In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes; the same amount of work is done by the body when decelerating from its current speed to a state of rest. In classical mechanics, the kinetic energy of a non-rotating object of mass m traveling at a speed v is 1 2 m v 2. In relativistic mechanics, this is a good approximation only when v is much less than the speed of light; the standard unit of kinetic energy is the joule, while the imperial unit of kinetic energy is the foot-pound. The adjective kinetic has its roots in the Greek word κίνησις kinesis, meaning "motion"; the dichotomy between kinetic energy and potential energy can be traced back to Aristotle's concepts of actuality and potentiality. The principle in classical mechanics that E ∝ mv2 was first developed by Gottfried Leibniz and Johann Bernoulli, who described kinetic energy as the living force, vis viva.
Willem's Gravesande of the Netherlands provided experimental evidence of this relationship. By dropping weights from different heights into a block of clay, Willem's Gravesande determined that their penetration depth was proportional to the square of their impact speed. Émilie du Châtelet published an explanation. The terms kinetic energy and work in their present scientific meanings date back to the mid-19th century. Early understandings of these ideas can be attributed to Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis, who in 1829 published the paper titled Du Calcul de l'Effet des Machines outlining the mathematics of kinetic energy. William Thomson Lord Kelvin, is given the credit for coining the term "kinetic energy" c. 1849–51. Energy occurs in many forms, including chemical energy, thermal energy, electromagnetic radiation, gravitational energy, electric energy, elastic energy, nuclear energy, rest energy; these can be categorized in two main classes: kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is the movement energy of an object.
Kinetic energy can be transformed into other kinds of energy. Kinetic energy may be best understood by examples that demonstrate how it is transformed to and from other forms of energy. For example, a cyclist uses chemical energy provided by food to accelerate a bicycle to a chosen speed. On a level surface, this speed can be maintained without further work, except to overcome air resistance and friction; the chemical energy has been converted into kinetic energy, the energy of motion, but the process is not efficient and produces heat within the cyclist. The kinetic energy in the moving cyclist and the bicycle can be converted to other forms. For example, the cyclist could encounter a hill just high enough to coast up, so that the bicycle comes to a complete halt at the top; the kinetic energy has now been converted to gravitational potential energy that can be released by freewheeling down the other side of the hill. Since the bicycle lost some of its energy to friction, it never regains all of its speed without additional pedaling.
The energy is not destroyed. Alternatively, the cyclist could connect a dynamo to one of the wheels and generate some electrical energy on the descent; the bicycle would be traveling slower at the bottom of the hill than without the generator because some of the energy has been diverted into electrical energy. Another possibility would be for the cyclist to apply the brakes, in which case the kinetic energy would be dissipated through friction as heat. Like any physical quantity, a function of velocity, the kinetic energy of an object depends on the relationship between the object and the observer's frame of reference. Thus, the kinetic energy of an object is not invariant. Spacecraft use chemical energy to launch and gain considerable kinetic energy to reach orbital velocity. In an circular orbit, this kinetic energy remains constant because there is no friction in near-earth space. However, it becomes apparent at re-entry. If the orbit is elliptical or hyperbolic throughout the orbit kinetic and potential energy are exchanged.
Without loss or gain, the sum of the kinetic and potential energy remains constant. Kinetic energy can be passed from one object to another. In the game of billiards, the player imposes kinetic energy on the cue ball by striking it with the cue stick. If the cue ball collides with another ball, it slows down and the ball it hit accelerates its speed as the kinetic energy is passed on to it. Collisions in billiards are elastic collisions, in which kinetic energy is preserved. In inelastic collisions, kinetic energy is dissipated in various forms of energy, such as heat, binding energy. Flywheels have been developed as a method of energy storage; this illustrates that kinetic energy is stored in rotational motion. Several mathematical descriptions of kinetic energy exist that describe it in the appropriate physical situation. For objects and processes in common human experience, the formula ½mv² given by Newtonian mechanics is suitable. However, if the speed of the object i
Home Instead Senior Care UK is a network of franchises specialising relationship-led domiciliary care for the elderly, in support of aging in place. It is a franchise of Home Instead Senior Care, based in Nebraska and was founded in 1994, it has 210 franchised offices across the UK, employing more than 13,000 people. It was one of the 20 most recommended providers in the Home Care Awards 2019, it achieved an overall rating of 9.9 out of 10. Martin Jones, based in Stretton, Warrington is the CEO, he is involved with Business in the Community He sees the company as a major provider of community-based care in line with the strategy outlined in the NHS Long Term Plan. He spoke at the Future of Care conference in London in March 2019, discussing the place of robotics in senior care; the firm is interested in the use of assistive technology, has formed a partnership with Anthropos Digital Care which provides smart sensors in the home. These can form a picture of the activities of an older person and generate alerts and actionable insights.
