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Thermal energy

Thermal energy refers to several distinct thermodynamic quantities, such as the internal energy of a system. In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or transfer of matter. Heat refers to a quantity transferred between systems, not to a property of any one system, or'contained' within it. On the other hand, internal energy is a property of a single system. Heat and work depend on the way in which an energy transfer occurred, whereas internal energy is a property of the state of a system and can thus be understood without knowing how the energy got there. In a statistical mechanical account of an ideal gas, in which the molecules move independently between instantaneous collisions, the internal energy is the sum total of the gas's independent particles' kinetic energies, it is this kinetic motion, the source and the effect of the transfer of heat across a system's boundary. For such a gas, the term'thermal energy' is synonymous with'internal energy'.

In many statistical physics texts, "thermal energy" refers to k T, the product of Boltzmann's constant and the absolute temperature written as k B T. In a material in condensed matter, such as a liquid or a solid, in which the constituent particles, such as molecules or ions, interact with one another, the energies of such interactions the contribute to the internal energy of the body; the term'thermal energy' is applied to the energy carried by a heat flow, although this can simply be called heat or quantity of heat. In an 1847 lecture titled "On Matter, Living Force, Heat", James Prescott Joule characterised various terms that are related to thermal energy and heat, he identified the terms latent heat and sensible heat as forms of heat each affecting distinct physical phenomena, namely the potential and kinetic energy of particles, respectively. He described latent energy as the energy of interaction in a given configuration of particles, i.e. a form of potential energy, the sensible heat as an energy affecting temperature measured by the thermometer due to the thermal energy, which he called the living force.

If the minimum temperature of a system's environment is T e and the system's entropy is S a part of the system's internal energy amounting to S ⋅ T e cannot be converted into useful work. This is the difference between the Helmholtz free energy. Heat transfer Ocean thermal energy conversion Orders of magnitude Thermal energy storage Thermal science

Victor Rabinovitch

Victor Rabinovitch was the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation, responsible for two of Canada’s national museums: the Canadian Museum of Civilization and the Canadian War Museum. Before joining the Corporation, Rabinovitch was Assistant Deputy Minister, Income Security Programs, at Human Resources Development Canada, a department of the federal government; this Branch is responsible for the administration of the national public pension programs in Canada's social security system. From 1995 to 1998, Rabinovitch served as Assistant Deputy Minister, Cultural Development and Heritage, in the Department of Canadian Heritage, he was responsible for policies and programs in broadcasting, publishing, sound recording, copyright and performing arts. He led the departmental team responsible for the modernization of Canada's Copyright Act, the implementation of programs to assist book publishing and television production and national cultural training institutions.

Rabinovitch began his federal public service career in 1982 as a member of the Task Force on Atlantic Fisheries. He subsequently became an Assistant Deputy Minister at Fisheries and Oceans Canada, where he served in a variety of capacities including economic policy, inspection and international relations, he was the senior public servant responsible for the efforts by Canada to stop foreign over-fishing. Before joining the federal public service, Rabinovitch specialized in labour issues, serving as National Secretary for Workplace Health and Safety with the Canadian Labour Congress from 1978 to 1982. From 1976 to 1978, he served as Manitoba Department of Labour. Rabinovitch holds a B. A. in Economics and Political Science from McGill University and a Doctorate from Sussex University in England. His publications include: “Method and Success in Canada's Cultural Policies” in the Queen's Quarterly and “Museums Facing the Trudeau Challenge” in Canadian Issues, he is a Fellow of the School of Policy Studies at Queen's University.

Rabinovitch was named CEO of the Year in the para-public sector by the Regroupement des gens d’affaires de la Capitale nationale in 2005. In October 2006, he received the Award of Merit from the Association for Canadian Studies for his outstanding contribution, that of the Canadian Museum of Civilization, to the dissemination of knowledge of Canada’s history, he is married with two children

Elgin, Kansas

Elgin is a city in Chautauqua County, United States, on the state line with Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 89; the south edge of the city is the Kansas-Oklahoma state border. Elgin was founded in 1869, it was once a stop on the Atchison and Santa Fe railroad and one of the world's busiest cattle shipping towns. L. P. Getman established the first store in the county, at Elgin, John Lee, William Gamble and Beadle Welsh started the first saw mill at the same place, which they brought from Wisconsin in 1870. After the decline of the cattle shipping business, it was sustained by an oil boom that lasted until the mid-1920s; the post office in Elgin was discontinued in 1976. Elgin is located at 37°0′6″N 96°16′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.20 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 89 people, 40 households, 24 families residing in the city; the population density was 445.0 inhabitants per square mile.

