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Bombing of Berlin in World War II

Berlin, the capital of Nazi Germany, was subject to 363 air raids during the Second World War. It was bombed by the RAF Bomber Command between 1940 and 1945, by the USAAF Eighth Air Force between 1943 and 1945, the French Air Force between 1944 and 1945 as part of the Allied campaign of strategic bombing of Germany, it was attacked by aircraft of the Red Air Force, in particular in 1945 as Soviet forces closed on the city. British bombers dropped 45,517 tons of bombs; as the bombings continued more and more people fled the city. By May 1945, 1.7 million people had fled. When the Second World War began in 1939, the President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, issued a request to the major belligerents to confine their air raids to military targets; the French and the British agreed to abide by the request, with the provision that this was "upon the understanding that these same rules of warfare will be scrupulously observed by all of their opponents". The UK had a policy of using aerial bombing only against military targets and against infrastructure such as ports and railways of direct military importance.

While it was acknowledged that the aerial bombing of Germany would cause civilian casualties, the British government renounced the deliberate bombing of civilian property, outside combat zones, as a military tactic. This policy was abandoned on 15 May 1940, two days after the German air attack on Rotterdam, when the RAF was given permission to attack targets in the Ruhr, including oil plants and other civilian industrial targets that aided the German war effort, such as blast furnaces that at night were self illuminating; the first RAF raid on the interior of Germany took place on the night of 10 – 11 May. The Jules Verne, a variant of the Farman F.220 of the French Naval Aviation, was the first Allied bomber to raid Berlin: on the night of 7 June 1940 it dropped eight bombs of 250 kg and 80 of 10 kg weight on the German capital. Between 1939 and 1942, the policy of bombing only targets of direct military significance was abandoned in favour of "area bombing" — large-scale bombing of German cities to destroy housing and civilian infrastructure.

Although killing German civilians was never an explicit policy, it was obvious that area bombing must lead to large-scale civilian casualties. Following the fall of France in 1940, Britain had no other means of carrying the war to Germany on the European continent and after the entry of the Soviet Union into the war in 1941, bombing Germany was the only contribution Britain was prepared to make to meet Stalin's demands for action to open up a second European front. With the technology available at the time, the precision bombing of military targets was possible only by daylight. Daylight bombing raids conducted by Bomber Command involved unacceptably high losses of British aircraft, bombing by night led to far lower British losses, but was of necessity indiscriminate due to the difficulties of nocturnal navigation and bomb aiming. Before 1941, Berlin, at 950 kilometres from London, was at the extreme range attainable by the British bombers available to the Allied forces, it could be bombed only at night in summer when the days were longer and skies clear—which increased the risk to Allied bombers.

The first RAF raid on Berlin took place on the night of 25 August 1940. The bombing raids on Berlin prompted Hitler to order the shift of the Luftwaffe's target from British airfields and air defenses to British cities, at a time during the Battle of Britain when the British air defenses were becoming exhausted and overstretched. In the following two weeks there were a further five raids of a similar size, all nominally precision raids at specific targets, but with the difficulties of navigating at night the bombs that were dropped were dispersed. During 1940 there were more raids on Berlin; the raids were ineffective in hitting important targets. The head of the Air Staff of the RAF, Sir Charles Portal, justified these raids by saying that to "get four million people out of bed and into the shelters" was worth the losses involved; the Soviet Union started a bombing campaign on Berlin on 8 August 1941 that extended into early September. Navy bombers, operating from the Moonzund Archipelago conducted 8 raids to Berlin with 3–12 aircraft in each raid.

