Bacteria are a type of biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. A few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory; the study of bacteria is known as a branch of microbiology. There are 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. There are 5×1030 bacteria on Earth, forming a biomass which exceeds that of all plants and animals. Bacteria are vital in many stages of the nutrient cycle by recycling nutrients such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere.
The nutrient cycle includes the decomposition of dead bodies. In the biological communities surrounding hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, extremophile bacteria provide the nutrients needed to sustain life by converting dissolved compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide and methane, to energy. Data reported by researchers in October 2012 and published in March 2013 suggested that bacteria thrive in the Mariana Trench, with a depth of up to 11 kilometres, is the deepest known part of the oceans. Other researchers reported related studies that microbes thrive inside rocks up to 580 metres below the sea floor under 2.6 kilometres of ocean off the coast of the northwestern United States. According to one of the researchers, "You can find microbes everywhere—they're adaptable to conditions, survive wherever they are."The famous notion that bacterial cells in the human body outnumber human cells by a factor of 10:1 has been debunked. There are 39 trillion bacterial cells in the human microbiota as personified by a "reference" 70 kg male 170 cm tall, whereas there are 30 trillion human cells in the body.
This means that although they do have the upper hand in actual numbers, it is only by 30%, not 900%. The largest number exist in the gut flora, a large number on the skin; the vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, though many are beneficial in the gut flora. However several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including cholera, anthrax and bubonic plague; the most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people per year in sub-Saharan Africa. In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and are used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem. In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment and the breakdown of oil spills, the production of cheese and yogurt through fermentation, the recovery of gold, palladium and other metals in the mining sector, as well as in biotechnology, the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals.
Once regarded as plants constituting the class Schizomycetes, bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes. Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and harbour membrane-bound organelles. Although the term bacteria traditionally included all prokaryotes, the scientific classification changed after the discovery in the 1990s that prokaryotes consist of two different groups of organisms that evolved from an ancient common ancestor; these evolutionary domains are called Archaea. The word bacteria is the plural of the New Latin bacterium, the latinisation of the Greek βακτήριον, the diminutive of βακτηρία, meaning "staff, cane", because the first ones to be discovered were rod-shaped; the ancestors of modern bacteria were unicellular microorganisms that were the first forms of life to appear on Earth, about 4 billion years ago. For about 3 billion years, most organisms were microscopic, bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life. Although bacterial fossils exist, such as stromatolites, their lack of distinctive morphology prevents them from being used to examine the history of bacterial evolution, or to date the time of origin of a particular bacterial species.
However, gene sequences can be used to reconstruct the bacterial phylogeny, these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage. The most recent common ancestor of bacteria and archaea was a hyperthermophile that lived about 2.5 billion–3.2 billion years ago. Bacteria were involved in the second great evolutionary divergence, that of the archaea and eukaryotes. Here, eukaryotes resulted from the entering of ancient bacteria into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves related to the Archaea; this involved the engulfment by proto-eukaryotic cells of alphaproteobacterial symbionts to form either mitochondria or hydrogenosomes, which are still found in all known Eukarya. Some eukaryotes that contained mitochondria engulfed cyanobacteria-like organisms, leading to the formation of chloroplasts in algae and plants; this is known as primary endosymbiosis. Bacteria display a wide diversity of sizes, called morphologies.
Bacterial cells are about one-tenth the size of eukaryotic cells
The Shaw Prize is an annual award first presented by the Shaw Prize Foundation in 2004. Established in 2002 in Hong Kong, it honours "individuals who are active in their respective fields and who have achieved distinguished and significant advances, who have made outstanding contributions in academic and scientific research or applications, or who in other domains have achieved excellence; the award is dedicated to furthering societal progress, enhancing quality of life, enriching humanity's spiritual civilization." The prize is regarded as the "Nobel of the East". It is named after Sir Run Run Shaw, a philanthropist and forerunner in the Hong Kong media industry; the prize is for recent achievements in the fields of astronomy, life science and medicine, mathematical sciences. Nominations are submitted by invited individuals beginning each year in September; the award winners are announced in the summer, receive the prize at the ceremony in early autumn. The winners receive a certificate; the front of the medal bears a portrait of Shaw as well as the English and the Traditional Chinese name of the prize.
