-acre campground located at 20601 Bohemian Avenue, in Monte Rio, belonging to a private San Francisco-based mens art club known as the Bohemian Club. In mid-July each year, Bohemian Grove hosts a two-week, three-weekend encampment of some of the most prominent men in the world, members may invite guests to the Grove. Guests may be invited to the Grove for either the Spring Jinks in June or the main July encampment. m, after 40 years of membership, the men earn Old Guard status, giving them reserved seating at the Groves daily talks, as well as other perquisites. Former U. S. president Herbert Hoover was inducted into the Old Guard on March 19,1953, Redwood branches from the Grove were flown to the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City, where they were used to decorate a banquet room for the celebration. In his acceptance speech, Hoover compared the honor of the Old Guard status to his frequent role as veteran counselor to presidents, the Club motto is Weaving Spiders Come Not Here, which implies that outside concerns and business deals are to be left outside.
When gathered in groups, Bohemians usually adhere to the injunction, important political and business deals have been developed at the Grove. The Grove is particularly famous for a Manhattan Project planning meeting took place there in September 1942. Those attending this meeting included Ernest Lawrence, U. C, Berkeley colleague J. Robert Oppenheimer, and various military officials. The S-1 Executive Committee heads, such as the presidents of Harvard, Yale, at the time, Oppenheimer was not an S-1 member, although Lawrence and Oppenheimer hosted the meeting. Grove members take pride in this event and often relate the story to new attendees. However, other behavior at this famous campground has led to numerous exaggerations, one such documented example was former president, Richard Nixons comments from a May 13,1971 recording that, The Bohemian Grove, which I attend from time to time. It is the most faggy goddamned thing you could ever imagine, the tradition of a summer encampment was established six years after the Bohemian Club was formed in 1872.
Henry Harry Edwards, an actor and founding member, announced that he was relocating to New York City to further his career. On June 29,1878, somewhat fewer than 100 Bohemians gathered in the Redwoods in Marin County near Taylorville for an evening party in Edwards honor. Freely flowing liquor and some Japanese lanterns put a glow on the festivities and this festive gathering was repeated the next year without Edwards, and became the clubs yearly encampment. From 1893 Bohemians rented the current location, and in 1899 purchased it from Melvin Cyrus Meeker who had developed a logging operation in the area. Gradually over the decades, members of the Club purchased land surrounding the original location to the perimeter of the basin in which it resides. Writer and journalist William Henry Irwin said of the Grove, You come upon it suddenly, one step and its glory is over you
Liberal arts education
Grammar and rhetoric were the core liberal arts, while arithmetic, the theory of music, and astronomy played a part in education. In modern times, liberal arts education term that can be interpreted in different ways and it can refer to academic subjects such as literature, philosophy and social and physical sciences, or it can refer to overall studies in a liberal arts degree program. For example, Harvard University offers a Bachelor of Arts degree, for both interpretations, the term generally refers to matters not relating to the professional, vocational, or technical curriculum. The four scientific artes – music, arithmetic and astronomy – were known from the time of Boethius onwards as the Quadrivium. After the 9th century, the three arts of the humanities – grammar and rhetoric – were classed as well as the Trivium. It was in that form that the seven liberal arts were studied in the medieval Western university. During the Middle Ages, logic gradually came to take predominance over the parts of the Trivium.
In the Renaissance, the Italian humanists and their Northern counterparts, despite in many respects continuing the traditions of the Middle Ages, the ideal of a liberal arts, or humanistic education grounded in classical languages and literature, persisted until the middle of the twentieth century. Some subsections of the arts are in the trivium—the verbal arts, grammar and rhetoric, and in the quadrivium—the numerical arts, geometry, music. Analyzing and interpreting information is included, the liberal arts education at the secondary school level prepares the student for higher education at a university. They are thus meant for the more academically minded students, in addition to the usual curriculum, students of a liberal arts education often study Latin and Ancient Greek. Some liberal arts education provide general education, others have a specific focus, today, a number of other areas of specialization exist, such as gymnasiums specializing in economics, technology or domestic sciences.
In some countries, there is a notion of progymnasium, which is equivalent to beginning classes of the full gymnasium, the prefix pro is equivalent to pre. In the United States, liberal arts colleges are schools emphasizing undergraduate study in the liberal arts, in most parts of Europe, liberal arts education is deeply rooted. In Germany and countries influenced by their education system, the term is not to be mixed up with some modern educational concepts that use a similar wording. Educational institutions that see themselves in that tradition are often a Gymnasium and they aim at providing their pupils with comprehensive education in order to form personality with regard to a pupils own humanity as well as his/her innate intellectual skills. Going back to the tradition of the liberal arts in Europe, education in the above sense was freed from scholastic thinking. In particular, Wilhelm von Humboldt played a key role in that regard, universities encourage students to do so and offer respective opportunities, but do not make such activities part of the universitys curriculum
Socially, intellectuals constitute the intelligentsia, a status class organised either by ideology, or by nationality. Man of Letters The English term Man of Letters derives from the French term belletrist, the term Man of Letters distinguished the literate man from the illiterate man, in a time when literacy was a rare form of cultural capital. In late 19th century, the term became common usage to denote the defenders of the falsely accused artillery officer Alfred Dreyfus. Likewise, in Tsarist Russia, there arose the intelligentsia, who were the class of white-collar workers. As such, politically radical thinkers already had participated in the French Revolution, Robert Darnton said that they were not societal outsiders, but respectable, moreover, some intellectuals were anti-academic, despite universities being synonymous with intellectualism. Habermas Structural Transformation of Public Sphere made significant contribution to the notion of public intellectual by historically and conceptually delineating the idea of private, such civil servants earned academic degrees by means of imperial examination, and were skilled calligraphers, and knew Confucian philosophy.
Historian Wing-Tsit Chan concludes that, Generally speaking, the record of these scholar-gentlemen has been a worthy one and it was good enough to be praised and imitated in 18th century Europe. Nevertheless, it has given China a tremendous handicap in their transition from government by men to government by law, and personal considerations in Chinese government have been a curse. In Joseon Korea, the intellectuals were the literati, who knew how to read and write, they constituted the petite bourgeoisie, composed of scholar-bureaucrats who administered the dynastic rule of the Joseon dynasty. The Italian Communist theoretician Antonio Gramsci developed Karl Marx’s conception of the intelligentsia to include political leadership in the public sphere and that, because all knowledge is existentially-based, the intellectuals, who create and preserve knowledge, are spokesmen for different social groups, and articulate particular social interests. That intellectuals occur in social class and throughout the right wing, the centre.
That, as a class, the intellectuals view themselves as autonomous from the ruling class of their society. Therefore, the leadership of intellectuals is required for effecting and realizing social change, because, in the formal codification of Leninism, the Hungarian Marxist philosopher, György Lukács identified the intelligentsia as the privileged social class who provide revolutionary leadership. By means of intelligible and accessible interpretation, the intellectuals explain to the workers, the How. and the Why. of the social and political status quo—the ideological totality of society—and its practical, revolutionary application to the transformation of their society. The term public intellectual describes the intellectual participating in the discourse of society. In Representations of the Intellectual, Edward Saïd said that the … true intellectual is, always an outsider, living in self-imposed exile, and on the margins of society. An intellectual usually is associated with an ideology or with a philosophy and that intellectuals be mindful of the social and cultural ties created with their words and ideas, and should be heard as social critics of politics and power.
In journalism, the term usually connotes a university academic of the humanities—especially a philosopher—who addresses important social and political matters of the day
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864