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Boltzmann constant

The Boltzmann constant, named after its discoverer, Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant that relates the average relative kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas. It occurs in the definitions of the kelvin and the gas constant, in Planck's law of black-body radiation and Boltzmann's entropy formula; the Boltzmann constant has the dimension energy divided by the same as entropy. As part of the 2019 redefinition of SI base units, the Boltzmann constant is one of the seven "defining constants" that have been given exact definitions, they are used in various combinations to define the seven SI base units. The Boltzmann constant is defined to be 1.380649×10−23 J/K. This definition allows the temperature unit to be redefined in terms of mechanical units of time and mass. Before 2019, the value of Boltzmann constant was a measured quantity. Measurements of the Boltzmann constant depended on the definition of the kelvin in terms of the triple point of water; the measured values were used to determine the quantity, used in the 2019 definition, to make the definition's value for the kelvin identical to the old value to within the limits of experimental accuracy at the time of the definition.

The Boltzmann constant, k, is a scaling factor between microscopic physics. Macroscopically, the ideal gas law states that, for an ideal gas, the product of pressure p and volume V is proportional to the product of amount of substance n and absolute temperature T: p V = n R T, where R is the gas constant. Introducing the Boltzmann constant transforms the ideal gas law into an alternative form: p V = N k T, where N is the number of molecules of gas. For n = 1 mol, N is equal to the number of particles in one mole. Given a thermodynamic system at an absolute temperature T, the average thermal energy carried by each microscopic degree of freedom in the system is 1/2kT. In classical statistical mechanics, this average is predicted to hold for homogeneous ideal gases. Monatomic ideal gases possess three degrees of freedom per atom, corresponding to the three spatial directions, which means a thermal energy of 3/2kT per atom; this corresponds well with experimental data. The thermal energy can be used to calculate the root-mean-square speed of the atoms, which turns out to be inversely proportional to the square root of the atomic mass.

The root mean square speeds found at room temperature reflect this, ranging from 1370 m/s for helium, down to 240 m/s for xenon. Kinetic theory gives the average pressure p for an ideal gas as p = 1 3 N V m v 2 ¯. Combination with the ideal gas law p V = N k T shows that the average translational kinetic energy is 1 2 m v 2 ¯ = 3 2 k T. Considering that the translational motion velocity vector v has three degrees of freedom gives the average energy per degree of freedom equal to one third of that, i.e. 1/2kT. The ideal gas equation is obeyed by molecular gases. Diatomic gases, for example, possess a total of six degrees of simple freedom per molecule that are related to atomic motion. At lower temperatures, not all these degrees of freedom may participate in the gas heat capacity, due to quantum mechanical limits on the availability of excited states at the relevant thermal energy per molecule. More systems in equilibrium at temperature T have probability Pi of occupying a state i with energy E weighted by the corresponding Boltzmann factor: P i ∝ exp ⁡ Z, where Z is the partition function.

Again, it is the energy-like quantity kT. Consequences of this include the Arrhenius equation in chemical kinetics. In statistical mechanics, the entropy S of an isolated system at thermodynamic equilibrium is defined as the natural logarithm of W, the number of distinct microscopic states available to the system given the macroscopic constraints: S = k ln ⁡ W; this equation, which relates the microscopic details, or microstates, of the system to its macroscopic state, is the central idea of statistical mechanics. Such is its importance; the constant of proportionality k serv

The Swerve

The Swerve: How the World Became Modern is a book by Stephen Greenblatt and winner of the 2012 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction and 2011 National Book Award for Nonfiction. Greenblatt tells the story of how Poggio Bracciolini, a 15th-century papal emissary and obsessive book hunter, saved the last copy of the Roman poet Lucretius's On the Nature of Things from near-terminal neglect in a German monastery, thus reintroducing important ideas that sparked the modern age; the title and the subtitle of the book are explained in the author's preface. "The Swerve" refers to a key conception in the ancient atomistic theories according to which atoms moving through the void are subject to clinamen: while falling straight through the void, they are sometimes subject to a slight, unpredictable swerve. Greenblatt uses it to describe the history of Lucretius' own book: "The reappearance of his poem was such a swerve, an unforeseen deviation from the direct trajectory—in this case, toward oblivion—on which that poem and its philosophy seemed to be traveling."

The recovery of the ancient text is seen as its rebirth, i.e. a "renaissance". Greenblatt's claim is that it was a'key moment' in a larger "story... of how the world swerved in a new direction". The book attracted considerable critical attention, some positive and some negative. In addition to winning both the Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award, it won the Modern Language Association James Russell Lowell Prize. Publishers Weekly called it a "gloriously learned page-turner", Newsweek called it "mesmerizing" and "richly entertaining". Maureen Corrigan, in her review for NPR, said that "The Swerve is one of those brilliant works of non-fiction that's so jam-packed with ideas and stories it boggles the mind." It was included in the 2011 year-end lists of Publishers Weekly, The New York Times, Kirkus Reviews, NPR, The Chicago Tribune, Bloomberg, SFGate, the American Library Association, The Globe and Mail. Writing in The New Republic, David Quint saw the book as situated in a controversial tradition that views the Renaissance as a victory of reason over medieval religiosity, following John Addington Symonds and David Hume.

