Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere. There are two main types of boiling: nucleate boiling where small bubbles of vapour form at discrete points, critical heat flux boiling where the boiling surface is heated above a certain critical temperature and a film of vapor forms on the surface. Transition boiling is an unstable form of boiling with elements of both types; the boiling point of water is 100 °C or 212 °F but is lower with the decreased atmospheric pressure found at higher altitudes. Boiling water is used as a method of making it potable by killing microbes and viruses that may be present; the sensitivity of different micro-organisms to heat varies. But if water is held at 100 °C for one minute, most micro-organisms and viruses are inactivated. Ten minutes at a temperature of 70 °C is sufficient for most bacteria.

Boiling water is used in several cooking methods including boiling and poaching. Nucleate boiling is characterized by the growth of bubbles or pops on a heated surface, which rises from discrete points on a surface, whose temperature is only above the liquid's. In general, the number of nucleation sites is increased by an increasing surface temperature. An irregular surface of the boiling vessel or additives to the fluid facilitate nucleate boiling over a broader temperature range, while an exceptionally smooth surface, such as plastic, lends itself to superheating. Under these conditions, a heated liquid may show boiling delay and the temperature may go somewhat above the boiling point without boiling. Critical heat flux describes the thermal limit of a phenomenon where a phase change occurs during heating, which decreases the efficiency of heat transfer, thus causing localised overheating of the heating surface; as the boiling surface is heated above a critical temperature, a film of vapor forms on the surface.

Since this vapor film is much less capable of carrying heat away from the surface, the temperature rises rapidly beyond this point into the transition boiling regime. The point at which this occurs is dependent on the characteristics of boiling fluid and the heating surface in question. Transition boiling may be defined as the unstable boiling, which occurs at surface temperatures between the maximum attainable in nucleate and the minimum attainable in film boiling; the formation of bubbles in a heated liquid is a complex physical process which involves cavitation and acoustic effects, such as the broad-spectrum hiss one hears in a kettle not yet heated to the point where bubbles boil to the surface. If a surface heating the liquid is hotter than the liquid film boiling will occur, where a thin layer of vapor, which has low thermal conductivity, insulates the surface; this condition of a vapor film insulating the surface from the liquid characterizes film boiling. The boiling point of an element at a given pressure is a characteristic attribute of the element.

This is true for many simple compounds including water and simple alcohols. Once boiling has started and provided that boiling remains stable and the pressure is constant, the temperature of the boiling liquid remains constant; this attribute led to the adoption of boiling points as the definition of 100°C. Mixtures of volatile liquids have a boiling point specific to that mixture producing vapour with a constant mix of components - the constant boiling mixture; this attribute allows mixtures of liquids to be separated or separated by boiling and is best known as a means of separating ethanol from water. Most types of refrigeration and some type of air-conditioning work by compressing a gas so that it becomes liquid and allowing it to boil; this adsorbs heat from the surroundings cooling the'fridge or freezer or cooling the air entering a building. Typical liquids include propane, carbon dioxide or nitrogen; as a method of disinfecting water, bringing it to its boiling point at 100 °C, is the oldest and most effective way since it does not affect the taste, it is effective despite contaminants or particles present in it, is a single step process which eliminates most microbes responsible for causing intestine related diseases.

The boiling point of water is 100 °C at normal barometric pressure. In places having a proper water purification system, it is recommended only as an emergency treatment method or for obtaining potable water in the wilderness or in rural areas, as it cannot remove chemical toxins or impurities; the elimination of micro-organisms by boiling follows first-order kinetics—at high temperatures, it is achieved in less time and at lower temperatures, in more time. The heat sensitivity of micro-organisms varies, at 70 °C, Giardia species can take ten minutes for complete inactivation, most intestine affecting microbes and E. coli take less than a minute. Boiling does not ensure the elimination of all micro-organisms, thus for human health, complete sterilization of water is not required. The traditional advice of boiling water for ten minutes is for additional safety, since microbes start getting eliminated at temperatures greater than 60 °C and bringing it to its boiling point i

RĂ©seau de transport de Longueuil

Réseau de transport de Longueuil is a public transit system in the city of Longueuil, Quebec and nearby communities on the South Shore of Montreal. The RTL had an annual ridership of 34,447,686 in 2013. RTL was inaugurated on July 1, 1974, as Commission de transport de la Rive-Sud de Montréal, replacing the former owned company Chambly Transport, it served the former communities of Boucherville, Greenfield Park, Longueuil, LeMoyne, Saint-Hubert, Saint-Lambert and Notre-Dame-du-Sacré-Cœur. From 1985 until 2002 it was named Société de transport de la Rive-Sud de Montréal. Following the municipal mergers in 2002, the name changed to Société de transport de Longueuil, its marketing name is Réseau de transport de Longueuil, to avoid confusion with the Société de transport de Laval. Some of the "former" municipalities demerged from the city of Longueuil on January 1, 2006, as the result of referendums. However, demerged municipalities continue to be served by and to contribute financially to the RTL, since they still belong to the urban agglomeration of Longueuil.

Terminus Brossard-Panama Terminus Centre-Ville Terminus Longueuil Terminus De Montarville Brossard-Chevrier Park and Ride EXPRESS Chevrier/Exo Line 90 De Mortagne Park-n-Ride Exo Line 61 Seigneurial Park-n-Ride RTL Lines 98, 99, 192, 199 Bonaventure metro station accessed from Terminus Centre-Ville Longueuil–Université-de-Sherbrooke metro station accessed from Terminus Longueuil Papineau metro station Radisson metro station Saint-Lambert Railway Station RTL Lines 1, 6, 55, 106 Saint-Hubert Railway Station RTL Lines 8, 28, 88 Saint-Bruno Railway Station RTL Lines 91, 92 The RTL provides 14 shared taxi routes for residents in certain sectors that are not served by regular bus routes. Shared taxis accept the same tickets and passes as the bus service. Shared taxis take riders to the nearest transfer point; each shared taxi route has its own schedule. Réseau de transport métropolitain ARTM park and ride lots Official website

Edward Joseph McCarthy

Archbishop Edward Joseph McCarthy was a Canadian Roman Catholic priest and archbishop. Born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, he was ordained to the priesthood in 1874. In 1906, he was appointed Archbishop of Nova Scotia, he followed Cornelius O'Brien in this position. On 14 July 1910, he consecrated St. Patrick's Cathedral in Halifax, in 1913 became vice-patron of the Catholic Emigration Association of Canada, an organization established to help maintain immigrants' links to Catholicism and to encourage them to settle close to others who spoke the same language as they. Edward McCarthy, Pastoral letter addressed to the clergy and laity of the Diocese of Halifax Matteo SanFilippo, Roman Archives as a Source for the History of Canadian Ethnic Groups, ]