Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, jewelry, cars, movie theatres, ocean liners, everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners, it took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour and faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. From its outset, Art Deco was influenced by the bold geometric forms of Cubism, it featured rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, exquisite craftsmanship. The Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York built during the 1920s and 1930s are monuments of the Art Deco style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the Art Deco style became more subdued.
New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel, plastic. A sleeker form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s. Art Deco is one of the first international styles, but its dominance ended with the beginning of World War II and the rise of the functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture and the International Style of architecture that followed. Art Deco took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, though the diverse styles that characterize Art Deco had appeared in Paris and Brussels before World War I; the term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term objets d'art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile and glass designers, other craftsmen were given the status of artists by the French government. In response to this, the École royale gratuite de dessin founded in 1766 under King Louis XVI to train artists and artisans in crafts relating to the fine arts, was renamed the National School of Decorative Arts.
It took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. During the 1925 Exposition the architect Le Corbusier wrote a series of articles about the exhibition for his magazine L'Esprit Nouveau under the title, "1925 EXPO. ARTS. DÉCO." which were combined into a book, "L'art décoratif d'aujourd'hui". The book was a spirited attack on the excesses of the lavish objects at the Exposition; the actual phrase "Art déco" did not appear in print until 1966, when it featured in the title of the first modern exhibit on the subject, called Les Années 25: Art déco, Stijl, Esprit nouveau, which covered the variety of major styles in the 1920s and 1930s. The term Art déco was used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major academic book on the style: Art Deco of the 20s and 30s. Hillier noted that the term was being used by art dealers and cites The Times and an essay named "Les Arts Déco" in Elle magazine as examples of prior usage.
In 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in the 19th century had been considered as artisans; the term "arts décoratifs" had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture and other decoration official status. The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, decorative artists were given the same rights of authorship as painters and sculptors. A similar movement developed in Italy; the first international exhibition devoted to the decorative arts, the Esposizione international d'Arte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration and L'Art décoratif moderne. Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, in the Salon d'automne.
French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts. In 1911, the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912. No copies of old styles were to be permitted; the exhibit was postponed until 1914 because of the war, postponed until 1925, when it gave its name to the whole family of styles known as Déco. Parisian department stores and fashion designers played an important
Juan Manuel Fangio
Juan Manuel Fangio Déramo, nicknamed El Chueco or El Maestro, was an Argentine racing car driver. He dominated the first decade of Formula One racing, winning the World Drivers' Championship five times. From childhood, he abandoned his studies to pursue auto mechanics. In 1938, he debuted in Turismo Carretera, competing in a Ford V8. In 1940, he competed with Chevrolet, winning the Grand Prix International Championship and devoted his time to the Argentine Turismo Carretera becoming its champion, a title he defended a year later. Fangio competed in Europe between 1947 and 1949 where he achieved further success, he won the World Championship of Drivers five times—a record which stood for 47 years until beaten by Michael Schumacher—with four different teams, a feat that has not been repeated. He is regarded by many as one of the greatest F1 drivers of all time and holds the highest winning percentage in Formula One – 46.15% – winning 24 of 53 Formula One races he entered. Fangio is the only Argentine driver to have won the Argentine Grand Prix, having won it four times in his career—the most of any driver.
After retirement, Fangio presided as the honorary president of Mercedes-Benz Argentina from 1987, a year after the inauguration of his museum, until his death in 1995. In 2011, on the centenary of his birth, Fangio was remembered around the world and various activities were held in his honor. Fangio's grandfather, Giuseppe Fangio, emigrated to Buenos Aires from Italy in 1887. Giuseppe managed to buy his own farm near Balcarce, a small city in southern Buenos Aires Province, within three years by making charcoal from tree branches, his father, emigrated to Argentina from the small central Italian town of Castiglione Messer Marino in the Chieti province of the Abruzzo region. His mother, Herminia Déramo, was from Tornareccio to the north, they married on 24 October 1903, lived on farms where Herminia was a housekeeper and Loreto worked in the building trade, becoming an apprentice stonemason. Fangio was born in Balcarce on San Juan's Day 1911 at 12:10 am, his birth certificate was mistakenly dated 23 June by the Register of Balcarce.
