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Bombay Presidency

The Bombay Presidency known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision of British India. Headquartered in the city of Bombay, at its greatest extent, the presidency included the Konkan and Pune divisions of the present-day Indian state of Maharashtra; the Bombay Presidency was created when the city of Bombay was leased in fee tail to the East India Company by a Royal Charter from the King of England, Charles II, who had in turn acquired it on May 11, 1661, when his marriage treaty with Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, placed the islands of Bombay in possession of the English Empire, as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles. The English East India Company transferred its Western India headquarters from Surat, its first colony in that region, to Bombay in 1687; the Presidency was brought under British Parliament control along with other parts of British India through Pitt's India Act. Major territorial acquisitions were made during the Anglo-Maratha Wars when the whole of the Peshwa's dominions and much of the Gaekwad's sphere of influence were annexed to the Bombay Presidency in different stages till 1818.

Aden was annexed in 1839, while Sind was annexed by the Company in 1843 after defeating the Talpur dynasty in the Battle of Hyderabad and it was made a part of the Bombay Presidency. At its greatest extent, the Bombay Presidency comprised the present-day state of Gujarat, the western two-thirds of Maharashtra state, including the regions of Konkan and Kandesh, northwestern Karnataka state of India; the districts and provinces of the presidency were directly under British rule, while the internal administration of the native or princely states was in the hands of local rulers. The presidency, managed the defence of princely states and British relations with them through political agencies; the Bombay Presidency along with the Bengal Presidency and Madras Presidency were the three major centres of British power. The first English settlement in the Presidency known as Western Presidency was begun in 1618 at Surat in present-day Gujarat, when the East India Company established a factory, protected by a charter obtained from the Mughal Emperor Jahangir.

In 1626 the Dutch and the English made an unsuccessful attempt to gain possession of the island of Bombay in the coastal Konkan region from Portugal, in 1653 proposals were suggested for its purchase from the Portuguese. In 1661 Bombay was ceded to the Kingdom of England as part of the dowry of the infanta Catherine of Braganza on her marriage to King Charles II. So was the acquisition esteemed in England, so unsuccessful was the administration of the crown officers, that in 1668 Bombay was transferred to the East India Company for an annual payment of £10, the Company established a factory there. At the time of the transfer, powers for the island's defence and for the administration of justice were conferred on the Company; as English trade in Bombay increased, Surat began its relative decline. In 1687, Bombay was made the headquarters of all the East India Company's possessions in India. However, in 1753 the governor of Bombay became subordinate to that of Calcutta. During the 18th century, the Hindu Maratha Empire expanded claiming Konkan and much of eastern Gujarat from the disintegrating Mughal Empire.

In western Gujarat, including Kathiawar and Kutch, the loosening of Mughal control allowed numerous local rulers to create independent states. The first conflict between the British and the Marathas was the First Anglo-Maratha War which began in 1774 and resulted in the 1782 Treaty of Salbai, by which the island of Salsette, adjacent to Bombay island, was ceded to the British, while Bharuch was ceded to the Maratha ruler Scindia; the British annexed Surat in 1800. British territory was enlarged in the Second Anglo-Maratha War which ended in 1803; the East India Company received the districts of Bharuch, etc. and the Maratha Gaekwad rulers of Baroda acknowledged British sovereignty. In 1803 the Bombay Presidency included only Salsette, the islands of the harbour and Bankot; the Gujarat districts were taken over by the Bombay government in 1805 and enlarged in 1818. Baji Rao II, the last of the peshwas, who had attempted to shake off the British yoke, was defeated in the Battle of Khadki, captured subsequently and pensioned, large portions of his dominions were included in the Presidency, the settlement of, completed by Mountstuart Elphinstone, governor from 1819 to 1827.