In addition, the winner receives a sum of money, worth US$1.2 million from 1 October 2015. As of 2012, 28 prizes have been awarded to 48 individuals; the inaugural winner for the Astronomy award was Canadian Jim Peebles. Two inaugural prizes were awarded for the Life Science and Medicine category: Americans Stanley Norman Cohen, Herbert Boyer and Yuet-Wai Kan jointly won one of the prizes for their works pertaining to DNA while British physiologist Sir Richard Doll won the other for his contribution to cancer epidemiology. Shiing-Shen Chern of China won the inaugural Mathematical Sciences award for his work on differential geometry. Of note, twelve Nobel laureates—Jules Hoffmann, Bruce Beutler, Saul Perlmutter, Adam Riess, Shinya Yamanaka, Robert Lefkowitz, Brian Schmidt, Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young, Kip Thorne, Rainer Weiss—were previous laureates of the Shaw Prize. Board of Adjudicators: Yuet Wai Kan, Kenneth Young, Peter Goldreich, Randy Schekman, Peter Sarnak Astronomy: Peter Goldreich, Ewine van Dishoeck, Reinhard Genzel, Victoria Kaspi, John A.
Peacock Life Science and Medicine: Randy Schekman, Bruce Beutler, Carol W. Greider, Franz-Ulrich Hartl, Robert Lefkowitz, Eve Marder, Shinya Yamanaka Mathematical Sciences: Peter Sarnak, John M. Ball, David Eisenbud, Sir Timothy Gowers, John Morgan a The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to shawprize.org, the official website of the Shaw Prize Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. B Countries mentioned above refer to the sites of the work places of the Laureates at the time of the award. C The rationale for each award is quoted from shawprize.org, the official website of the Shaw Prize Foundation. D Two prizes were awarded for the life science and medicine category in 2004: Stanley N. Cohen, Herbert W. Boyer and Yuet-Wai Kan jointly received one of the prizes. Richard Doll received the other prize. E Half of the 2008 life science and medicine prize went to Keith H. S. Ian Wilmut. General"The Shaw Laureates".
Shawprize.org. Specific Official website
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
Ernst Schering Prize
The Ernst Schering Prize is awarded annually by the Ernst Schering Foundation for outstanding basic research in the fields of medicine, biology or chemistry anywhere in the world. Established in 1991 by the Ernst Schering Research Foundation, named after the German apothecary and industrialist, Ernst Christian Friedrich Schering, who founded the Schering Corporation, the prize is now worth €50,000. Source: Schering Foundation 2017 Elly Tanaka, 2016 Franz-Ulrich Hartl. 2015 David MacMillan. 2014 Magdalena Götz, 2013 Frank Kirchhoff, 2012 Matthias Mann, 2011 Bert W. O'Malley, 2010 Marc Feldmann and Sir Ravinder Maini, 2009 Rudolf Jaenisch, 2008 Klaus Rajewsky, 2007 Carolyn Bertozzi, 2006 Wolfgang Baumeister, 2005 Thomas Tuschl, 2004 Ronald McKay, 2003 Svante Pääbo, 2002 Ian Wilmut, 2001 Kyriacos Nicolaou, 2000 Takao Shimizu, 1999 Michael Berridge, 1998 Ilme Schlichting, 1997 Johann Mulzer, 1996 Judah Folkman, 1995 Yasutomi Nishizuka, 1994 Bert Vogelstein, 1993 Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, 1992 Peter H. Seeburg, This article has been translated from the equivalent article on German Wikipedia
L'Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science Awards
The L'Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science Awards aim to improve the position of women in science by recognizing outstanding women researchers who have contributed to scientific progress. The awards are a result of a partnership between the French cosmetics company L'Oréal and the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization and carry a grant of $100,000 USD for each laureate; each year an international jury alternates between life and material sciences and selects a winner from each of the following regions: Africa and the Middle East. Asia-Pacific Europe Latin America and the Caribbean North America The same partnership awards the UNESCO-L'Oréal International Fellowships, providing up to $40,000 USD in funding over two years to fifteen young women scientists engaged in exemplary and promising research projects; the Fellowship awards began in 2000 with a one-year award of $20,000 USD and offered ten awards until 2003. In 2003, the number of awards increased to 15 and in 2006, the grant period extended to two years and the amount of the award increased to $40,000 USD.