It was piloted at four of the firms franchises in 2018. In 2020 the organisation had 64 Care Quality Commission ‘outstanding’ ratings across England; this was more than 25% of its English network, which compared to an average 3% in the social care sector. In 2019, it was congratulated by the chief inspector of Adult Social Care, they won the Queen's Award for Enterprise: Innovation. At that time they had 56 offices and in 2019 they had 195, with about 10,500 clients and about 9,500 caregivers. Jones was appointed to the board of trustees at The Silver Line in March 2019. Staff are matched with clients that share their interests, all home visits are at least an hour, it was awarded the Princess Royal Training Award in 2016 and 2019. The national office of Home Instead Senior Care UK is based in Warrington. There are 210 franchise offices UK wide; the franchise in Stockton-on-Tees, Home Instead Cleveland, set up in 2014 and is owned and run by a former Stockton Rugby Club player, was rated outstanding by the Care Quality Commission after an inspection in 2018.
The York & Malton franchise was rated outstanding in 2018. The CQC reported: ‘The culture at Home Instead Senior Care is exceptionally open and caring, demonstrating a commitment to putting their clients and staff at the heart of everything they do.’ Home Instead Senior Care North Oxfordshire, which provides personal care to 36 people living in their own homes in the community was rated outstanding by the Care Quality Commission in 2019. Their report said "We received overwhelmingly positive feedback from people and professionals on how staff had developed caring relationships with people and their relatives." Visits were over an hour, unusual in the sector. Home Instead Senior Care Canary Wharf was rated outstanding; the inspector reported that " Two hour minimum visits allowed people and their care workers the opportunity to develop positive and caring relationships that took into account people's individual needs and interests." Comitis L11 Limited, which trades as Home Instead Senior Care Brentwood was inspected in August 2018 and rated outstanding.
It gives personal care to 80 people living in their own homes. The inspector reported that "People were supported to have maximum choice and control of their lives and staff supported them in the least restrictive way possible. Home Instead Senior Care in Havant, Hampshire was rated outstanding at its first inspection and Debbie Westhead, the Care Quality Commission interim chief inspector for Adult Social Care, said she was delighted to be able to congratulate Home Instead Senior Care for another overall ‘Outstanding’ rating and that the quality of care which their inspectors found was exceptional. Home Instead Bromley was rated outstanding in 2018 and used the resulting publicity to recruit more staff; the firm was awarded a Five Star Employer award by the human resources company WorkBuzz in December 2018. Home Instead Bolton made a public commitment to pay the Real Living Wage, £9 an hour, rather than the £8.21 national living wage in March 2019. In March 2019 the franchise in Ipswich held a nutrition workshop for older people.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo was identified by the World Health Organization on 11 May 2017 as having one Ebola-related death. As of 8 June 2017, there were five confirmed three probable cases. Of these, four survived and four died; the affected areas of the DRC are Mabongo and Nambwa in Likati health zone. According to the WHO, "Modelling suggests the risk of further cases is low but not negligible.... As of... 83% of simulated scenarios predict no further cases in the next 30 days."According to the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Ebola... is a rare and deadly disease caused by infection with one of the Ebola virus species. Ebola can cause disease in humans and nonhuman primates." Ebola was first identified in 1976 near the Ebola River in the DRC. More than 11,300 people died in the 2013 to 2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa. According to the WHO's "Global Health Observatory", the DRC's population in 2015 was 77,267,000. On 1 July 2017, DRC Minister of Public Health, Dr Oly Ilunga Kalenga, declared that the country had passed a 42-day period with no new recorded cases, therefore the outbreak was over.
A subsequent outbreak of Ebola was declared by WHO on 8 May 2018, in the northwest Province of Équateur. The first "situation report" from the WHO on 15 May 2017 listed 3 deaths; the first person to request treatment was a 39-year-old male. On 16 May, the WHO indicated that there had been 3 deaths. 400 additional individuals were being monitored in the same region of the DRC. On 17 May, WHO said that the number of individuals being monitored had risen to about 416, while the following day, the number of confirmed and suspected cases had risen to 29; as of 24 May, 520 individuals were reported to be on the contact list to monitor their health status. Of those, 226 had completed 21 days of monitoring; as of 27 May, 30 cases had been reclassified as not Ebola-related. On 13 May 2017, Doctors Without Borders indicated that they would send a team to the most affected area in the DRC. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, indicated that 300,000 doses of the experimental Ebola vaccine were available if needed. On 28 May, it was reported.