His policy was to rule as far as possible on native lines, avoiding all changes for which the population was not yet ripe. The period that followed is notable for the enlargement of the Presidency through the lapse of certain native states, by the addition of Aden and Sindh, the lease of the Panch


Seagalogy: A Study of the Ass-Kicking Films of Steven Seagal is a book released in 2008 by Titan Books, ISBN 1-84576-927-9. It was written by Vern, it is the first in-depth study to be published on the complete creative output of Steven Seagal. The book makes a careful examination of every Steven Seagal film from 1988's Above the Law to 2008's Pistol Whipped, as well as providing reviews of some of Seagal's other output: his music, his appearances in commercials, his energy drink. In 2012, an updated edition of the book was published, incorporating reviews from the intervening years including Seagal's work on the reality TV show Steven Seagal: Lawman; the book makes the argument that certain specific themes and motifs remain present throughout Seagal's filmography, laying the groundwork for an examination of the films using the auteur theory. Since auteur theory cites the film director as the source of a film's particular vision, Vern argues that Seagal's filmography represents an example of what he describes as the "badass auteur": an action star whose persona and interests recur throughout their filmography, regardless of director or other creative collaborators.

Vern describes themes of government corruption and adoption of foreign cultures as being examples of recurrent motifs in Seagal's films, among a variety of others. The first edition breaks Seagal's career into four chronological "eras", marked by specific differences in style and content; these chronological "eras" describe different phases of Seagal's career, include the "Golden Era", the period of Seagal's first successes, the "Silver Era", during which Seagal saw the peak of his fame and made high-profile blockbusters, a "Transitional Period" during which he made lower-profile or ensemble films, a lengthy "direct-to-video" period and, in the 2012 updated addition, a "Chief Seagal" period during which Seagal moved into television and began reflecting elements of his Steven Seagal:Lawman persona in his filmsThe book is notable for avoiding discussion of Seagal's personal life or career, instead focusing exclusively on his artistic output. Biographical details appear only in the context of discussing their possible impact on his artistic choices

Camp Kimama

Camp Kimama is an international network of summer camps, with camps in Israel, the United States, Spain and the Canary Islands and offices in Israel and New York. Camp Kimama was founded in Israel in 2004 by Ronen Hoffman with the intention of bringing American-style Jewish summer camps to Israel. At the time, most Israeli summer camps ran for two or three days and were run by youth movements such as Noam on land belonging to JNF/KKL; the camp became the first international summer camp in Israel, bringing participants aged 6 –17, from 40 different countries to Israel. The first summer, 140 campers attended and in 2017 there were over 2,000 campers. All of the Kimama camps in Israel are run under the supervision of the Ministry of Education; the first Kimama camp was established in 2004 in Michmoret, a coastal moshav in central Israel within the seaside youth village Mevo’ot Yam. Kimama now operates 4 camps in Israel, in addition to camps in the United States and Europe; the camp's name, comes from the word for “butterfly” in the Shoshone Native American dialect.

For Kimama, the butterfly symbolizes freedom and development. Avishay Nachon, the CEO of Kimama, stated that, like the impacts of development, “the flapping of a butterfly’s wings on one side of the world makes ripples on the other side.” It represents process-based experience, an experience of development from one stage to another in life. Kimama's educational approach focuses on integrating recreational activities with important skills and values. In particular, the system is based on five key values: 1) “The Freedom to Be Me:” An environment of freedom for campers where they can express their own individuality and personality without being subject to criticism or judgment. 2) “International Israeli-Jewish Encounter:” Connecting Jewish and Israeli students from around the world, as well as improving communication skills in a variety of languages. 3) “Personal Quest – Transitions:” Focusing on encouraging independence and self-confidence is a core component of Kimama's approach. 4) “Values and Belonging:” Connecting Jewish youth from around the world to Israel and to each other, as well as focusing on the long-term experience of summer camp.