In 2015, the name Rising Talent Grants was implemented. Grace Oladunni Taylor: Biochemistry Myeong-Hee Yu: Microbiology Pascale Cossart: Bacteriology Gloria Montenegro: Botany Valerie Mizrahi: Molecular biology Tsuneko Okazaki: Molecular biology Margarita Salas: Molecular biology Eugenia María del Pino Veintimilla: Molecular biology Joanne Chory: Molecular biology 2000 Fellowships awarded yearly to doctoral and post-doctoral women to allow them to pursue their research in host laboratories outside their home countries are: Adeyinka Gladys Falusi: Molecular genetics Suzanne Cory: Molecular genetics Anne McLaren: Reproductive biology Mayana Zatz: Molecular biology Joan Argetsinger Steitz: Molecular biophysics and biochemistry 2001 Fellowships awarded yearly to doctoral and post-doctoral women to allow them to pursue their research in host laboratories outside their home countries are: Nagwa Meguid: Genetics applied to the prevention of mental diseases Indira Nath: The treatment of leprosy Mary Osborn: Methods for the observation of cell structures Ana María López Colomé: Prevention of blindness.
Shirley Tilghman: Gene expression and parental origin of chromosomes 2002 Fellowships awarded yearly to doctoral and post-doctoral women to allow them to pursue their research in host laboratories outside their home countries are: Karimat El-Sayed: Physics Li Fanghua: Electron microscopy Ayse Erzan: Condensed matter physics Mariana Weissmann: Computational condensed matter physics Johanna M. H. Levelt Sengers: Thermodynamics 2003 Fellowships awarded yearly to doctoral and post-doctoral women to allow them to pursue their research in host laboratories outside their home countries; the initial awards list stated. Other awardees are: Jennifer Thomson: "For work on transgenic plants resistant to drought and to viral infections, in an effort to respond to the continent's chronic food shortage." Lúcia Mendonça Previato: "For studies which enable progress in the understanding and prevention of the Chagas disease." Philippa Marrack "For the characterization of lymphocyte T functions in the immune system and the discovery of superantigens.
Nancy Ip: "For discoveries concerning proteins which favour the growth and preservation of neurons in brain development." Christine Petit: "For research on the molecular and cellular bases of human hereditary deafness and other sensorial deficiencies." 2004 Fellowships awarded yearly to doctoral and post-doctoral women to allow them to pursue their research in host laboratories outside their home countries are: Zohra ben Lakhdar: "For experiments and models in infrared spectroscopy and its applications to pollution detection and medicine." Fumiko Yonezawa: "For pioneering theory and computer simulations on amorphous semiconductors and liquid metals." Dominique Langevin: "For fundamental investigations on detergents and foams." Belita Koiller: "For innovative research on electrons in disordered matter such as glass." Myriam P. Sarachik: "For important experiments on electrical conduction and transitions between metals and insulators." 2005 Fellowships awarded yearly to doctoral and post-doctoral women to allow them to pursue their research in host laboratories outside their home countries are: Habiba Bouhamed Chaabouni: "For her contribution to the analysis and prevention of hereditary disorders."
Jennifer Graves: "For studies on the evolution of mammalian genomes." Christine Van Broeckhoven: "For the genetic investigation of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases." Esther Orozco: "For the discovery of the mechanisms and control of infections by amoebas in the tropics." Pamela Bjorkman: "For the discovery of how the immune system recognizes targets." 2006 Fellowships awarded yearly to doctoral and post-doctoral women to allow them to pursue their research in host laboratories outside their home countries are: Ameenah Gurib-Fakim: "For her exploration and analysis of plants from Mauritius and their bio-medical applications." Ligia Gargallo: "For her contributions to understanding solution properties of polymers." Mildred Dresselhaus: "For her research on solid state materials, including conceptualizing the creation of carbon nanotubes." Margaret Brimble: "For her contribution to the synthesis of c
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States. Founded in 1780, the Academy is dedicated to honoring excellence and leadership, working across disciplines and divides, advancing the common good. Membership in the academy is achieved through a thorough petition and election process and has been considered a high honor of scholarly and societal merit since the academy was founded during the American Revolution by John Adams, John Hancock, James Bowdoin, others of their contemporaries who contributed prominently to the establishment of the new nation, its government, the United States Constitution. Today the Academy is charged with a dual function: to elect to membership the finest minds and most influential leaders, drawn from science, business, public affairs, the arts, from each generation, to conduct policy studies in response to the needs of society. Major Academy projects now have focused on higher education and research and cultural studies and technological advances, politics and the environment, the welfare of children.