Theologian R. R. Reno harshly criticized the book for "blustering again and again about the beauty-loathing, eros-denying evils of Christianity... sighing in the usual postmodern way about pleasure and desire."Historian John Monfasani credited the book with "grace and learning" but found Greenblatt's Voltairean and Burckhardtian interpretation of De Rerum Natura and the Renaissance "eccentric", "questionable" and "unwarranted". Greenblatt responded to this critique by reiterating his view of the importance of the Renaissance in history. Several other reviewers criticized Greenblatt's lack of historical rigor and depth while acknowledging some praiseworthy elements. In the Los Angeles Review of Books Jim Hinch saw within the book "two books... one deserving of an award, the other not". He described the first "book" as an "engaging" and "wonderful" exploration of the Renaissance rediscovery of De Rerum Natura, while describing the second book as a far less deserving "anti-religious polemic."Michael Dirda, of The Washington Post, wrote that "by no means a bad book, The Swerve sets its intellectual bar too low, complacently relying on commonplaces in its historical sections and never engaging in an imaginative or idiosyncratic way".

Disappointed with the book's simplistic and cliched conclusions, he nonetheless saw Greenblatt’s "excellent notes and bibliography" as a reliable reference for those seeking a more in-depth and serious treatment. Laura Saetveit Miles, of the University of Bergen, criticized the book in explicitly ethical terms, writing that its scholarly and historiographical failings "represent an abuse of power" that "precipitate the decline of the humanities" by lending scholarly authority to the "dire trend of'truthy' nonfiction books that present One Theory to Explain Everything." She argues that the book is an "injustice to the past" and "the mythical invention of modernity is an ethical issue, because it sets a precedent for history that ignores complexity in favor of oversimplification."William Caferro of Vanderbilt University found The Swerve "an engaging portrait of the Renaissance sense of wonder and discovery" but was disquieted by the "firm distinction Greenblatt makes between the Renaissance and the Middle Ages" and the lack of reference to current scholarship.

He concedes that "if Greenblatt leaves us with more questions than answers, it is not a grave flaw." Pulitzer page W. W. Norton's official page

Deborah DuchĂȘne

Deborah Duchene is a former film and stage actress. She grew up in the U. S. and Canada, the daughter of a Baptist minister. She has appeared in film and television with her most notable role being Janette in the Forever Knight series, she graduated from McGill University. One of her brothers serves in the U. S. Army, she has retired from acting, lives in Toronto, Ontario and attends the University of Toronto majoring in music to become a teacher. A Funny Thing Happened On The Way to the Forum Agnes of God Canadian Gothic Dracula Hello From Bertha Lu Ann Hampton Laverty Oberlander The Playboy of the Western World Triptych Deborah Duchene on IMDb Canada Deborah Duchene

Ethel Franklin Betts

Ethel Franklin Betts Bains was an American illustrator of children's books during the golden age of American illustration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Betts was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on September 6, 1877, the daughter of the physician Thomas Betts and Alice Whelan, she was the younger sister of the illustrator Anna Whelan Betts. Betts studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia, with the noted illustrator Howard Pyle at Drexel Institute, now Drexel University, at the Howard Pyle School in nearby Wilmington, Delaware. Betts first gained work illustrating magazines including St. Nicholas Magazine, McClure's, Collier's. Beginning in 1904, she was commissioned to illustrate several books including James Whitcomb Riley's The Raggedy Man, While the Heart Beats Young, Frances Hodgson Burnett's A Little Princess. Betts commercial work declined after her marriage to Edward Bains in 1909 creating cover art for magazines such as House & Garden, but she continued to exhibit her portfolio.

She received a bronze medal for her illustration of The Six Swans at the 1915 Panama–Pacific International Exposition. Along with Jessie Willcox Smith and Sarah Stilwell Weber, Betts was one of the "familiar" magazine and book illustrators in the early 20th century. Betts died at her home in Philadelphia on October 9, 1959, she was buried at Solebury Friends Cemetery in Pennsylvania. 1901 -- Captain Ravenshaw, or, The Maid of Cheapside: a Romance of Elizabethan London, Robert Neilson Stephens. C. Page & Company 1903 -- Kings & Queens: Being the Poetical Works of Beulah, Belinda and David, Florence Wilkinson Evans. 1905 -- The Heart of Lady Anne, Agnes Castle and Egerton Castle. A. Stokes Co. 1905 -- The True Story of Humpty Dumpty, How He was Rescued by Three Mortal Children in Make Believe Land, Anna Alice Chapin. A. Stokes Co. 1906 -- The Runaway Boy, James Whitcomb Riley. 1907 -- The Raggedy Man, James Whitcomb Riley. 1908 -- The Orphan Annie book, James Whitcomb Riley.