5) “Spirit of Adventure:” Through a focus on outdoor and “meaningful activities,” the camp encourages campers to explore and push their boundaries. The location of Kimama's camps along Israel's coast allows for sea-based activities such as sailing and windsurfing, gives campers access to the Mediterranean Sea, one of Israel's primary sources of tourism. Kimama Michmoret, the original camp, was established in 2004 in Michmoret, a coastal moshav in central Israel, within the seaside youth village of Mevo’ot Yam. Kimama Galil opened in 2006 within the Eynot Yarden school in the upper Galilee, it operated for 7 years until it closed in 2013. Kimama Galim opened in 2013 as Kimama Carmel near Haifa in the Kfar Galim Youth Village. In 2016, it changed its name to Kimama Galim after the youth village. Kimama Hof was established in 2014 in the Hadassah Neurim Youth Village, near the city of Netanya with an emphasis on nature and sea activities. In 2016, a new camp, Kimama Hub, was added in Galim Youth Village for campers interested in the startup and entrepreneurship fields, as well as technology and media.

In 2017, the camp changed its name to Kimama Tech. In 2007, Kimama began organizing winter camps in Europe and, for the first time, established a ski camp in the village of Natz, in Italy; the goal of this camp was to provide youth from Israel camping opportunities during the Passover and Hanukkah vacations. In 2017, Camp Kimama participated in an experimental farm-based incubator program at H-FARM, near Venice, Italy. Kimama Barcelona opened on Campus Cerdanya, a forest resort in the Spanish Pyrenees. In December 2018, Camp Kimama will open a camp in the Canary Islands. In 2011, Kimama established a summer camp in New York, to serve the large community of Israeli-Americans living in the United States; the one-year pilot program was run under the auspices of Kinder Ring summer camp. In all, 120 campers participated in the program, 60 of which came from Israel, 60 from the United States from the New York and New Jersey area. A few years a second pilot program, Kimama New York, was founded in conjunction with Camp Tel Yehudah.

The program brings together Jewish teens from Israel and the United States to participate in a variety of skill-based programs. A core component of Kimama's approach is to give back to the communities. Beginning in 2009, Kimama began Camp Sababa, Israel's first Burn Camp, in cooperation with Schneider Hospital for Children; the camp supports children who are victims of burn injuries and helps them develop confidence and positive self-image. Kimama participates in fundraisers and supports local programming in the communities in which it operates. Israel & Gaza: A new experience air-raid sirens

Larissa–Volos railway

The railway from Larissa to Volos is a 60.8-kilometre long railway branch line that connects Larissa with the coastal port city of Volos in Thessaly, Greece. It is the most important railway line of Thessaly after the Athens–Kalambaka line, its western terminal is Larissa railway station, where there are connections to Athens and Thessaloniki. The western terminal of the Larissa–Volos line is Larissa railway station in Larissa, it continues to the southeast by passing through Kileler and Stefanovikeio, before heading south and reaches Velestino where it meets the former metric line to Kalambaka. The line advances eastwards from Melissiatika ending at Volos; the stations on the Larissa–Volos railway serve are: Larissa railway station Kypseli railway station Armenio railway station Stefanovikeio railway station Velestino railway station Melissiatika railway station Volos railway station The Larissa–Volos line was inaugurated on 22 April 1884, with a metric range and its route was somewhat different from the current one, ie passing through the Quarry of Volos and proceeding to the center of the city, while there was a connecting line Volos in Pelion, served by the train of Pelion.

In Velestino, from 1884 to 1999, there was a line-to-Kalamaka response. In 1960, the decision was made to turn the line of Larissa - Volos into a regular line to facilitate its response to the station of Larissa via the Athens - Thessaloniki line, to be able to move normal range trains with more comfort; the Larissa–Volos railway is used by the following passenger services: Proastiakos Larissa-Volos. The journey takes around 48 minutes. In 2015 TrainOSE proposed expanding the line, by doubling the track with full electrification and installing ETCS systems along the line. On 4 September 2017 OSE announced the project’s tendering procedure is under preparation, using the funding: Operational Programme "Transport Infrastructures and Sustainable Development 2014-2020" with an estimated cost of €60 Μillion; the project is one of 14 such projects, seen as vital for improving rail connectivity across Greece. As of late 2019 the line is under renovation, as part of Phase B’ of the works involving the execution of electrical installation works.