As of 8 June 2017, the WHO does not recommend any restrictions of travel and trade in relation to this outbreak. The following nine countries have instituted entry screening at airports and ports of entry: Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Rwanda has issued travel advisories to avoid unnecessary travel to the DRC. Kenya and Rwanda have implemented information checking on arrival for passengers with a travel history from or through the DRC. According to the WHO, countries have the right to implement these measures. On 20 May, the news media reported Rwanda's closure of its border with the DRC for passengers coming from affected areas in the DRC. On 23 May, the WHO confirmed that Rwanda is denying entry to visitors with fever who have been to those areas. Under Article 43 of the International Health Regulations, the WHO considers these actions to be "additional health measures... that interfere with international traffic". As of 8 June the WHO is attempting to obtain and review Rwanda's public health rationale and relevant scientific information for implementing these measures.
The sub-type Zaire ebolavirus has been confirmed in the current outbreak, from the family Filoviridae. It is a single stranded RNA virus, with a 60-90 percent mortality rate. An unusually high mortality has been reported in the local pig population. An investigation into potential causes is being considered. Multiple documented outbreaks of Ebola virus disease have occurred in the DRC, with the first being the 1976 outbreak; the virus took its name from the Ebola River near the village where the first documented outbreak occurred. The table below indicates the 10 outbreaks that have occurred since 1976: List of Ebola outbreaks 2014 Democratic Republic of the Congo Ebola virus outbreak 2018 Équateur province Democratic Republic of the Congo Ebola virus outbreak 2018 Kivu Democratic Republic of the Congo Ebola virus outbreak Clarke, Elizabeth C.. "Advances in Ebola virus vaccination". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 0: 787–788. Doi:10.1016/S1473-309930320-1. ISSN 1473-3099. PMID 28606592. Shapshak, Paul.
Global Virology I - Identifying and Investigating Viral Diseases. Springer. ISBN 9781493924103. "In equatorial Congo, WHO and its partners respond to an Ebola outbreak". World Health Organization. World Health Organization 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017. "WHO declares an end to the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo". World Health Organization. Retrieved 3 July 2017. Muyembe, Jean-Jacques T.. "2017 Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Northern Democratic Republic of Congo". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Doi:10.1093/infdis/jiz107. PMID 30942884. Retrieved 6 April 2019. World Health Organization
Hermann Graedener or Grädener was a German composer and teacher. He was born in Germany, he was educated by composer Karl Graedener. He studied at the Vienna Conservatory. From 1862 he was organist at the Lutheran City Church in Vienna, from 1864 violinist in the court's orchestra, he taught at the Vienna Conservatory from 1877 to 1913, being a professor from 1882. Between 1892 and 1896 he was director of the Wiener Singakademie, he died in Vienna. His compositions, influenced by Johannes Brahms, include two symphonies, two violin concertos and two piano concertos, he was the father of the writer Hermann Graedener. Graedener Biography Free scores by Hermann Graedener at the International Music Score Library Project
The coast of Lincolnshire runs for more than 50 miles down the North Sea coast of eastern England, from the estuary of the Humber to the marshlands of the Wash, where it meets Norfolk. This stretch of coastline has long been associated with tourism and trade. Major settlements on the Lincolnshire coast include the ports of Grimsby and Immingham, the seaside resorts of Cleethorpes, Mablethorpe and Skegness. Smaller towns and villages on the coast include South Ferriby, Barrow, New Holland, Saltfleet & Saltfleetby, Trusthorpe, Anderby Creek, Chapel St Leonards and Freiston Shore; the port of Boston, though some six miles from the open sea, is considered a coastal town. Boston Haven, a tidal stretch of the River Witham, made Boston one of the most significant ports in England between the 11th and 17th centuries. Boston was a member of the Hanseatic League; the character of Lincolnshire as it meets the sea is overwhelmingly flat. In the north of the county, the Humberhead Levels and the land reclamation reclaimed Lincolnshire Marsh are pretty much at sea level, while in the south the Fens give way to acres of salt marshes.