There were 57 housing units at an average density of 285.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.8% White, 3.4% Native American, 7.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population. There were 40 households of which 22.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.0% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 10.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.0% were non-families. 37.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the city was 44.5 years. 15.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.1 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 82 people, 44 households, 22 families residing in the city; the population density was 441.8 people per square mile. There were 54 housing units at an average density of 290.9 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the city was 8.54 % Native American. There were 44 households out of which 18.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.4% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 50.0% were non-families. 50.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 29.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.86 and the average family size was 2.59. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.0% under the age of 18, 3.7% from 18 to 24, 17.1% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, 30.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 52 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 73.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $14,500, the median income for a family was $21,563. Males had a median income of $21,250 versus $14,583 for females; the per capita income for the city was $9,993. There were 21.1% of families and 17.9% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 20.7% of those over 64.

Louis F. Burns, Osage Indian historian and author CityElgin - Directory of Public OfficialsSchoolsUSD 286, local school districtPhotosPhotos of ElginMapsElgin City Map, KDOT

Systemic disease

A systemic disease is one that affects a number of organs and tissues, or affects the body as a whole. Mastocytosis, including mast cell activation syndrome and eosinophilic esophagitis Chronic fatigue syndrome Systemic vasculitis e.g. SLE, PAN Sarcoidosis – a disease that affects the lungs, brain and eyes, found most in young African-American women. Hypothyroidism – where the thyroid gland produces too little thyroid hormones. Diabetes mellitus – an imbalance in blood glucose levels. Fibromyalgia Adrenal insufficiency – where the adrenal glands don't produce enough steroid hormones Coeliac disease – an autoimmune disease triggered by gluten consumption, which may involve several organs and cause a variety of symptoms, or be asymptomatic. Ulcerative colitis – an inflammatory bowel disease Crohn's disease – an inflammatory bowel disease Hypertension Metabolic syndrome AIDS – a disease caused by a virus that cripples the body’s immune defenses. Graves' disease – a thyroid disorder, most in women, which can cause a goiter and protruding eyes.

Systemic lupus erythematosus – a connective tissue disorder involving the skin and kidneys. Rheumatoid arthritis – an inflammatory disease which attacks the joints, but can affect a person's skin, eyes and mouth. Atherosclerosis – a hardening of the arteries Sickle cell disease – an inherited blood disorder that can block circulation throughout the body affecting people of sub-Saharan origin. Myasthenia gravis Systemic Sclerosis Sinusitis Getting a regular eye exam may play a role in identifying the signs of some systemic diseases. "The eye is composed of many different types of tissue. This unique feature makes the eye susceptible to a wide variety of diseases as well as provides insights into many body systems. Any part of the eye can give important clues to the diagnosis of systemic diseases. Signs of a systemic disease may be evident on the outer surface of the eye, middle of the eye and at the back of the eye."Since 500 B. C. some researchers have believed that the physical condition of the fingernails and toenails can indicate various systemic diseases.

Careful examination of the fingernails and toenails may provide clues to underlying systemic diseases, since some diseases have been found to cause disruptions in the nail growth process. The nail plate is the hard keratin cover of the nail; the nail plate is generated by the nail matrix located just under the cuticle. As the nail grows, the area closest to becoming exposed to the outside world produces the deeper layers of the nail plate, while the part of the nail matrix deeper inside the finger makes the superficial layers. Any disruption in this growth process can lead to an alteration in the texture. For example, pitting looks like depressions in the hard part of the nail. Pitting is to be associated with affecting 10 % - 50 % of patients with that disorder. Pitting may be caused by a variety of systemic diseases, including reactive arthritis and other connective tissue disorders, pemphigus, alopecia areata, incontinentia pigmenti; because pitting is caused by defective layering of the superficial nail plate by the proximal nail matrix, any localized dermatitis that disrupts orderly growth in that area can cause pitting


A result is the final consequence of a sequence of actions or events expressed qualitatively or quantitatively. Possible results include advantage, gain, loss and victory. There may be a range of possible outcomes associated with an event depending on the point of view, historical distance or relevance. Reaching no result can mean that actions are inefficient, meaningless or flawed; some types of result are as follows: in general, the outcome of any kind of research, action or phenomenon in games or wars, the result includes the identity of the victorious party and the effects on the environment in mathematics, the final value of a calculation, function or statistical expression, or the final statement of a theorem, proven in statistics, any information analyzed, extracted or interpolated from polls, tests or logs in computer sciences, the return value of a function, state of a system or list of records matching a query. The result type is the data type of the data returned by a function. In science, the outcome of an experiment in forensics and justice, the proof of guilt or innocence of a suspect after evaluating evidence in a criminal investigation in economics and accounting, the profit or loss at the end of a fiscal period.