Thelma Bates

Thelma Bates is a fictional character played by Jemima Rooper in Sky One's British horror dramedy series Hex. She appeared in every episode of the programme. After the departure and subsequent replacement of the programme's lead character of Cassie Hughes, Thelma became the de facto protagonist as she was the only character who continued the series' narrative. In the beginning of the show's run, Thelma's lesbianism was made apparent, along with the realization she was in love with her best friend Cassie, with whom she attended Medenham Hall. At Medenham, Thelma was bullied by popular students Roxanne and Troy. In the first episode of the first series, Thelma gave her life to save Cassie's - unwittingly becoming the sacrifice instrumental in returning Azazeal's power. Azazeal staged Thelma's death to appear to be a suicide. Becoming a ghost, unseen by most characters, Thelma aided Cassie in understanding that she is descended from witches and helped her new young friend, 500-year-old witch Ella Dee, battle against the demonic Nephilim.

Thelma is a unique character in modern television in that for the majority of the series, her interactions were limited to the series' few "supernatural" characters. With the death of Cassie, their final kiss with both of them as ghosts, it was possible for Thelma to pursue relationships with other lesbian ghosts; as a ghost, Thelma displays the ability to enter others' dreams, doing so to make-out with Cassie to communicate with the living and to free comrades from Malachi's control. While invisible to most, she seems to retain complete tangibility, bumping into things, touching everything - frequently eating crisps; the only exception to this is that she cannot touch anything, alive. In one episode we find that Thelma can interact with other time periods, as she is able to save Ella in the past while standing at the same location in the present - existing in two times at once. Thelma promises Cassie she will help a 500-year-old witch and assassin, in her mission, she saves Ella from Azazeal's plots, from servitude to Azazeal and Cassie's son Malachi, from execution several centuries in the past.

After giving the character Leon a potion of Ella's to allow him to see the spirit world, the three form a group who fight against Malachi - the series' main antagonist in wake of Azazeal's mid-season departure. In an effort to hinder Thelma's ability to aid Ella, Malachi causes the death of young lesbian Maya Robertson and positions her to develop a ghostly emotional and sexual relationship with Thelma. Maya's spirit bears Malachi's mark. To weaken Malachi, Ella goes about destroying these creatures, including Maya's spirit, for which she and Thelma temporarily part ways. Malachi seduces the entire student body romantically or by promising them their greatest desires, creating an army of succubi and incubi that makes him too powerful for Ella to kill; the only students who are not converted are Thelma, Tom and Ella. In the programme's conclusion, after helping Leon to save Ella's life, an indestructible Malachi sacrifices Roxanne while the entire school is burnt to the ground. Ella and Thelma escape as Malachi's ritual brings about the End of Days.

The series ends unfinished, with the final fate of Thelma left unclear

Pablo Valent

Pablo Valent was an American Coast Guardsman best known for his part in the rescue of the crew of the Cape Horn in 1919. From Corpus Christi, Valent joined the United States Life-Saving Service in 1912 and spent the bulk of his service at the Coast Guard station in Brazos, Texas. During the hurricane which made landfall outside Corpus Christi in September 1919, Valent was part of a Coast Guard crew credited with the rescue of the endangered schooner Cape Horn. According to the official account of events, watchstanders at Coast Guard Station 222 spotted the Cape Horn in distress, whereupon the station's 36 foot Type E oar-powered surfboat was launched – Valent among its crew – into the hurricane force swells; the surfboat reached the vessel two hours just as the Cape Horn began to sink, safely rescued all aboard. For his efforts, Valent was decorated with the Silver Lifesaving Medal and received the Grand Cross from the American Cross of Honor. In 1935 Valent took command of the Coast Guard station in Texas.

He went into business with his brother. In 1944 he was appointed to Texas housing authority board. Valent Hall, a facility at Coast Guard Sector Corpus Christi, is named after Valent. USCGC Pablo Valent was named in his honor