A valley is a low area between hills or mountains with a river running through it. In geology, a valley or dale is a depression, longer than it is wide; the terms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of valleys. Most valleys belong to one of these two main types or a mixture of them, at least with respect to the cross section of the slopes or hillsides. A valley in its broadest geographic sense is known as a dale. Other terms used for valleys are: Vale: A valley. Dell: A small and wooded valley. Glen: A long valley bounded by sloped concave sides. Strath: A wide, flat valley through which a river runs. Mountain cove: A small valley, closed at one or both ends, in the central or southern Appalachian Mountains which sometimes results from the erosion of a geologic window. Hollow: A term used sometimes for a small valley surrounded by mountains or ridges. Cwm: A deep, narrow valley. A steephead valley is a deep, flat bottomed valley with an abrupt ending. Erosional valley: A valley formed by erosion.
Structural valley: A valley formed by geologic events such as drop faults or the rise of highlands. Dry valley: A valley not created by sustained surface water flow. Longitudinal valley: An elongated valley found between two parallel mountain chains. Similar geological structures, such as canyons, gorges, gullies and kloofs, are not referred to as valleys. A valley formed by flowing water, called fluvial valley or river valley, is V-shaped; the exact shape will depend on the characteristics of the stream flowing through it. Rivers with steep gradients, as in mountain ranges, produce a bottom. Shallower slopes may produce gentler valleys. However, in the lowest stretch of a river, where it approaches its base level, it begins to deposit sediment and the valley bottom becomes a floodplain; some broad V examples are: North America: Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park, others in Grand Canyon NP Europe: Austria: narrow passages of upper Inn valley, affluents of Enns Switzerland: Napf region, Zurich Oberland, Engadin Germany: affluents to the middle reaches of Rhine and MoselSome of the first human complex societies originated in river valleys, such as that of the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, Ganges, Yellow River and arguably Amazon.
In prehistory, the rivers were used as a source of fresh water and food, as well as a place to wash and a sewer. The proximity of water moderated temperature extremes and provided a source for irrigation, stimulating the development of agriculture. Most of the first civilizations developed from these river valley communities. In geography, a vale is a wide river valley with a wide flood plain or flat valley bottom. In Southern England, vales occur between the escarpment slopes of pairs of chalk formations, where the chalk dome has been eroded, exposing less resistant underlying rock claystone. Rift valleys, such as the Albertine Rift and Gregory Rift are formed by the expansion of the Earth's crust due to tectonic activity beneath the Earth's surface. There are various forms of valley associated with glaciation that may be referred to as glacial valleys. A valley carved by glaciers is U-shaped and resembles a trough; this trough valley becomes visible upon the recession of the glacier. When the ice recedes or thaws, the valley remains littered with small boulders that were transported within the ice.
Floor gradient does not affect the valley's shape, it is the glacier's size. Continuously flowing glaciers – in the ice age – and large-sized glaciers carve wide, deep incised valleys, sometimes with valley steps that reflect differing erosion rates. Examples of U-shaped valleys are found in every mountainous region that has experienced glaciation during the Pleistocene ice ages. Most present U-shaped valleys started as V-shaped before glaciation; the glaciers carved it out wider and deeper changing the shape. This proceeds through the glacial erosion processes of glaciation and abrasion, which results in large rocky material being carried in the glacier. A material called; as the ice melts and retreats, the valley is left with steep sides and a wide, flat floor. A river or stream may remain in the valley; this replaces the original stream or river and is known as a misfit stream because it is smaller than one would expect given the size of its valley. Other interesting glacially carved valleys include: Yosemite Valley Side valleys of the Austrian river Salzach for their parallel directions and hanging mouths.