Army bombers, operating from near Leningrad, executed several small raids to Berlin. In total in 1941, 33 Soviet aircraft dropped 36,000 kilograms of bombs on Berlin. Combat and operational losses for the Soviets tallied 70 crewmen killed. On 7 November 1941, Sir Richard Peirse, head of RAF Bomber Command, launched a large raid on Berlin, sending over 160 bombers to the capital. 21 were shot down or crashed, again little damage was done due to bad weather. This failure led to the dismissal of Peirse and his replacement by Sir Arthur Travers Harris, who believed in both the efficacy and necessity of area bombing. Harris said: "The Nazis entered this war under the rather childish delusion that they were going to bomb everyone else, nobody was going to bomb them. At Rotterdam, London and half a hundred other places, they put their rather naïve theory into operation, they sowed the wind, now they are going to reap the whirlwind." At the same time, new bombers with longer ranges were coming into service the Avro Lancaster, which becam

Candidates of the 2016 Australian federal election

This article lists candidates for the 2016 Australian federal election. There were 1,625 candidates in total. Anna Burke MP – announced retirement 16 December 2015 Laurie Ferguson MP – announced retirement 12 August 2014 Gary Gray MP – announced retirement 16 February 2016 Alan Griffin MP – announced retirement 10 February 2015 Jill Hall MP announced retirement 28 February 2016 Alannah MacTiernan MP – announced retirement 12 February 2016 Melissa Parke MP – announced retirement 22 January 2016 Bernie Ripoll MP – announced retirement 14 April 2015 Kelvin Thomson MP – announced retirement 10 November 2015 Senator Joe Ludwig – announced retirement 9 March 2015 Senator Jan McLucas – announced retirement 5 April 2015 Senator Nova Peris – announced retirement 24 May 2016 Bob Baldwin MP – announced retirement 16 April 2016 Bruce Billson MP – announced retirement 24 November 2015 Bronwyn Bishop MP – lost preselection 16 April 2016, delivered valedictory speech 4 May 2016 Andrew Robb MP – announced retirement 10 February 2016 Philip Ruddock MP – announced retirement 8 February 2016 Andrew Southcott MP – announced retirement 4 September 2015 Sharman Stone MP – announced retirement 26 March 2016 Senator Bill Heffernan – announced retirement 19 February 2016 John Cobb MP – announced retirement 27 February 2016 Mal Brough MP – announced retirement 26 February 2016 Teresa Gambaro MP – announced retirement 9 March 2016 Ian Macfarlane MP – announced retirement 15 February 2016 Bruce Scott MP – announced retirement 3 August 2015 Warren Truss MP – announced retirement 11 February 2016 Clive Palmer MP – announced retirement 4 May 2016, ruled out Senate candidacy 23 May 2016 Sitting members are listed in bold text.

Successful candidates are highlighted in the relevant colour. Where there is possible confusion, an asterisk is used. Sitting senators are in bold. Since this was a double dissolution election, each state elected twelve senators; the first six successful candidates from each state are elected to six-year terms, the remaining six to three-year terms, although this can create distorted results in the single transferable vote system. Section 282 of the Commonwealth Electoral Act provides for a fairer method of allocation, involving a re-count of the Senate votes cast as if the election had been a half-Senate election for six seats; the long term seats are allocated to those elected in the re-count, the short-term positions allocated to the remaining elected candidates. The power to determine terms is given under the Constitution to the Senate. Following the 1987 double dissolution, the Senate chose to ignore the alternative count and instead use the traditional method based on order of election. Tickets that elected at least one Senator are highlighted in the relevant colour.

Successful candidates are identified by an asterisk. Two seats were up for election; the Labor Party was defending one seat. The Liberal Party was defending one seat. Twelve seats were up for election; the Labor Party was defending four seats. The Liberal/National Coalition was defending six seats; the Australian Greens were defending one seat. The Liberal Democratic Party was defending one seat. Two seats were up for election; the Labor Party was defending one seat. The Country Liberal Party was defending one seat. Twelve seats were up for election; the Labor Party was defending four seats. The Liberal National Party was defending six seats; the Australian Greens were defending one seat. The Palmer United Party was defending one seat, although Senator Glenn Lazarus had left the party and was contesting for his Glenn Lazarus Team. Twelve seats were up for election; the Labor Party was defending three seats. The Liberal Party was defending five seats; the Australian Greens were defending two seats. The Family First Party was defending one seat.