The tide is prevented from re-flooding the land by miles of man-made earth sea banks. Looking inland from any point on the coast between Grimsby and Boston, the nearest visible geographical feature is a low line of hills, the Lincolnshire Wolds. There are more than thirty miles of sandy beaches, which give way in the north and south to acres of salt marsh and estuarine mud; the rivers Great Eau, Nene, Steeping and Witham all drain into the North Sea from Lincolnshire. The Humber form the western boundaries of the county. Owing to the combined sediment carried by the Humber and the rivers of the Wash, to the muddy clay sea floor, the waters off Lincolnshire are an opaque brown. From prehistory, the Lincolnshire coast was an important centre for the production of salt. At its peak in the 1950s, Grimsby was the busiest fishing port in the world. In 1953, a storm tide overwhelmed Lincolnshire's sea defences, the county was flooded as far inland as Alford. More than 300 people were killed in neighbouring counties.
Coastal defences were extensively rebuilt after 1953, but the threat of inundation of low-lying areas by a rising sea in an era of global warming worries many residents of the Lincolnshire coast. In an effort to combat this threat, parts of the sea bank are deliberately being breached, areas of the coast converted back to salt marsh in a process of "managed retreat". From the shoreline of Sutton on Sea and various other places along the coast it is possible to see the curvature of the earth's surface. See also: North Sea flood of 1953. Tourism is still important for the area around Skegness – tens of thousands of holiday-makers and day-trippers from the industrial East Midlands and South Yorkshire visit the town each year; the town has been home since 1936 to Sir Billy Butlin's first Butlins holiday camp, the stretch of coast just north of Skegness has the greatest concentration of static caravans in Europe. Farming, the mainstay of the Lincolnshire economy, takes place right under the shadow of the sea walls.
Grimsby is a centre for processing industry. It is known colloquially as The UK's Food Town. Though the fishing industry has declined since the 1970s, Grimsby still has the UK's largest fish market, though little of the fish sold there is landed at Grimsby Docks. Despite the decline in fishing, the ports of Grimsby and Immingham are still a vital link in the UK's transport infrastructure. There is a wind farm near Mablethorpe. Lincolnshire's only stretch of motorway, the M180, terminates near the village of Barnetby le Wold, but the road continues as the A180 to Grimsby, thus linking the docks with Scunthorpe and the industrial towns and cities of South Yorkshire; the A16 joins Grimsby with Boston, while the A52 links Skegness. Skegness itself lies at the eastern end of the A158 to Lincoln; the coast is served by the Grimsby branch of the Sheffield to Lincoln line, the Cleethorpes-Barton line, the Grantham to Skegness line. There are railway stations at Barrow, Boston, Grimsby, New Holland and Skegness.
Lincolnshire RoadCar runs regular InterConnect buses linking the towns of the east coast with the other major population centres of Lincolnshire - the bus network is of vital importance in a rural county poorly-served by the railway network, with an elderly population living in remote, scattered villages. Grimsby and Immingham are major ports. Humberside Airport is ten miles west of Grimsby; the marshes and reedbeds of the Wash and Humber are some of the most important areas for wading birds in the UK. Lincolnshire's coastal nature reserves include: Gibraltar Point National Nature Reserve south of Skegness, the Far Ings NNR on the Humber, Donna Nook NNR, Saltfleetby-Theddlethorpe Dunes NNR, Frampton Marsh and Freiston Shore RSPB reserves. BBC Lincolnshire - Coast Lincolnshire Coast Online Skegness Information Portal Lincolnsh
The 2012–13 Primeira Liga was the 79th season of the Primeira Liga, the top professional league for Portuguese association football clubs. It began on 19 August 2012 and concluded on 19 May 2013. Sixteen teams contested the league, fourteen of which took part in the previous season and two of which were promoted from the Liga de Honra. Porto were the defending champions and secured their third consecutive and 27th overall title, after completing their second unbeaten season in three years. Porto striker Jackson Martínez was the top scorer with 26 goals. A total of sixteen teams contested the league, fourteen of which were present in the 2011–12 Primeira Liga and two of which were promoted from the 2011–12 Liga de Honra; the two relegated teams after the 2011–12 season were Feirense and União de Leiria, who returned to the Liga de Honra after one and three years in the top level. Replacing them in the top-flight division were 2011–12 Liga de Honra champions Estoril and runners-up Moreirense, both returning after a seven-year absence.
Estoril contested their 21st season in the Primeira Liga, while Moreirense participated only for the fourth time. Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players and Managers may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. List of Portuguese football transfers summer 2012 List of Portuguese football transfers winter 2012–13