Some Scottish glens full with flowers. That of the St. Mary River in Glacier National Park in Montana, USA. A tunnel valley is a large, long, U-shaped valley cut under the glacial ice near the margin of continental ice sheets such as that now covering Antarctica and covering portions of all continents during past glacial ages. A tunnel valley can be up to 100 km, 4 km wide, 400 m deep. Tunnel valleys were formed by subglacial erosion by water, they served as subglacial drainage pathways carrying large volumes of melt water. Their cross-sections exhibit steep-sided flanks similar to fjord walls, their flat bottoms are typical of subglacial glacial erosion. In northern Central Europe, the Scandinavian ice sheet during the various ice ages advanced uphill against the lie of the land; as a result, its meltwaters flowed parallel to the ice margin to reach the North Sea basin, formin
Allinges is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in south-eastern France. Communes of the Haute-Savoie department INSEE
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Allèves is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. The village is located above the right bank of the Chéran, which forms the commune's southern border. Communes of the Haute-Savoie department INSEE
The Autoroute A40 is a motorway in France that extends from Mâcon on the west to Passy on the east, terminating not far from Chamonix and the Mont Blanc Tunnel. The road runs 208 kilometres through Bresse, the high southern Jura Mountains, northern Prealps and French Alps, it was completed in 1990, includes 12 viaducts and 3 tunnels. The road is maintained by Autoroutes Paris-Rhin-Rhône, comprising part of European routes E25 and E62. Autoroute A40 is named Autoroute des Titans for the dramatic engineering construction through the mountainous sections between Bourg-en-Bresse and Bellegarde-sur-Valserine, as Autoroute Blanche through the snow-laden Jura and Alps between Bellegarde-sur-Valserine and Annemasse on the Swiss border. 1973: The section between Vallard and Bonneville was opened. 1974: The section between Bonneville and Cluses was opened. 1975: The section between Cluses and Sallanches was opened. 1976: The section between Sallanches-Passy was opened in a ceremony presided over by Prime Minister Jacques Chirac.
1982: The 50 kilometre section between Bellegarde and Annemasse is opened. These sections were numbered B41. 1985: Section between Bourg-Nord and -Bourg-Sud completed. 1986: Opening of section between Bourg-Sud and Sylans. The French President, François Mitterrand opened the motorway giving it the name L'Autoroute des Titans. 1987: Opening of the section Mâcon to Bourg-Nord 1989: Opening of the section Sylans to Châtillon-en-Michaille 1990: Opening of the junction between the A6 autoroute and the A40 1995: Widening of the Chamoise Tunnel and viaduct at Nantua and NeyrollesThe western section between the A6 and A42 was given the number F42. The whole road was re-numbered the A40 including a short section where the road merges with the A42; the autoroute is made up of two lanes for each traffic direction except between its junctions with the A42 and A39 where there are three lanes on each side. Exchange A6-A40) Motorway starts at junction with A6 to Paris, Lyon 01 km 2 Towns served: Mâcon 02 km 5 Towns served: Pont-de-Vaux 03 km 8 Towns served: Exchange A406-A40 Junction with A406 to Rest Area: L'Étang Quinard, Saint-André de Bagé 04 km 18 Towns served: Saint-Cyr-sur-Menthon, RN79 05 km 30 Towns served: Bourg-en-Bresse Exchange A39-A40 Junction with A39 to Dole 06 km 39 Towns served: RN83, Bourg-en-Bresse Service Area: Aire de Bourg 07 km 50 Towns served: RN75, Bourg-en-Bresse Rest Area: Certines, Tossiat Exchange A42-A40 Junction with the A42 to Lyon Rest Area: Neuville-sur-Ain Service area: Ceignes-Cerdon Rest Area: Ceignes-Haut-Bugey 08 km 81 Towns served: St Martin du Fresne Exchange A404-A40 Junction with the A404 to Oyonnax 09 km 90 Towns served: Nantua Rest area: Le Lac, Les Neyrolles de Bagé Rest Area: La Michaille, La Semine 10 km 106 Towns served: Bellegarde-sur-Valserine 11 km 115 Towns served:RN508, Frangy Service Area: Aire de Valleiry Péage de Viry 13 km 136 Towns served: Saint-Julien-en-Genevois Exchange A41-A40-A401 Junction with the A41 and A401 spur to Geneva 13.1 km 138 Towns served: Archamps Rest Area: Télégraphe de Salève 14 km 152 Towns served: Geneva via spur A411.