The Nick Xenophon Team was defending one seat. Twelve seats were up for election; the Labor Party was defending five seats. The Liberal Party was defending four seats; the Australian Greens were defending two seats. The Palmer United Party was defending one seat, although Senator Jacqui Lambie had left the party and contested for her Jacqui Lambie Network; the Labor Party was defending four seats. The Liberal/National Coalition was defending four seats; the Australian Greens were defending two seats. The Motoring Enthusiast Party was defending one seat; the Democratic Labour Party was defending one seat, although Senator John Madigan had left the party and was running for his own Manufacturing and Farming Party. Twelve seats were up for election; the Labor Party was defending three seats. The Liberal Party was defending six seats; the Australian Greens were defending two seats. The Palmer United Party was defending one seat. Beside each party is the number of seats contested by that party in the House of Representatives for each state, as well as an indication of whether the party contested the Senate election in the respective state.

2016 federal election candidates: Antony Green ABC

Calthorpe Park School

Calthorpe Park School is one of two secondary schools in the town of Fleet, in Hampshire for pupils aged 11–16. The school was awarded specialist status as a Maths and Computing College in 2005. In the 2013 OFSTED report the school received an overall effectiveness of'good'. A major capital scheme by Hampshire County Council to extend the school to accommodate more pupils was completed in 2004, it underwent another scheme in 2008-9 to extend the school further. As of 2014, the school is undergoing another expansion project due for completion early 2015. Calthorpe Park School opened on Wednesday 3 September 1969 as North Fleet Bilateral School with Mr J. Ormerod as Headteacher. A few months the new Governing Body changed the name. 153 pupils and 11 staff were the first occupants before all year groups were complete five years later. The official opening took place on Friday 18 June 1971 by Mr W. van Straubenzee, MBE, MP from the Department of Education and Science. After the National Anthem and a Dedication from the Vicar of Fleet, the Rev A.

C. B. Deedes, speeches were given by a variety of people connected to the school including the Chairman of the School Governors, Major B. C. Debenham, MBE, the Chairman of Hampshire County Council, Brig Sir Richard A-G Calthorpe, BT, CBE and Mr Ormerod; the school formed part of the 1967/68 Major Building Programme, designed by the County Architect in the SCOLA Mark IA form of construction using standard components with some brick cladding. The total building cost of the project, including fees and equipment was £410,000; the original buildings were extended over the years with Phase 2 being built in 1974, followed by the Maths block, the old and new Drama blocks and the Leisure Centre next door to the school. Mr C. Heasman took over as Headteacher in 1988 before retiring in 2005 when Mrs C. Anwar became Headteacher. Mr M. Amos and Ms M. Hooper were appointed Joint Headteachers in 2014. "Calthorpe Park School". Calthorpepark.hants.sch.uk. Retrieved 9 October 2009

Central Platoon School

Central Platoon School was a platoon school, where students were divided into groups thst switched between classroom studies and vocational as well as hands-on and recreational activities, in Brush, Colorado. It was designed by the Denver architectural firm Mountjoy & Frewen and has been known as Central Elementary School, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. The school occupies a complete block with an L-shaped plan. Mountjoy & Frewen was a partnership between Frederick E. Mountjoy and Frank W. Frewen, Jr.. A platoon school plan known as the Gary Plan, was devised by William Albert Wirt in 1907 in Gary, Indiana; the plan divided the students into two groups, where one platoon would use the academic classrooms and the other platoon would be using shops, nature studies, the auditorium, the gymnasium, other outdoor facilities. This allowed all of the school facilities to be in use through the entire school day, it promoted the intellectual and recreational development of the students