Henry Strauss, 1st Baron Conesford

Henry George Strauss, 1st Baron Conesford, QC was a British lawyer and a Conservative politician. He was born at 19 Pembridge Gardens, London, on 24 June 1892, he was the only son of Alphonse Henry Strauss, general merchant, his wife, Hedwig Aschrott. He was educated at Rugby and Christ Church and was called to the Bar, Inner Temple, in 1919, he served during World War I, but was discharged because of health problems and continued working in a Whitehall. Strauss sat as Member of Parliament for Norwich between 1935 and 1945, for the Combined English Universities between 1946 and 1950 and for Norwich South between 1950 and 1955, he was Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Attorney General, Sir Donald Somervell, between 1936 and 1942 and a government member as Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Works between March and December 1942 and as Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Town and Country Planning between 1942 and 1945, when he resigned from the government in protest at Churchill's treatment of Poland at the Yalta agreement.

He was once again a government member as Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade under Churchill between 1951 and 1955. The latter year he was raised to the peerage of Chelsea in the County of London. In 1946 he published the book Trade Unions and the Law connected with treatment of Poland by Yalta agreements. From 1964 - 1970 he was the Chairman of the Association of Independent Unionist Peers, he was the President of the Architectural club. Lord Conesford became a King's Counsel in 1964 and a Bencher of the Inner Temple in 1969, he was a member of the governors of Norwich High School for Girls and a vice-president of the Girls' Day School Trust. He was well known for his speeches in which he complained about the improper usages of the English language in the United States as can be seen in this Time Magazine article from 1957. Lord Conesford married Anne Sadelbia Mary, daughter of Bowyer Nichols, in 1927, he died in August 1974, aged 82. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Henry Strauss

Carolyn Bourdeaux

Carolyn Bourdeaux is an American professor and politician from the state of Georgia. She has been a Professor at the Andrew Young School of Public Policy at Georgia State University since 2003. In 2018, she ran for Georgia's 7th congressional district, coming within 433 votes of defeating the incumbent Republican, Rep. Rob Woodall, in what was the closest congressional race in the entire country. On Feb. 7, 2019, Rob Woodall announced he would retire at the end of his current term, meaning the seat would be open in 2020. That same day, Bourdeaux announced her intentions to once again seek the seat. Bourdeaux is from Virginia, her parents were both teachers. She graduated from Yale University with a bachelor's degree in history and economics, aided by Pell Grants and Stafford Loans, she earned a Master of Public Administration from the University of Southern California and a Doctor of Public Administration from Syracuse University. Bourdeaux worked as a political aide to Ron Wyden for four years, when he served in the United States House of Representatives and in the United States Senate.

In 2003, she became an associate professor at Georgia State University. From 2007 to 2010, she took a leave of absence to be Director of Georgia's Senate Budget and Evaluation Office, where she worked in a nonpartisan role to help the state balance the budget during the Great Recession; the Georgia State Senate honored her for significant service to the state of Georgia with Senate Resolution 1598. Following her time there, she returned to the Andrew Young School and founded the Center for State and Local Finance. Bourdeaux and her husband live in Suwanee and have one son. In the 2018 elections, Bourdeaux ran for the United States House of Representatives in Georgia's 7th congressional district, she faced a six-way primary for the Democratic Party nomination. She earned a spot in the July runoff, she won the primary runoff on July 24 and won the Democratic Nomination. She faced Republican Rob Woodall in the November 6 general election. On September 14, 2018, Bourdeaux was added to the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee's competitive Red-to-Blue program.

She was endorsed by EMILY's List, End Citizens United, League of Conservation Voters, Sierra Club, Planned Parenthood, the Georgia State AFL-CIO, Progressive Turnout Project and more. She was endorsed by Barack Obama, Congressman John Lewis, Congressman Hank Johnson, Ambassador Andrew Young, Senator Max Cleland, Senator Sam Nunn, Governor Martin O'Malley, Mayor Shirley Franklin, dozens of other local elected officials and leaders; the race was considered to be a sleeper race, but it received more attention in the election as Bourdeaux continued to outraise Woodall and as Democrats picked up momentum nationwide. In the 3rd Quarter of 2018, Bourdeaux outraised Woodall by a margin of more than 3-1, raising over $1 million; the election continued to be close all the way through election day. On election night, the race was too close to call, the winner of this race was still unclear. Just a few hours after it was filed on November 15, U. S. District Judge Leigh Martin May denied an emergency motion aimed at forcing Gwinnett County to count rejected absentee ballots in the razor-thin 7th Congressional District race.

On November 21, following a recount, Bourdeaux conceded defeat. On February 7, 2019, Bourdeaux announced that she would run again for the same seat in 2020, she was endorsed by several key Georgia politicians, including Congressman John Lewis. Within the first week of her campaign, she announced raising over $100,000. In the first quarter of 2019, she outraised all other Congressional challengers in the country, with a total of over $350,000. Profile at Vote Smart