Annemasse Péage de Nangy 15 km 161 Towns served: RN503 to Thonon-les-Bains Exchange A410-A40 Junction with the A410 to Annecy. 16 km 170 Towns served: Bonneville Service Area: Aire de Bonneville 17 km 174 Towns served: Bonneville 18 km 183 Towns served: Cluses 19 km 188 Towns served: Cluses Péage de Cluses 20 km 198 Towns served: Sallanches Rest Area: Passy 21 km 206 Towns served: Megève, Saint-Gervais-les-Bains 22 km 208 the autoaint-Gervaisroute ends becoming the RN205 towards Chamonix and Turin A40 autoroute in Saratlas
Archamps is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. Communes of the Haute-Savoie department INSEE
Haute-Savoie is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of Southeastern France, bordering both Switzerland and Italy. Its prefecture is Annecy. To the north is Lake Geneva and Switzerland, it holds it name from the Savoy historical region, as does the department of Savoie, located south of Haute-Savoie. In 2016, it had a population of 801,416, its subprefectures are Saint-Julien-en-Genevois and Thonon-les-Bains. The French entrance to the Mont Blanc Tunnel into Italy is in Haute-Savoie, it is noted for winter sports. Before 1860, the territory occupied by modern Haute-Savoie and the adjoining department of Savoie had been part of the Kingdom of Sardinia since the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Annexation of the region by France was formalized in the Treaty of Turin on March 24, 1860. From November 1942 to September 1943, Haute-Savoie was subjected to military occupation by Fascist Italy; the Maquis des Glières operated from Haute-Savoie. Haute-Savoie comprises four arrondissements, divided into 17 cantons.
To the north, it borders the Swiss Canton of Lake Geneva. Haute-Savoie has the largest range of elevations of all the departments in France; some of the world's best-known ski resorts are in Haute-Savoie. The terrain of the department includes the Alpine Mont Blanc Range, its mountainous terrain makes mountain passes important to economic life. Some of the most important are the Col de la Forclaz and the Mont Blanc Tunnel, linking Chamonix to Courmayeur in the Aosta Valley; as of 1996, 178,624 hectares of Haute-Savoie is forested, compared to 34.4 percent for the Rhone-Alpes region and 27.1 percent for France as a whole. Of the forested area 141,063 hectares is managed for timber and other forest products, with the remaining 37,561 hectares having no commercial value or used for outdoor recreation. National nature reserves are designated by the French government as areas where an outstanding natural heritage is present in both rare and typical areas in terms of species and geology. Management is charged to local organizations, with direction and evaluation focusing on long-term protection for future generations and environmental education.
Of the 37,561 hectares of land not managed for timber, Haute-Savoie has nine national nature reserves totaling 24,542 hectares. Aiguilles Rouges National Nature Reserve – 3,276 hectares Bout du Lac d'Annecy National Nature Reserve – 84 hectares Carlaveyron National Nature Reserve – 599 hectares Contamines-Montjoie National Nature Reserve – 5,500 hectares Delta de la Dranse National Nature Reserve – 539.7 hectares Passy National Nature Reserve – 2,000 hectares Roc de Chère National Nature Reserve – 68.24 hectares Sixt-Passy National Nature Reserve – 9,200 hectares Vallon de Bérard National Nature Reserve – 3,276 hectares Haute-Savoie has significant freshwater resources. Lake Annecy is a major attraction, along with the town of Évian-les-Bains the best-known town on the French shore of Lake Geneva, known worldwide for its Evian mineral water. Haute-Savoie is within the watershed of the Rhone. In 2006 142,000 hectares of land was suitable for agriculture, of which 33,600 hectares was arable land suitable for market gardening, cultivation or pasture.
There were 4,450 farmers in 1999, 4,800 farmers and over 1,700 full-time farm employees at the end of 2006. In 1999, crop production was valued at €71.5 million and animal production at €165.4 million. Dairy production is a large part of the Haute-Savoie economy, earning €117.2 million in 2006 and representing 74 percent of the net animal-product worth. Cattle earned €29.7 million. Cheese production in 1999 was: Reblochon – 16,950 tons Tomme de Savoie – 5,500 tons Emmental – 3,000 tons; the 11,951 companies represented on the Répertoire des Métiers were divided into: Food: 955 companies Construction: 4,924 Production: 2,834 Services: 3,238 In late December 2000, building construction and public works included 13,867 employees in 4,838 companies as follows: Construction: 20 percent Decoration, plastering, painting: 70 percent Public works: 10 percent In late December 2000, the trade sector accounted for 33,994 employees in 9,351 companies as follows: Tourism and recreation: 23.7 percent Food and restaurants: 22.5 percent Hygiene