Big Brother Brasil 18

Big Brother Brasil 18 is the eighteenth season of Big Brother Brasil which premiered on January 22, 2018 on the Rede Globo. The show is presented by Tiago Leifert; the grand prize is R$1.5 million with tax allowances, plus a R$150.000 prize offered to the runner-up and a R$50.000 prize offered to the housemate in 3rd place. On Day 88, 23 year old Gleici Damasceno won the series. For the first time, the BBB had three winning women in a row; the cast list with sixteen housemates was unveiled on January 18, 2018. In addition to the 16 regular Housemates, a 17th Housemate would compete that would be composed of two members of the same family. Four members of the family entered the house with Brazil voting which two would continue in the game - this eviction was held on Day 7. In 2019, Kaysar Dadour appeared in Dança dos Famosos 16, he won the competition. In 2020, Lucas Fernandes appeared on Big Brother Brasil 20 as a model in a activity. ^Note 1: The Lima's Family entered the house on day 1 nominated.

The audience had to choose two to stay in the game. On day 7, Eva and Jorge were evicted. Ana Clara and Ayrton remained in the competition as a single housemate billed as Lima Family. ^Note 2: On a special competition, the team formed by Caruso, Lucas and Wagner was victorious and won two immunities and two prizes of R $5,000, to be distributed among the team. Caruso and Viegas chose R$5,000, while Wagner chose immunity. ^Note 3: This week, the HoH had to nominate two housemates for eviction. The first nominee had to be chosen shortly after the end of the HoH competition. On Sunday voting, the HoH had to make his second nomination. ^Note 4: Paula won the Power of Veto that could undo the HoH's second nomination, housemate's nomination or not interfere with the nominations. After announcing the nominations, Paula saved Jessica. Ana Paula and Mara went to the public vote for eviction. ^Note 5: On the week on the HoH competition, as the first seven eliminated housemates would have to face random consequences, placed in bottles.

Upon being eliminated from the challenge, Jaqueline ended up taking the bottle with a consequence of being automatically nominated for the eviction. While Breno took the bottle that gave immunity. ^Note 6: Like the last HoH competition, the first ten housemates that left the competition had to pick a bottle with random consequences. Wagner took the bottle. ^Note 7: Lucas answered the Big Phone and he was informed he should nominate a housemate to face eviction. He nominated Ana Ayrton. ^Note 8: This week, the two most nominated housemates by house faced the public vote alongside Heads of Household's vote. ^Note 9: After HoH's and house's votes, due to a random draw, was designated to choose a contestant to be the third nominee. He chose Lucas to join Caruso. ^Note 10: Caruso won immunity during the Head of Household competition after picking the golden ball. ^Note 11: This week the winner of the Power of Immunity, instead of giving immunity to someone else, would win the immunity for him/herself.

Viegas won the PoI, the housemates were only informed about the twist during the Nominations. ^Note 12: This week, the housemates nominated in a face-to-face round of voting, with the two highest vote receivers being nominated along with the HoH's nominee. As a result of a three-way tie between Diego and Mahmoud, HoH Patricia had to break the tie and choose which two would be nominated, she nominated Mahmoud. ^Note 13: As a special eviction, the housemates who got fewest votes from the public would move to a secret room, being fake evicted, the housemate with most votes would be evicted as usual. The housemates were informed by Big Brother. ^Note 14: Gleici moved to the Lighthouse and was informed she will be immune for next nomination. She will have to nominate one contestant automatically for eviction on Friday. ^Note 15: Week 7's HoH competition was contested in pairs. The winning pair was Paula. In addition to being Co-HoH, the duo had the right to choose between a cash prize of 10,000 reais and immunity ^Note 16: Week 8's HoH competition was contested in pairs.