He was the fourth of six children. In his childhood he became known as El Chueco, the bandy legged one, for his skill in bending his left leg around the ball to shoot on goal during football games. Fangio started his education at the School No. 4 of Balcarce, Calle 13 before transferring to School No. 1 and 18 Uriburu Av. When Fangio was 13, he worked as an assistant mechanic; when he was 16, he started riding as a mechanic for his employer's customers. He developed pneumonia, which proved fatal, after a football game where hard running had caused a sharp pain in his chest, he was bed-ridden for two months, cared for by his mother. After recovering, Fangio served compulsory military service at the age of 21. In 1932 he was enlisted at the Campo de Mayo cadet school near Buenos Aires, his driving skills caught the attention of his commanding officer, who appointed Fangio as his official driver. Fangio was discharged before his 22nd birthday after taking his final physical examination, he returned to Balcarce.
Along with his friend José Duffard he received offers to play at a club based in Mar del Plata. Their teammates at Balcarce suggested the two work on Fangio's hobby of building his own car and his parents donated space in a small section of their home where a rudimentary shed was built. After finishing his military service, Fangio raced in local events, he began his racing career in Argentina in 1934, which he had rebuilt. These local events were unlike anything in Europe or North America, they were long-distance races held on dirt roads up and down South America. During his time racing in Argentina, he drove Chevrolet cars and was Argentine National Champion in 1940 and 1941. One particular race, which he won in 1940, the Gran Premio del Norte, was 10,000 km long; this race started in Buenos Aires and ran up through the Andes to Lima and back again, taking nearly two weeks with stages held each day. Following many successes driving modified American stock cars. In the Tourism Highway category, Fangio participated in his first race between 18 and 30 October 1938 as the co-pilot of Luis Finocchietti.
Despite not winning the Argentine Road Grand Prix, Fangio drove most of the way and qualified in seventh place. In November of that year, he entered the "400 km of Tres Arroyos ", but it was suspended due to a fatal accident. In 1939, the circuit was in Forest, which conformed well with his last involvement with a Ford V8. With Hector Tieri as his partner, they led Turismo Carretera that year with a Chevrolet, competing for the Argentine Grand Prix. Suspended by a strong rain and resumed in Cordoba, he managed their first stage victory, winning the fourth stage from Catamarca to San Juan. In October, after 9500 km of competition in Argentina and Peru, he won his first race in Turismo Carretera, the Grand Prix International North, he became the first TC Argentine Champion to have driven a Chevrolet. In 1941, he beat Oscar Gálvez in the Grand Prix Getúlio Vargas in Brazil. For the second time, Fangio was crowned champion of Argentine TC. In 1942, he ended South Grand Prix in tenth place in accordance with the general classification.
In April he won the race "Mar y Sierras" and had to suspend the mechanic
Léonard Tsuguharu Foujita was a Japanese–French painter and printmaker born in Tokyo, who applied Japanese ink techniques to Western style paintings. He has been called "the most important Japanese artist working in the West during the 20th century", his Book of Cats, published in New York by Covici Friede, 1930, with 20 etched plate drawings by Foujita, is one of the top 500 rare books sold, is ranked by rare book dealers as "the most popular and desirable book on cats published". After graduating secondary school, Foujita wished to study in France, but on the advice of Mori Ōgai he decided to study western art in Japan first. In 1910, when he was twenty-four years old Foujita graduated from what is now the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, his paintings during the period before he moved to France were signed "Fujita", rather than the francized "Foujita" which he adopted. Three years he went to Montparnasse in Paris, France; when he arrived there, knowing nobody, he met Amedeo Modigliani, Chaim Soutine, Fernand Léger and became friends with Juan Gris, Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse.