Dædalus, the Academy's quarterly journal, is regarded as one of the world's leading intellectual journals. The Academy carries out nonpartisan policy research by bringing together scientists, artists, business leaders, other experts to make multidisciplinary analyses of complex social and intellectual topics; the Academy's current areas of work are Arts & Humanities, Democracy & Justice, Energy & Environment, Global Affairs, Science & Technology. David W. Oxtoby began his term as the organization’s President in January 2019. A chemist by training, he served as President of Pomona College from 2003 to 2017, he was elected a member of the American Academy in 2012. The Academy is headquartered in Massachusetts; the Academy was established by the Massachusetts legislature on May 4, 1780. Its purpose, as described in its charter, is "to cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance the interest, honor and happiness of a free and virtuous people." The sixty-two incorporating fellows represented varying interests and high standing in the political and commercial sectors of the state.
The first class of new members, chosen by the Academy in 1781, included Benjamin Franklin and George Washington as well as several international honorary members. The initial volume of Academy Memoirs appeared in 1785, the Proceedings followed in 1846. In the 1950s, the Academy launched its journal Daedalus, reflecting its commitment to a broader intellectual and socially-oriented program. Since the second half of the twentieth century, independent research has become a central focus of the Academy. In the late 1950s, arms control emerged as one of its signature concerns; the Academy served as the catalyst in establishing the National Humanities Center in North Carolina. In the late 1990s, the Academy developed a new strategic plan, focusing on four major areas: science and global security. In 2002, the Academy established a visiting scholars program in association with Harvard University. More than 75 academic institutions from across the country have become Affiliates of the Academy to support this program and other Academy initiatives.
The Academy has sponsored a number of awards and prizes, now numbering 11, throughout its history and has offered opportunities for fellowships and visiting scholars at the Academy. Charter members of the Academy are John Adams, Samuel Adams, John Bacon, James Bowdoin, Charles Chauncy, John Clarke, David Cobb, Samuel Cooper, Nathan Cushing, Thomas Cushing, William Cushing, Tristram Dalton, Francis Dana, Samuel Deane, Perez Fobes, Caleb Gannett, Henry Gardner, Benjamin Guild, John Hancock, Joseph Hawley, Edward Augustus Holyoke, Ebenezer Hunt, Jonathan Jackson, Charles Jarvis, Samuel Langdon, Levi Lincoln, Daniel Little, Elijah Lothrup, John Lowell, Samuel Mather, Samuel Moody, Andrew Oliver, Joseph Orne, Theodore Parsons, George Partridge, Robert Treat Paine, Phillips Payson, Samuel Phillips, John Pickering, Oliver Prescott, Zedekiah Sanger, Nathaniel Peaslee Sargeant, Micajah Sawyer, Theodore Sedgwick, William Sever, David Sewall, Stephen Sewall, John Sprague, Ebenezer Storer, Caleb Strong, James Sullivan, John Bernard Sweat, Nathaniel Tracy, Cotton Tufts, James Warren, Samuel West, Edward Wigglesworth, Joseph Willard, Abraham Williams, Nehemiah Williams, Samuel Williams, James Winthrop.
From the beginning, the membership and elected by peers, has included not only scientists and scholars, but writers and artists as well as representatives from the full range of professions and public life. Throughout the Academy's history, 10,000 fellows have been elected, including such notables as John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John James Audubon, Joseph Henry, Washington Irving, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Willa Cather, T. S. Eliot, Edward R. Murrow, Jonas Salk, Eudora Welty, Duke Ellington. International honorary members have included Jose Antonio Pantoja Hernandez, Leonhard Euler, Marquis de Lafayette, Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Ranke, Charles Darwin, Otto Hahn, Jawaharlal Nehru, Pablo Picasso, Liu Kuo-Sung, Lucian Michael Freud, Galina Ulanova, Werner Heisenberg, Alec Guinness and Sebastião Salgado. Astronomer Maria Mitchell was the first woman elected to the Academy, in 1848; the current membership encompasses over 5,700 members based across the United States and around the world.
Academy members include more than 60 Pulitzer Prize winners. The current membership is divided into five classes and twen
The Town of Danville is located in the San Ramon Valley in Contra Costa County, California. It is one of the incorporated municipalities in California that uses "town" in its name instead of "city"; the population was 44,631 in 2016. Danville hosts a farmers' market each Saturday next to the Museum of the San Ramon Valley, located in the historic Southern Pacific Railroad Train Depot; the Iron Horse Regional Trail runs through Danville. It was first a railroad, converted to an 80-foot wide corridor of bike and hike trails as well as controlled intersections. Extending from Pleasanton to Concord, the trail passes through Danville. Danville is home to the Village Theatre and Art Gallery, hosting children's theatre and art discussions. Referred to as the "Heart of the San Ramon Valley," Danville was first populated by Native Americans who lived near creeks and camped on Mount Diablo in the summer, it was part of Mission San José's grazing land and a Mexican land grant called Rancho San Ramon. A farming community, the Town of Danville switched from wheat to fruits and nuts after the Southern Pacific Railroad built a spur line through the area in 1891.
It developed as a residential suburb in 1947 when the first sizable housing tracts were constructed and its population boomed in the 1970s and 1980s. The Danville Post Office opened in 1860 with hotel owner Henry W. Harris as the first postmaster. Churches, farmers unions and fraternal lodges began as the community grew; the Union Academy, a private high school begun by the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, served the County from 1859 to 1868, until it burned down. Danville Presbyterian Church was dedicated in 1875. Many early Danville buildings remain standing today; the original 1874 Grange Hall exists as well, the original Danville Hotel remains downtown and is being renovated as of 2014. Many of the early pioneer names appear on the streets and schools, including Baldwin, Wood, Hemme, Boone and Meese; when the Southern Pacific Railroad came to the Valley in 1891, Danville continued to grow. Farmers built warehouses and shipped crops by rail, residents were able to travel to and from Danville.
John Hartz sold 8.65 acres of his land for the Danville Depot and granted land access to the station. He subdivided and sold lots east of the station, shifting the town's focus from Front Street to Hartz Avenue. A bank, drug store, doctor's office and Chinese laundry joined the houses lining the street; the Danville Hotel sat across from the station and was moved to face Hartz avenue in 1927. The twentieth century found Danville affected by the wars, the Spanish flu, the depression, new immigrants. In 1910, a public high school district was organized and San Ramon Valley Union High School was built. A library opened in 1913 with 104 books. St. Isidore's Catholic Church was first established in 1910. An Improvement League funded the first streetlights and paved roads in 1915. Danville continued as farm country into the 1940s; the Valley had a population of 2,120 people in 1940, growing to 4,630 by 1950. Developments such as Montair and Cameo Acres were built, the water and sewer districts extended their boundaries, the new I-680 freeway which cut through Danville in the mid-1960.
In 1982, Danville citizens voted to incorporate their community. In 2000, Danville's population reached 40,484. In 2018, the Town of Danville was ranked as the safest city in California. Adjoining towns and cities are San Ramon to the south and Alamo to the north. Walnut Creek is 9 miles north. Interstate 680 serves as the main means of transport out of the town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 18.0 square miles, all of it land. Danville is set in a narrow section of the San Ramon Valley with the Las Trampas Ridge to the west and the Diablo Range to the east; the most prominent landmark of Danville is the backdrop of Mount Diablo, which stands to the east at 3,849 feet and provides a picturesque backdrop for Danville and neighboring towns and cities. Sycamore Creek drains some of the Mount Diablo flows through Danville. Extreme temperatures range from 115 °F, recorded in 1950, to 18 °F, recorded in 1990. According to Business Insider, Danville's 94506 is the 14th wealthiest zip code in America.
Danville is one of the wealthiest suburbs of San Francisco. Danville ranks as the 2nd highest-income place in the United States with a population of at least 40,000, it is home to some of the most expensive real estate in the San Francisco Bay Area and the United States. According to CNN Money, Danville's 94506 has the fourth highest percentage of six-figure income earners in the nation, with 78% of Danville households having at least a six-figure income; the 2010 United States Census reported that Danville had a population of 42,039. The population density was 2,331.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Danville was 34,942 White, 372 African American, 67 Native American, 4,417 Asian, 68 Pacific Islander, 509 from other races, 1,664 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2,879 persons; the Census reported that 41,796 people lived in households, 56 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 187 were institutionalized. There were 15,420 households, out of which 6,034 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 10,389 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,140 had a female householder with no husband present, 449 had a male householder with no wife present.