The winning pair was Gleici. In addition to being Co-HoH, the duo had the right to choose between a cash prize of 10,000 reais and immunity. ^Note 17: Diego answered the Big Phone and he was informed he should nominate a housemate to face eviction. He nominated Gleici. ^Note 18: As a result of a tie between Caruso and Jéssica, Co-HoHs Ana Clara & Ayrton and Gleici had to break the tie and choose one to be nominated. They nominated Jéssica. ^Note 19: Week 9's HoH competition was contested in pairs. The winning pair was Wagner. In addition to being Co-HoH, the duo had the right to choose between a cash prize of 10,000 reais and immunity. ^Note 20: Week 9's Power of Immunity winner won immunity. Additionally, he had the power to nominate the week's third nominee, he nominated the Lima's Family. ^Note 21: This week, the housemates nominated in a face-to-face round of voting. ^Note 22: As a result of a tie between Ana Clara & Ayrton and Viegas, HoH Kaysar had to break the tie and choose one to be nominated.

He nominat

G├╝glingen

Güglingen is a town in the district of Heilbronn in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. It is situated 18 km southwest of Heilbronn. Güglingen is situated in a valley called Zabergäu in the southwest district of Heilbronn. Neighbouring towns and municipalities: Pfaffenhofen, Brackenheim and Sachsenheim; the town Güglingen consists of Güglingen itself, with Frauenzimmern. Total: 6211. In the Stone Age the communal land of Güglingen was settled in the time of the Celts. In 2002, two Mithras sanctuaries dug up. By the previous finds it is guessed; the village Güglingen was founded in the 4th or 5th century and was mentioned documentary in 1188 by a document of emperor Frederick Barbarossa for the first time. In 1295 at the latest the village received town rights. In the early 14th century the town changed to Württemberg. During the German Peasants' War 1525 it was the centre of the rebellion in the Zabergäu. Several fires about 1850 brought about destruction. After World War II the previous agricultural town changed into a industry site.

The history of Eibensbach is connected with the castle Blankenhorn built 1220 in the south of the village. In the 17th century the castle just was a ruin. During the Hohenstaufen the village belonged to this castle; until 1808 the village belonged to the department Güglingen, after it was independent and was incorporated to the town Güglingen on January 1, 1975. Frauenzimmern was first mentioned documentary as Cimbern on December 19, 794; the name of this village goes back to the convent Marienthal existing from 1245 until 1442. Frauenzimmern was incorporated to Güglingen on July 1, 1971; each in Güglingen and Frauenzimmern there is a Protestant parish. The Catholic parish Holy Trinity Güglingen is not only responsible for the town itself but for the municipalities Pfaffenhofen and Cleebronn. In Güglingen there is a United Methodist Church and New Apostolic Church. After the municipal election on June 13, 2004, the district council of Güglingen has 20 seats and consists of: Freie Unabhängige Wählervereinigung FUW Bürger-Union BU Neue Liste NL Further member of the district council and its chairman is the mayor.

In red a silver gugel. The town colours are blue; the gugel as a talking arms figure is ascertainable in all seals of Güglingen since 1359. The arms colours stayed unchanged since 1575. Partnerships with Dorking, United Kingdom and Auneau, France are in preparation; the Mauritiuskirche in Güglingen was first mentioned in 1241, was burned down by the fire 1849 and was rebuilt in 1850. The old department hall, since 1349 timber framing, is used as the town hall; the Blankenhorn Castle situated above Eibensbach was built in 1220 and first mentioned in 1241. The Marienkirche of Eibensbach was built in the 14th century, the Martinskirche in Frauenzimmern about 1200. Güglingen is the main site company Afriso-Euro-Index GmbH, one of the leading German producers of measure and supervision gadgets for heating technology and environmental protection. A further significant employer in Güglingen is the company Weber Hydraulik GmbH. "Eugen Lägler GmbH" world market leader for wood floor sanding machines, selling in more than 142 countries worldwide.

In the district Eibensbach is headquarters of one of the most significant producer of scaffoldings, the W. Layher GmbH & Co. KG; the elementary and secondary school Katharina-Kepler-Schule is attended by nearly 750 students, more than 900 students attend the secondary modern school in Güglingen. The library, open to the public, provides more than 16,000 items of media. Official Web site