In democracy, In management and related fields, a result is a piece of information that has certain properties in absolute terms or in relation to previous results or settings: Determinism IMRAD

T-24 tank

The T-24 was a Soviet medium tank built in 1931. Only twenty four were built, none saw combat; this was the first tank produced at the KhPZ factory in Kharkov, responsible for the successful BT series, T-34 and T-54 Soviet tanks. The T-24's suspension was used in the Soviet Union's first purpose-built artillery tractors; the T-24's main armament was a 45 mm gun. It had a ball-mount 7.62 mm DT machine gun in the hull, another in the turret, a third in a secondary turret atop the main turret. The tank was well-armoured for its time. A tank design bureau was established at the Kharkov Locomotive Factory in Kharkov, Soviet Ukraine, in 1928; the first tank project of the factory was the T-12. This was a larger version of the T-18, with a more powerful engine; the idea of the T-24 tank was so great, in August 1930, the Revolutionary Military Council commissioned a staggering 1,600 T-24 tanks, compared to worldwide production being 900 tanks during these years. The T-24 was commissioned as an effort to recover the engineering, placed into the T-12 tank.

The demise of the T-24 was caused by factors that were overlooked to compensate for the oversight of the T-12, this caused the T-24 to be plagued with faults that were seen as basic. This included mechanical errors within the suspension. After twenty five T-24 tanks had been built, the entire project was cancelled. One prototype was built and production of thirty tanks in 1930 was authorized, but automotive performance was so disappointing that it was decided to do further development work. In total, twenty five tanks were built; the tanks that remained were used as training tank units of the Red Army. The project was re-designated T-24, work was completed fixing problems with the transmission and fuel system, a larger turret was designed. Initial trials were conducted, during which performance was found satisfactory, although the prototype's engine caught fire, the turret had to be transferred to a T-12 prototype for further testing. Only a total of twenty-four were built during 1931; the T-24s were armed only with machine guns, until the 45 mm guns were installed in the following year.

The T-24 was used only for training and parades. Although the T-24 tank was a failure, it gave the KhPZ its initial tank design and production experience, applied much more in adopting production of the US Christie tank as the BT tank series, starting in 1931; the T-24 was cancelled midway through production because of where it stood in the lineup of Soviet tanks that existed at the time. The T-24 was meant to cover the gap in the existing lineup that consisted of light and heavy tanks by introducing the mechanics of a medium tank. During the design process of the T-24, the Soviets focused on many outlets for a solution to their problem, including the T-19, T-21, T-23 tanks. While undergoing testing however, the T-24 was competing with the more known Tank Grotte-1, otherwise known as the TG-1 and dubbed the T-22 by the Soviets; the KhPZ's Komintern artillery tractor was based on the suspension of the T-12 tank and the T-24, powered by a 131-hp diesel engine. Unlike its predecessor tanks, the tractor was put into mass production.

The Komintern inherited several of the T-24's disadvantages, but some of them were fixed by designers, others were not as significant for tractor as for a tank. The Komintern was used to tow medium artillery such as the 152 mm gun-howitzer; the Voroshilovets heavy artillery tractor was based on the T-24's suspension, using the same but detuned Model V-2 diesel engine as the BT-7M and T-34 tanks. About 230 were built at KhPZ from 1939, after the German invasion of 1941 production was shifted to the Stalingrad Tractor Factory until August 1942. Searching for a armored tank in the “medium tank” category, the Soviets established a committee dubbed the “Tank Design Bureau” at the Kharkov Locomotive Factory; the committee started with drafts of a large version of the T-18, this was the original T-12. The T-12 would have a more powerful 200 horsepower engine, larger guns; the committee created 30 T-12s with their budget allocation in 1930. The prototypes of the T-12 was summed up as a flawed design, it was decided a new design would be drafted all together.

The project was re-designated as the T-24, which sported many changes, including a greater intricacy of the engineering. The initial changes resolved around fixing problems with the transmission and fuel system, which created an opportunity to have a large turret; the hull was widened which provided more space, the turrets were now rounded, instead of an octagon. The T-24 provided more armor in certain areas. Between 1930 and 1931, the improvements the T-24 had made upon the T-12 were promising, where 300 more tanks than the initial 30 were planned. However, during testing of the initial 25 produced, problems that questioned the reliability of the T-24 arose once more; the T-24 was removed from production due not only to its flaws, but the complexity of manufacturing. The T-24 had a chassis, 5.68 meters long, 2.8 meters wide, 3 meters tall. This allowed for a crew size of around 5. Compared to American WWII tanks of the time, the T-24 shares exactly the same dimensions as the M4 Sherman tank, while being larger in than the infamous American M18 Hellcat.

The T-24 tank had a single M-6 8 cylinder engine. The engine developed between 250 and 300 horsepower; this configuration of the engine a