Foujita claimed in his memoir that he met Picasso less than a week after his arrival, but a recent biographer, relying on letters Foujita sent to his first wife in Japan shows that it was several months until he met Picasso. He took dance lessons from the legendary Isadora Duncan. Foujita had his first studio at no. 5 rue Delambre in Montparnasse where he became the envy of everyone when he made enough money to install a bathtub with hot running water. Many models came over to Foujita's place to enjoy this luxury, among them Man Ray's liberated lover, who boldly posed for Foujita in the nude in the outdoor courtyard. Another portrait of Kiki titled "Reclining Nude with Toile de Jouy," shows her lying naked against an ivory-white background, it was the sensation of Paris at the Salon d'Automne in 1922, selling for more than 8,000 francs. In 2013, the painting sold at Christie's in New York for $1,205,000, his life in Montparnasse is documented in several of his works, including the etching A la Rotonde or Café de la Rotonde of 1925/7, part of the Tableaux de Paris series published in 1929.
Foujita's first marriage was to Tomiko Tokita, a school teacher in a girls' school in Chiba Prefecture. They were married in 1912, the year before Foujita left for Paris, they divorced in 1916. In March 1917 in the Café de la Rotonde, Foujita met a young lady by the name of Fernande Barrey. At first, she ignored Foujita's efforts to engage her in conversation. However, early the next morning, Foujita showed up at Fernande's place with a blue corsage he had made overnight. Intrigued, she offered him a pot of tea and they were married 13 days later. Within a few years after his 1918 exposition, he achieved great fame as a painter of beautiful women and cats in a original technique, he is one of the few Montparnasse artists. By 1925, Tsuguharu Foujita had received the Belgian Order of Leopold and the French government awarded him the Legion of Honor. In 1918, a trip to the south of France was organized by the Polish poet Léopold Zborowski, who had the idea that his artist-friends could sell pictures there to rich tourists.
Foujita and his wife went along as did Modigliani with his lover, Jeanne Hébuterne. The trip was not, however, a success and the group had to survive on the advances that Foujita had obtained from his Paris dealer. By the time the final reckoning arrived those funds had run out, their landlord, ignoring the offers of pieces of art, confiscated all their baggage in lieu of payment. In 1921, he became involved with Lucie Badoul, whom he called Youki, or "Rose Snow". By 1925, Foujita and his wife Fernande led a open relationship, but Foujita did not forgive Fernande's affair with his cousin Koyanagi, a painter. In 1925, they divorced, Lucie Badoul became Foujita's third wife; this relationship ended when she became the lover the wife of the surrealist poet Robert Desnos. After the breakup of his third marriage, his flight to Brazil in 1931, Foujita traveled and painted all over Latin America, giving hugely successful exhibitions along the way. In Buenos Aires, Argentina, 60,000 people attended his exhibition, more than 10,000 queued up for his autograph.
In 1932 he contributed a work to the Pax Mundi, a large folio book produced by the League of Nations calling for a prolonged world peace. However, by 1933 he was welcomed back as a minor celebrity to Japan where he stayed and became a noted producer of militaristic propaganda during the war. For example, in 1938 the Imperial Navy Information Office supported his visit to China as an official war artist. Foujita returned to France after the war. In 1955 he became a French citizen. Today, Foujita's works can be found in the Bridgestone Museum of Art and in the Museum of Contemporary Art in Tokyo, more than 100 in the Hirano Masakichi Art Museum in Akita. After the Second World War, painter Yasuo Kuniyoshi opposed Tsuguharu Foujita's art show at the Kennedy Galleries. Kuniyoshi labelled Foujita a fascist and expansionist. On his return to France, Foujita converted to Catholicism, he was baptised in Reims Cathedral on 14 October 1959, with René Lalou as his godfather and Françoise Taittinger as his godmother.
This is reflected in his last major work,at the age of 80, the design and decoration of the Foujita Chapel in the gardens of the
James Christie (auctioneer)
James Christie was the founder of auction house Christie's. Born 1730 in Perth, Christie went on to found Christie's auctioneers on 5 December 1766. Situated at Pall Mall in London, England Christie's Great Rooms dealt with some of the most important sales of the late-eighteenth century, his first sale took place on 5 December 1766, at rooms in Pall Mall occupied by the print warehouse of Richard Dalton. On these premises the exhibitions of the Royal Academy of Arts were held until 1779. Christie afterwards moved next door to Gainsborough, who lived in the western wing of Schomburg House, he was of tall and dignified appearance, remarkable for eloquence and professional enthusiasm, was intimate with Garrick and Gainsborough, other men of note. He died at his house in Pall Mall on 8 November 1803, aged 73, was buried in the burial ground of St James's Church, located some way from the church, beside Hampstead Road, London, he was twice married, of the first marriage had four sons, of whom the eldest, James Christie, succeeded him.
Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Tedder, Henry Richard. "Christie, James". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 10. London: Smith, Elder & Co
Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands
Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands is a practice of architects, urban designers and masterplanners established in 1986 and practicing out of London. Alex Lifschutz and Ian Davidson met working on the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters for Foster and Partners, formed Lifschutz Davidson in 1986; the practice became resident in Richard Rogers' Thames Wharf Studios in 1989 having collaborated on the roof extension, became well known in the 1990s for work on London's South Bank with the Coin Street Community Builders, including the OXO Tower and Broadwall social housing. After the death of Ian Davidson in 2003 the practice became Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands with Paul Sandilands as Director, it moved to the former Island Records home in St Peter's Square, purchasing the building from the owners of Island, Universal Music, converting the former Royal Laundry to a large open-plan studio. In 2013, the practice finalised designing a new auction house for Bonhams in London, has collaborated with the auction company in New York and Hong Kong.
Additionally, it worked on a new sustainable suburb at Kidbrooke in South London, a high-profile residential tower with public swimming pool and leisure centre on the South Bank for Coin Street Community Builders. The practice was part of Team Populous, the official overlay architecture services provider for the London 2012 Olympics, led by Populous and comprising a consortium made up of Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands and Allies and Morrison. In August 2011 Delancey and Qatari Diar, working with Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands, beat rival developers to purchase the 2,800-home London 2012 Olympics Athletes’ Village in Stratford. In May 2017 the firm completed the University of Birmingham Sport and Fitness building that went on to win a national RIBA award. Ongoing projects range from a masterplan for 11,000 homes at Barking Riverside, to the first building for UCL in East London and a public art project lighting 15 Thames bridges with the American artist Leo Villareal. Offices at Thames Wharf, London Riverwalk, London Sainsbury's, Canley Broadwall Housing, South Bank, London Sainsbury's, Watford Oxo Tower Wharf, South Bank, London Royal Victoria Dock Bridge, London Sainsbury's, Deal Golden Jubilee Bridges, London Harvey Nichols restaurant, Edinburgh Harvey Nichols restaurant, London Davidson Building, Covent Garden, London Asticus Building, St James, London Fit-out for La Rinascente, Italy Island Studios, London Charlotte Building, Gresse Street, London Tsvetnoy Central Market, Moscow Kidbrooke Village Masterplan, replacing the former Ferrier Estate, London Teenage Cancer Trust Ward, Birmingham University College London masterplan, London N02 and N14, residential blocks on the Athletes Village, London Jewish Community Centre for London - "JW3" Headquarters for Bonhams auctioneers, London - longlisted for the 2015 Stirling Prize.
Foyles flagship store, Charing Cross Road, London - longlisted for the 2015 Stirling Prize. Fitzroy Place, the former Middlesex Hospital site, London The University of Birmingham's New Indoor Sports Facility, Birmingham La Rinascente, Italy Offices and station at Hanover Square Esders and Scheefhaals building "Au Pont Rouge", St Petersburg, Russia Masterplan for Chelsea F. C. with Herzog & de Meuron The Illuminated River, The practice has won many awards for architecture and design, including: Eight RIBA Awards, four Royal Fine Arts Commission Awards including Building of the Year for Broadwall Housing. Seven Civic Trust Awards and "Office Architect of the Year" from Building Design in 2011. In 2012 the practice's Tsvetnoy Central Market project won the Society of British Interior Design inaugural Best Interior Design Award. Vogue Russia's Store of the Year. Interior Design Magazine's award for best retail interior. In 2014 the JW3 reached the midlist for the RIBA Stirling Prize. Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands website
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC